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Encyclopedia > Ernst Nolte

Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923, Witten, Germany) is a nationalistic German historian and philosopher, often described as one of the "most brooding, German thinkers about history"[1]. Nolte’s major interest is the comparative studies of fascism and Communism. His work has been the object of extreme controversy. is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the occupation of studying history. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Witten, Germany to a Roman Catholic family, Nolte's father was a school rector[2]. Nolte's parents were Heinrich and Anna (nee Bruns) Nolte[3]. According to Nolte in a 2002 interview with an French newspaper, his first encounter with Communism occurred when he was 7 years old in 1930, when he read in a doctor's office an German translation of a Soviet children's book attacking the Roman Catholic Church, which very much angered Nolte[4]. In 1941, Nolte was excused from military service because of a deformed hand, and he studied Philosophy, Philology and Greek at the Universities of Münster, Berlin, and Freiburg. At Freiburg, Nolte was a student of Martin Heidegger, who was a major influence on Nolte[5]. From 1944 onwards, Nolte has been a close friend of the Heidegger family, and when in 1945, Heidegger feared arrest by the French, Nolte provided Heidegger with food and laundry when Heidegger attempted to escape[6]. Another professor who influenced Nolte was Eugen Fink. After 1945 when Nolte received his BA in philosophy at Freiburg, Nolte worked as an Gymnasium (high school) teacher. In 1952, he received a PhD in philosophy at Freiburg for his thesis Selbstentfremdung und Dialektik im deutschen Idealismus und bei Marx (Self Alienation and Dialectic in German idealism and Marx). Subsequently, Nolte began studies in Zeitgeschichte (contemporary history), and published his Habilitationsschrift awarded at the University of Cologne, Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche as a book in 1963. Between 1965-1973, Nolte worked as a professor at the University of Marburg, and from 1973-1991 at the Free University of Berlin. Nolte's wife is Annedore Mortier[7] and their son, Georg Nolte is a professor of international law at the University of Munich. Witten redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. ... The University of Münster (German Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU) is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg was founded 1457 in Freiburg by the Habsburgs. ... This article refers to the city in Baden-Württemberg. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugen Fink (* December 11, 1905 in Konstanz; † July 25, 1975 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German philosopher. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... The University of Cologne (German Universität zu Köln) is one of the oldest universities in Europe and, with over 44. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... University of Marburg - Department of Social Sciences and University library The old university The University of Marburg (German: Philipps-Universität Marburg Philips University, Marburg), was founded in 1527 by Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse (usually called the Magnanimous, although the updated meaning haughty is sometimes given) as the... Satellite photo of Berlin. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ...


Fascism In Its Epoch

Nolte first rose to fame with his 1963 book Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche (Fascism In Its Epoch; translated into English in 1965 as The Three Faces Of Fascism), in which Nolte argued that fascism arose as a form of resistance to and a reaction against modernity. Nolte's basic hypothesis and methodology were deeply rooted in the German "philosophy of history" tradition, a form of Intellectual history which seeks to discover the "metapolitical dimension" of history[8]. The "metapolitical dimension" is considered to the history of those grand ideas, which function as a profound spiritual power, infusing every aspect of the multi-layered levels of society with their force[9]. In Nolte's opinion, only those with training in philosophy can discover the "metapolitical dimension", and those who use normal historical methods miss this dimension of time[10]. Using the methods of phenomenology, Nolte subjected German Nazism, Italian Fascism and the French Action Française movements to a comparative analysis. Nolte’s conclusion was that fascism was the great anti-movement; namely it was anti-liberal, anti-communist, anti-capitalist, and anti-bourgeois. In Nolte’s view, fascism was the rejection of everything the modern world had to offer and was an essentially negative phenomenon[11]. In an Hegelian dialectic, Nolte argued that the Action Française was the thesis, Italian Fascism was the antithesis, and German National Socialism the synthesis of the two earlier fascist movements[12]. Nolte argued that fascism functioned at three levels; in the world of politics as a form of opposition to Marxism, at the sociological level as opposition to the values of bourgeois society, and finally in the “metapolitical” world, where fascism functioned as “resistance to transcendence” ("Transcendence" in German can be translated as the "spirit of modernity")[13]. Nolte defined "transcendence" as a "metapolitical" force comprising two types of change[14]. The first type being "practical transcendence" as manifested in material progress, technological change, political equality, social advancement, and comprises the process, in which humanity liberates itself from traditional, hierarchical societies in favor of societies where all men and all women are equal[15]. The second type is "theoretical transcendence", which is the attainment of the mind to go further than what exists in the world today towards what can exist in the future, and comprises the process in which humanity removes all of the traditional fetters imposed on the human mind by poverty, backwardness, ignorance, and class[16]. Drawing upon the work of Max Weber, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Karl Marx, Nolte argued that as both types of "transcendence" advance, this progress generates fear as the older world is swept aside by a new world, and that it was these fears that led to fascism[17]. In regards to the Holocaust, Nolte contended that because Adolf Hitler identified Jews with modernity, the basic thrust of Nazi policies towards Jews had always aimed at genocide[18]. In Nolte's famous phrase, "Auschwitz was contained in the principles of Nazi racist theory like the seed in the fruit"[19]. The Three Faces of Fascism was much praised at the time and since as a seminal contribution to the creation of a theory of generic fascism based on an history of ideas, as opposed to the previous class-based analysis’s (especially the "Rage of the Lower Middle Class" thesis) that had characterized both Marxist and liberal interpretations of fascism [20]. Roger Griffin has written that although written in an excessively arcane and obscure language, Nolte's theory of fascism as a “form of resistance to transcendence” marked an important step in the understanding of fascism, and helped to spur scholars into new avenues of research on fascism[21]. Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being modern. Since the term modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be understood in its context. ... Intellectual history means either: the history of intellectuals, or: the history of the people who create, discuss, write about and in other ways propagate ideas. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Anti-capitalism is any and all opposition to capitalism. ... Anti-capitalism is any and all opposition to capitalism. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ...


Other historians were more hostile in their assessement of The Three Faces of Fascism. Criticism from the left centered on Nolte's focus on ideas as opposed to social and economic conditions as a motivating force for fascism, and that Nolte depended too much on the fascist writings to make support his thesis[22]. From the right, historians such as Karl Dietrich Bracher criticized the entire notion of generic fascism as intellectually invalid and argued that it was individual choice on the part of Germans as opposed to Nolte's philosophical view of the "metapolitical" that produced National Socialism[23]. Bracher's magnum opus, his 1969 book Die deutsche Diktatur (The German Dictatorship) was partly written to rebut Nolte's theory of generic fascism, and instead presented a picture of the National Socialist dictatorship as a totalitarian regime created and sustained by human actions[24]. Together with the work of Eugen Weber, The Three Faces of Fascism was one of the first books that devoted an extensive study of the ultra-nationalist and anti-Semitic Action Française movement of France, but many have questioned Nolte’s claim that the Action Française was a fascist movement, or in the case of John Lukacs, whatever such a thing as generic fascism ever existed[25]. Karl Dietrich Bracher (March 13, 1922-) is a German historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Eugen Weber (April 24, 1925 – ) is the coolest guy on earth and a prominent historian on the side. ... John Lukacs (born 31 January 1924 in Budapest his name spelled Lukács) is a Hungarian-born historian who has written more than twenty-five books, including Five Days in London, May 1940 and The New Republic. ...


As a professor at the University of Marburg in the late 1960s, Nolte was the target of student protestors, an experience that left him with a strong distaste for the West German left[26]. For a time in the 1960s, all of Nolte's classes were boycotted by radical students, who demanded Nolte's dismissal, an experience that some such as John Lukacs and Charles Maier have credited with Nolte's radical change of views about the National Socialist period[27]. Later in the 1970s, Nolte was to reject the theory of generic fascism that he had championed in The Three Faces of Fascism and instead embraced totalitarian theory as a way of explaining both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. In Nolte's opinion, Nazi Germany was a "mirror image" of the Soviet Union and with the exception of the “technical detail” of mass gassing everything the Nazis in Germany did, the Communists in Russia did first[28]. University of Marburg - Department of Social Sciences and University library The old university The University of Marburg (German: Philipps-Universität Marburg Philips University, Marburg), was founded in 1527 by Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse (usually called the Magnanimous, although the updated meaning haughty is sometimes given) as the... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Methodology

All of Nolte’s historical work has been heavily influenced by German traditions of philosophy[29]. In particular, Nolte seeks to find the total essences of the “metapolitical phenomenon” of history, to discover the grand ideas which motivated all of history, and as such, Nolte’s work has been oriented towards the general as opposed to the specific attributes of a particular period of time[30]. In his 1974 book, Deutschland und der kalte Krieg (Germany and the Cold War), Nolte examined the partition of Germany after 1945 less by looking at the specific history of the Cold War and Germany, and more by examining other divided states throughout history, and treated the German partition as the supreme culmination of the "metapolitical" idea of partition caused by rival ideologies[31]. In Nolte's view, the division of Germany made that nation the world's central battlefield between Soviet Communism and American democracy, both of which were rival streams of the "transcendence" that had vanished the Third Reich, the ultimate enemy of "transcendence"[32]. As such, Nolte treats the history of ideas with little interest to the specific historical context of the ideas, and more by seeking what Carl Schmitt labelled the abstract "final" or "ulimate" end of an idea, which for Nolte are the most extreme conclusions which can be drawn from an idea, and represents the ultima terminus of the "metapolitical"[33]. For Nolte, ideas have a force of their own, and once a new idea is introduced into the world, except for the total destruction of society, it can not longer be ignored any more than the invention of nuclear weapons and the discovery of how to make fire can be rolled back[34]. In Nolte's view, Communism by introducing the idea of a total destruction of a particular group was the most important idea of the 20th century[35]. Together with such historians as François Furet and Renzo De Felice, both of whom Nolte sometimes corresponded with, Nolte has sought to develop a wide-ranging paradigm capable of explaining (or Nolte’s words “understanding”) the 20th century. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Partition in political science refer to a change of political borders cutting through at least one community’s homeland. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Carl Schmitt Carl Schmitt (July 11, 1888 - April 7, 1985) was a German legal theoretician and political scientist. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... François Furet (27 March 1927 – 12 July 1997) was an influential French historian. ... Renzo De Felice (1929-May 1996) was a Italian historian of Fascism. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


The books Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche, Deutschland und der kalte Krieg and Marxismus und industrielle Revolution (Marxism and the Industrial Revolution) formed a trilogy in which Nolte seeks to explain what he considered to be the most important developments of the 20th century. According to Nolte during the Industrial Revolution in Britain, the shock of the replacement of the old craft economy by an industrialized, mechanized economy led to various radicals starting to advocate what Nolte calls “annihilation therapy” as the solution to social problems[36]. In Nolte’s views, the roots of Communism can be traced back to 18th and 19th century radicals like Thomas Spence, John Gray, William Benbow, Bronterre O’Brian, and François-Noël Babeuf[37]. Nolte has argued that the French Revolution began the practice of “group annihilation” as state policy, but until the Russian Revolution did the theory of “annihilation therapy” reached its logical conclusion and culmination[38]. In the opinion of Nolte, mucc of the European Left saw social problems as being caused by “diseased” social groups, and sought “annihilation therapy” as the solution, thus leading naturally to the Red Terror and the Yezhovshchina in the Soviet Union[39]. In response, Nolte has argued that on the Right, “annihilation therapy” was argued by such figures as John Robison, abbé Barruel and Joseph de Maistre, and merged with Malthusianism and the Prussian strategy of utter destruction of one’s enemies during the Napoleonic Wars were in part the roots of National Socialism[40]. Ultimately, in Nolte’s view, the Holocaust was just an “copy” of Communist “annihilation therapy”, albeit one that was more terrible and sickening than the “original” [41]. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Thomas Spence (June 21, 1750 – September 8, 1814) was the Radical inventor of a system of land nationalization. ... François-Noël Gracchus Babeuf François-Noël Babeuf (November 23, 1760 - May 27, 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf (in tribute to the Roman reformers, the Gracchi, and used alongside his self-designation as Tribune), was a French political agitator and journalist of the Revolutionary period. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For other uses, see Red Terror (disambiguation). ... The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... John Robison (February 4, 1739 - January 30, 1805) was a Scottish physicist and inventor. ... Abbé Augustin Barruel (October 2, 1741 - October 5, 1820) was a Jesuit priest mostly known for documenting the conspiracy theory involving the Bavarian Illuminati and the Jacobins in his book Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism (original title Mémoires pour servir à lHistoire du Jacobinisme) published in 1797. ... Joseph de Maistre (portrait by Karl Vogel von Vogelstein, 1810) Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (April 1, 1753- February 26, 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard lawyer, diplomat, writer, and philosopher. ... Malthusianism is a brand of the Manchester School capitalist-type political/economic thought developed during the industrial revolution on the basis of the writings of Thomas Malthus. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von...


The Historikerstreit

Nolte is best known for his role in launching the Historikerstreit (Historian’s Dispute) of 1986-1987. On June 6, 1986 Nolte published an feulliton (opinion piece) entitled Vergangenheit, die nicht vergehen will: Eine Rede, die geschrieben, aber nicht mehr gehalten werden konnte ("The Past That Will Not Go Away: A Speech That Could Be Written but Not Delivered") in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. His feulliton was a distillation of ideas that Nolte had first introduced in lectures that he delivered in 1976 and in 1980. Earlier in 1986, Nolte had planned to deliver a speech before the Frankfurt Römerberg Conversations, but the organizers of the event withdrew their invitation[42]. In response, the editor of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Joachim Fest allowed Nolte to have his speech printed as an feulliton in his newspaper[43]. In his article, Nolte advanced the view that the crimes of the Nazis were only a defensive reaction against the crimes of the Soviets[44]. In Nolte’s view, National Socialism had only arisen in response to the “class genocide” and “Asiatic barbarism” of the Bolsheviks"[45]. Nolte cited the example of the early Nazi Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter, who during World War I had been the German consul in Erzerum, Turkey and was appalled by the genocide of the Armenians[46]. In Nolte's view, the fact that Scheuber-Richter later on became a Nazi shows that something must have changed his values, and in Nolte's opinion, it was the Russian Revolution and such alleged Bolshevik practices as the "rat cage" torture (said by Russian émigré authors to be a favorite torture by Chinese serving in the Cheka during the Russian Civil War) that led to the change [47]. Along the same lines, Nolte argued that the Holocaust, or "racial genocide" as Nolte prefers to call it, was an understandable if excessive response on the part of Adolf Hitler to the Soviet threat. In Nolte's view, Soviet mass murder were Vorbild (the example that inspired the Nazis) and Schreckbild (the horrific model)[48]. Nolte labeled the Holocaust an "überschießende Reaktion" (overshooting reaction) to Bolshevik crimes, and to alleged Jewish actions in support of Germany's enemies[49]. Finally, Nolte concluded that there was excessive contemporary interest in the Holocaust because it served the concerns of those descended from the victims of Nazism, and placed them in a “privileged” position[50]. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Publishing house in Frankfurt am Main The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) is an influential high-quality national German newspaper, founded in 1949. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Joachim C. Fest (December 8, 1926 – September 11, 2006) was a German journalist and author, best known in English-speaking countries for his work with Albert Speer while writing his memoirs and his biography of Adolf Hitler. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter or Max Scheubner-Richter, born Ludwig Maximilian Erwin Richter (January 9, 1884 - (November 9, 1923) was an early member of the Nazi party. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Erzurum (or Erzerum, Arzen in antiquity, Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Byzantine rule) is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region, to the east of the country. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Far Eastern Republic Chinese Volunteers White Movement Allied Intervention: Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania  Turkey UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist movements  German Empire  Mongolia Warlords Commanders Vladimir Lenin... Hitler redirects here. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


As proof of this argument of the Holocaust as a defensive reaction, Nolte presented a letter written by Chaim Weizmann, the President of the World Zionist Organization on September 3, 1939 to the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain pledging full and unconditional support to the British war effort. Nolte has called Weizmann's letter to Chamberlain a "Jewish declaration of war” against Germany"[51] (see also "Judea Declares War on Germany"). The second piece of evidence Nolte presented was a book written in 1940 by the American author Theodore N. Kaufman called Germany Must Perish! that appealed to have all German men sterilized, which Nolte regarded as proof of the alleged Jewish desire to "annihilate" Germans before the Holocaust[52]. Nolte argued that the Nazis felt forced to stage the Holocaust because Hitler concluded that entire Jewish population of the world had declared war on Germany[53]. From Nolte’s point of view, the Holocaust was act of “Asiatic barbarism” forced on the Germans out of the fear over what Joseph Stalin, who Nolte charged had significant Jewish support, might do to them. Nolte has argued that after the Japanese attack on the United States in 1941, the U.S. authorities interned the entire Japanese-American population, so by the same logic, the Germans were within their rights to "intern" the Jewish population of Europe in concentration camps"[54]. Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... The World Zionist Organization, or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization, or ZO, on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the British prime minister. ... Frontpage of the Daily Express, March 24 Judea Declares War on Germany was a front-page headline on the March 24, 1933 edition of the British newspaper, the Daily Express. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Germany Must Perish! is the title of a 104-page book written and self-published by Theodore N. Kaufman, who founded the Argyle Press of Newark, New Jersey, in order to publish the book. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


Subsequently, Nolte expanded upon these views in his 1987 book Der europäische Bürgerkrieg, 1917-1945 (The European Civil War, 1917-1945) in which he claimed that the entire 20th century was an age of genocide, totalitarianism, and tyranny, and that the Holocaust had been merely one chapter in the age of violence, terror and population displacement. Nolte claimed that this age had started with the genocide of the Armenians during World War I, and also included the Stalinist terror in the Soviet Union, the explusion of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe, Maoist terror in China as manifested in such events as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, compulsory population exchanges between Greece and Turkey in 1922-1923, and the Khmer Rouge genocide in Cambodia. Since in Nolte’s view, the Shoah was not a unique crime, there is no reason to single out Germans for special criticism for the Holocaust[55]. In Nolte's view, the great deciding event of the 20th century had been the Russian Revolution of 1917, which in Nolte's view, plunged all of Europe into a long-simmering civil war that lasted until 1945. In Nolte's opinion, fascism, which was Communism's twin, arose as a desperate response by the threatened middle classes of Europe to what Nolte has often called the “Bolshevik peril”[56]. In a marked change from the views expressed in The Three Faces of Fascism, in which Communism was a stream of “transcendence”, Nolte now classified communism together with fascism as both rival streams of the “resistance to transcendence”[57]. The “metapolitical phenomenon” of Communism led to in an Hegelian dialectic to the “metapolitical phenomenon” of fascism, which was both a copy of and the most ardent opponent of Marxism[58]. As an example of his thesis, Nolte cited an article written in 1927 by Kurt Tucholsky calling for middle-class Germans to be gassed, which in Nolte's view, was much more deplorable than the celebratory comments made by some right-wing newspapers about the assassination of the German Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau in 1922 (Richard Evans claims that Nolte has taken Tucholsky's sardonic remark about chemical warfare in the future out of context)[59]. Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The flight and expulsion of Germans during and after World War II refers to the forced migration of German nationals (Reichsdeutsche) and some ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories 1943–1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... Cartoon The 1923 Exchange of Populations between Greece and Turkey refers to the first large scale population exchange, or agreed mutual expulsion in the 20th century. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ... Flag Anthem Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer language Government Socialist republic Historical era Cold War  - Civil War 1967-1975  - Established April 17, 1975  - Fall of Phnom Pehn January 7, 1979  - Monarchy restored 1993-09-24 Currency Riel Democratic Kampuchea (French:Kampuchea démocratique, Khmer: ) was... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kurt Tucholsky Kurt Tucholsky (January 9, 1890 – December 21, 1935) was a German journalist, satirist and writer. ... Walter Rathenau Walther Rathenau (September 29, 1867–June 24, 1922) was a German industrialist and politician who served as Foreign Minister of Germany. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ...


These views ignited a firestorm of controversy. Most historians in West Germany and virtually all historians outside Germany condemned Nolte’s interpretation as factually incorrect, and as coming dangerously close to justifying the Holocaust[60]. Many historians such as Steven T. Katz claimed that Nolte’s “Age of Genocide” concept “trivialized” the Holocaust by reducing it down to one of just many genocides of the 20th century[61]. Further adding to the controversy was a statement by Nolte in June 1987 that Adolf Hitler "created the state of Israel", and that "…the Jews would eventually come to appreciate Hitler as the individual who contributed more than anyone else to the creation of the state of Israel".[62].As a result of that remark, Nolte was sacked from his position as chief editor of the German language edition of Theodore Herzl's letters by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Community), the group that was responsible for the financing of the Herzl papers project.[63]. Another controversial statement by Nolte was his statement that massacres of Volksdeutsch minority in Poland after the German invasion of 1939 was an act of genocide by the Polish government, and thereby justified the German aggression as part of an effort to save the German minority[64]. Another contentious set of claims by Nolte was his argument that the film Shoah showed that it was "probable" that the SS were just as much victims of the Holocaust as were the Jews, and the Polish victims of the Germans were just as much anti-Semitics as the Nazis, thereby proving it was unjust to single out Germans for criticism[65]. Likewise, Nolte has implied that the atrocities committed by the Germans in Poland and the Soviet Union were justified by earlier Polish and Soviet atrocities[66]. In response, Nolte’s critics have argued that through there were massacres of ethnic Germans in Poland in 1939 (about 4, 000 to 6, 000 being killed after the German invasion), there were not part of a genocidal program on the part of Warsaw, but were rather the ad hoc reaction of panic-stricken Polish troops to (sometimes justified) rumors of fifth column activities on the part of the volksdeutsch, and can not in any way be compared to the more systematic brutality of the German occupiers towards the Poles, which helped to cause an 25% population reduction in Poland during the war[67]. Steven T. Katz is a Jewish Philospher. ... Theodor Herzl Theodor Herzl (May 2, 1860–July 3, 1904) was an Austrian Jewish journalist who became the founder of modern political Zionism. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shoah is a nine-hour documentary film completed by Claude Lanzmann in 1985 about the Holocaust (or Shoah). ... SS redirects here. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... A fifth column is a group of people which clandestinely undermines a larger group to which it is expected to be loyal, such as a nation. ...


In particular, controversy centered around an argument that Nolte made in his earlier 1985 essay “Between Myth and Revisionism” from the book Aspects of the Third Reich, first published in German as "Die negative Lebendigkeit des Dritten Reiches" ("The Negative Legend of the Third Reich") as an opinion piece in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung on July 24, 1980, but which did not attract widespread attention until Aspects of the Third Reich was translated into German in 1986[68]. In his essay Nolte argued that if the PLO were to destroy Israel, then the subsequent history written in the new Palestinian state would portray the former Israeli state in the blackest of colors[69]. In Nolte’s opinion, a similar situation with history written only by the victors exists in regards to the history of Nazi Germany[70]. Many historians such as the British historian Richard J. Evans have claimed that by making this argument Nolte is attempting to claim that the only reason why Nazism is seen is evil is because Germany lost World War II, not because of the Holocaust[71]. This article is about the year. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


The philosopher Jürgen Habermas in an article in the Die Zeit newspaper on July 11, 1986 entitled “A Kind of Settlement of Damages” strongly criticized Nolte together with Andreas Hillgruber and Michael Stürmer for engaging in Habermas called “apologetic” history writing in regards to the Nazi era, and for seeking to “close Germany’s opening to the West” that in Habermas’s view had existed since 1945.[72]. In particular, Habermas took Nolte to task for suggesting a moral equivalence between the Holocaust and the Khmer Rouge genocide. In Habermas’s opinion, since Cambodia was a backward, Third World agrarian state and Germany a modern, First World industrial state, there was no comparison between the two genocides[73]. In response, Fest, who was one of Nolte’s leading defenders, called Habermas a racist for suggesting that it was “natural” for Cambodians to engage in genocide, and “unnatural” for Germans to engage in genocide. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (January 18, 1925-May 8, 1989) was a conservative West German historian. ... Michael Stürmer (September 29, 1938-) is a German historian. ... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ...


Some of the historians who denounced Nolte’s views included Hans Mommsen, Jürgen Kocka, Detlev Peukert, Martin Broszat, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Michael Wolffsohn, Heinrich August Winkler, Wolfgang Mommsen, Karl Dietrich Bracher and Eberhard Jäckel. In addition, Nolte faced criticism from Rudolf Augstein, the publisher of the Der Spiegel news journal who accused Nolte of creating the "New Auschwitz Lie"[74]. Much (through not all) of the criticism of Nolte came from historians who favored either the Sonderweg (Special Way) and/or intentionlist/functionalist interpretations of German history. From the advocates of the Sonderweg approach came the criticism that Nolte’s views had totally externalized the origins of the National Socialist dictatorship to the post-1917 period, whereas in their view, the roots of the Nazi dictatorhsip can be traced back to the 19th century Second Reich[75]. In particular, it was argued that within the virulently anti-Semitic Völkisch movement, which first arose in the latter half of the 19th century, the ideological seeds of the Shoah were already planted[76]. From both functionalist and intentionist historians came the similar criticism that the motives and momentum for the “Final Solution to the Jewish Question” came primarily from within Germany, not as the result of external events. Intentionlists argued that Hitler did not need the Russian Revolution to provide him with a genocidal mindset, while functionalists argued it was the unstable power structure and bureaucratic rivalries of the Third Reich, which led to genocide of the Jews. Another line of criticism centered around Nolte refusal to say just precisely when he believes the Nazis decided upon genocide, and have pointed out that at various times, Nolte has implied the decision for genocide was taken in the early 1920s, or the early 1930s or the 1940s. Eberhard Jäckel argued that Nolte's theory was ahistorical under the grounds that Hitler held the Soviet Union in contempt, and could not have felt threatened as Nolte claimed[77]. Jäckel later described Nolte's methods as a "game of confusion", comprising dressing hypotheses up as questions, and then attacking critics who demanded evidence for his assertions as seeking to block one from asking questions[78]. Hans Mommsen accused Nolte of attempting to "relativize" Nazi crimes[79] while his twin brother Wolfgang charged that Nolte was attempting to egregiously white-wash the German past[80]. Martin Broszat labelled Nolte an obnoxious crank[81]. Richard Löwenthal criticized Nolte under the grounds that the news of the Soviet dekulakization campaign of the early 1930s and the Holodomor did not reach Germany until 1941, and that therefore, Soviet atrocities could not have had the influence on Germans that Nolte claimed they did[82]. Hans-Ulrich Wehler was so enraged by Nolte's views that he wrote a book Entsorgung der deutschen Vergangenheit?: ein polemischer Essay zum "Historikerstreit (Exoneration of the German Past?: A Polemical Essay about the 'Historikerstreit') in 1988, which as its title indicated comprised a lengthy polemicial essay attacking every aspect of Nolte's views. Wehler described the Historikerstreit as a "political struggle" for the historical understanding of the German past between "a cartel devoted to repressing and excusing" the memory of the Nazi years, of which Nolte was the chief member, against "the representatives of a liberal-democratic politics, of an enlightened, self-critical position, of a rationality which is critical of ideology"[83]. Criticism from abroad came from Ian Kershaw, Gordon A. Craig, Richard J. Evans, Saul Friedländer, John Lukacs, Michael Marrus, and Timothy Mason. Elie Wiesel called Nolte together with Klaus Hildebrand, Andreas Hillgruber and Michael Stürmer one of the “four bandits” of German historiography[84]. Hans Mommsen (November 5, 1930-) is a left-wing German historian and twin brother of Wolfgang Mommsen. ... Jürgen Kocka (born April 19, 1941, in Haindorf) is a German historian. ... Detlev Peukert (1950-1990) was a communist German historian, noted for his studies of the relationship between what he called the spirit of science and the Holocaust and in social history. ... Martin Broszat (August 14, 1926 – October 14, 1989) was a left-wing West German historian. ... Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931-) is a well-known left-wing German historian. ... Michael Wolffsohn (May 17, 1947-) is an Israeli-born German historian. ... Heinrich August Winkler (* 1938 in Königsberg); is a German historian. ... Wolfgang Justin Mommsen (November 5, 1930-August 11, 2004) was an left-wing German historian and the twin brother of Hans Mommsen. ... Karl Dietrich Bracher (March 13, 1922-) is a German historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. ... Eberhard Jäckel (June 29, 1929-) is a Social Democratic German historian, noted for his studies of Adolf Hitlers role in German history. ... Rudolf Karl Augstein (November 5, 1923 - November 7, 2002) was one of the most influential German journalists, founder and part-owner of Der Spiegel magazine. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sonderweg, (literally: sonder= special, weg= path) is a theory in historiography that considers the German-speaking lands, or the country Germany, to have followed its own, unique course through its evolution and history, separate from other European countries: therefore, a route of development which is special or an alternative. In... Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... The völkisch movement is the German interpretation of the Populist movement, with a romantic focus on folklore and the organic. ... Eberhard Jäckel (June 29, 1929-) is a Social Democratic German historian, noted for his studies of Adolf Hitlers role in German history. ... Hans Mommsen (November 5, 1930-) is a left-wing German historian and twin brother of Wolfgang Mommsen. ... Wolfgang Justin Mommsen (November 5, 1930-August 11, 2004) was an left-wing German historian and the twin brother of Hans Mommsen. ... Martin Broszat (August 14, 1926 – October 14, 1989) was a left-wing West German historian. ... Richard Löwenthal (April 15, 1908, Berlin, Germany-August 9, 1991, Berlin, Germany) was a German journalist and professor who wrote mostly on the problems of democracy, communism, and world politics. ... Child victim of the Holodomor The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of human life in the range of millions (estimates vary). ... Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931-) is a well-known left-wing German historian. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Gordon Alexander Craig (November 13, 1913 - November 2, 2005) was a Scottish-born U.S historian of German, Swiss and of diplomatic history. ... Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany. ... Saul Friedländer (born 1932) is a French-Israeli historian. ... John Lukacs (born 31 January 1924 in Budapest his name spelled Lukács) is a Hungarian-born historian who has written more than twenty-five books, including Five Days in London, May 1940 and The New Republic. ... Michael Robert Marrus (born February 3, 1941) is a Canadian historian of France, the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... Timothy Wright Mason (March 2, 1940–March 5, 1990) was a British Marxist historian of Nazi Germany. ... Eliezer Wiesel KBE (commonly known as Elie Wiesel, born September 30, 1928)[1] is a Romanian-born French-Jewish novelist, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. ... Klaus Hildebrand (1941-) is a German conservative historian whose area of expertise is 19th-20th German political and military history. ... Andreas Fritz Hillgruber (January 18, 1925-May 8, 1989) was a conservative West German historian. ... Michael Stürmer (September 29, 1938-) is a German historian. ... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ...


Coming to Nolte's defence were the journalist Joachim Fest, and the historians Klaus Hildebrand, Rainer Zitelmann, Hagen Schulze and Imanuel Geiss. The latter was unusual amongst Nolte’s defenders as Geiss was normally identified with the left, while the rest of Nolte’s supporters were seen as either on the right or holding centrist views. Hildebrand praised Nolte for daring to open up new questions for research[85]. Fest claimed that Nolte's argument that Nazi crimes were not singular was correct[86]. The Anglo-German historian H.W. Koch accepted Nolte’s argument that Weizmann’s letter to Chamberlain was indeed a “Jewish declaration of war”, with the oblivious implication since all Jews were now enemies of the Reich, the Germans were entitled to treat the Jews whatever way they wanted to[87]. From abroad, came support from Norberto Ceresole. Nolte for his part, started to write a series of letters to various newspapers such as Die Zeit and Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung attacking his critics; for an example, in a letter to Die Zeit on August 1, 1986, Nolte complained that his critic Jürgen Habermas of attempting to censor him for expressing his views[88]. One of Nolte's letters created another controversy in late 1987, when the Israeli historian Otto Dov Kulka complained that a letter he wrote to Nolte criticizing his views was edited by Nolte to make him appear sympathetic to Nolte's arguments, and then released to the press[89]. In 1987, Nolte wrote an entire book responding to his critics both German and foreign, Das Vergehen der Vergangenheit : Antwort an meine Kritiker im sogenannten Historikerstreit (The Offense Of The Past: Answer At My Critics In The So-Called Historians' Dispute). Perhaps the most extreme response to Nolte's thesis occurred on February 9, 1988 when was his car was burned by a group of extreme leftists in Berlin[90]. Joachim C. Fest (December 8, 1926 – September 11, 2006) was a German journalist and author, best known in English-speaking countries for his work with Albert Speer while writing his memoirs and his biography of Adolf Hitler. ... Klaus Hildebrand (1941-) is a German conservative historian whose area of expertise is 19th-20th German political and military history. ... Rainer Zitelmann (born 1957 in Frankfurt) is a German historian, journalist and management consultant. ... Hagen Schulze (born 31 July 1943 in Tangier, Morocco) is a German historian currently working at the Free University of Berlin. ... Norberto Rafael Ceresole (Buenos Aires, August 1943 - May 4th, 2003) was an Argentinian sociologist and political scientist, who identified himself with Peronism, Left-wing militias and the ideas of his friends Robert Faurisson and Ernst Nolte. ... DIE ZEIT (pronounced , in English, literally The Time, more idiomatically The Times) is a German nationwide weekly newspaper that is highly respected for its quality journalism. ... Publishing house in Frankfurt am Main The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) is an influential high-quality national German newspaper, founded in 1949. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


The Historikerstreit attracted much media attention in West Germany, and as a result, both Nolte and his opponents became frequent guests on West German radio and television. The Historikerstreit was characterized by a highly vitriolic tone, with both Nolte and his supporters and their opponents often resorting to vicious and savage personal attacks on each other[91]. Abroad, the Historikerstreit, to a somewhat lesser extend brought a degree of fame to Nolte. In 1987, concerns about some of the claims being made by both sides in the Historikerstreit led to a conference being called in London that was attended by some of the leading British, American, Israeli, and German specialists in both Soviet and German history. Among those who attended included Sir Ralf Dahrendorf, Sir Isaiah Berlin, Lord Weidenfeld, Harold James, Carol Gluck, Lord Annan, Fritz Stern, Gordon A. Craig, Robert Conquest, Samuel Ettinger, Jürgen Kocka, Sir Nicholas Henderson, Eberhard Jäckel, Hans Mommsen, Michael Stürmer, Joachim Fest, Hagen Schulze, Christian Maier, Wolfgang Mommsen, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Saul Friedländer, Felix Gilbert, Norman Stone, Julius Schoeps, and Charles Maier[92]. Nolte was invited to the conference, but declined, citing scheduling conflicts. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Ralf Dahrendorf Ralf Gustav Dahrendorf, Baron Dahrendorf, KBE, (born May 1, 1929) is a German-British sociologist, philosopher, political scientist and politician. ... Sir Isaiah Berlin, OM (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997), was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the 20th century. ... Sir Arthur George Weidenfeld, Baron Weidenfeld of Chelsea (born September 13, 1919 in Vienna) is a British publisher, philanthropist, and newspaper columnist. ... Harold Vaughan James was a British archer. ... Noel Gilroy Annan, Baron Annan, OBE (25 December 1916 – 21 February 2000) was a British military intelligence officer, author, and academic. ... Fritz Richard Stern (1926- ) is an American historian of German history, Jewish history, and historiography. ... Gordon Alexander Craig (November 13, 1913 - November 2, 2005) was a Scottish-born U.S historian of German, Swiss and of diplomatic history. ... Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Jürgen Kocka (born April 19, 1941, in Haindorf) is a German historian. ... Nicholas Henderson (1919– ) is a retired British career diplomat and writer. ... Eberhard Jäckel (June 29, 1929-) is a Social Democratic German historian, noted for his studies of Adolf Hitlers role in German history. ... Hans Mommsen (November 5, 1930-) is a left-wing German historian and twin brother of Wolfgang Mommsen. ... Michael Stürmer (September 29, 1938-) is a German historian. ... Joachim C. Fest (December 8, 1926 – September 11, 2006) was a German journalist and author, best known in English-speaking countries for his work with Albert Speer while writing his memoirs and his biography of Adolf Hitler. ... Hagen Schulze (born 31 July 1943 in Tangier, Morocco) is a German historian currently working at the Free University of Berlin. ... Wolfgang Justin Mommsen (November 5, 1930-August 11, 2004) was an left-wing German historian and the twin brother of Hans Mommsen. ... Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton (January 15, 1914 – January 26, 2003) was a notable historian of Early Modern Britain and Nazi Germany. ... Saul Friedländer (born 1932) is a French-Israeli historian. ... Norman Stone (1941-) is a British historian of modern Europe, especially Central and Eastern Europe. ...


Nolte’s opponents have expressed intense disagreement with his evidence for a Jewish "war" on Germany. They argue that Weizmann’s letter to Chamberlain was written in his capacity as head of the World Zionist Organization, not on behalf of the entire Jewish people of the world [93] and that Nolte’s views are based on the spurious idea that all Jews comprised a distinct "nationality" who take their marching orders from Jewish organizations[94]. Furthermore, it has been contended that there is no evidence that Hitler ever heard of Weizmann’s letter to Chamberlain, and that it was natural for Weizmann, an British Jew to declare his support for his country against a fiercely anti-Semitic regime[95]. As for Kaufman’s book, the Nazis were certainly aware of it; during the war, Germany Must Perish! was translated into German and widely promoted as an example of what Jews thought about Germans. But most historians contended that the radical views of one American Jew can in no way be taken as typical of what all European Jews were thinking, and to put the call for the forced sterilization of Germans that was never carried out as Allied policy in the same league as the Holocaust shows a profound moral insensitivity[96]. Moreover, it has been shown that there is no indication that the Kaufman's book ever played any role in the decision-making progress that led to the Holocaust[97]. Finally, it has been contended that Nolte's comparison of the Holocaust with the internment of the Japanese-Americans is false, because the Jews of Europe were sent to death camps, not concentration camps and that the U.S. government did not attempt to exterminate the Japanese-Americans in the internment camps[98]. Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas Japanese people heading off to an internment camp. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies...


Later career

Nolte’s critics have frequently charged him with having neo-Nazi and anti-Semitic sympathies. Nolte has always vehemently denied these charges, and has insisted that he is a neo-liberal in his politics. Nolte is by his own admission, an intense German nationalist and his stated goal is to restore the sense of pride in their history that he feels the Germans have been missing since 1945. Above all, Nolte is opposed to any sort of Sonderweg interpretation of German history[99]. In Nolte's view, the roots of National Socialism are only to be understood as an "...reaction born out of the anxiety of the annihilating occurrence of the Russian Revolution"[100], and lacked any connection with pre-1917 German history. Likewise, Nolte has criticized those who sought like William L. Shirer and A. J. P. Taylor to equate Deutschum (Germaness) with National Socialism as guilty of anti-German racism[101]. Nolte’s defenders have pointed to numerous statements on his part condemning Nazi Germany and the Holocaust. Nolte’s critics have acknowledged these statements, but go on to claim that Nolte makes arguments that can be construed as being sympathetic to the Nazis such as his defence of the Commissar Order as a legitimate military order, his argument that the Einsatzgruppen massacres of Soviet Jews were a reasonable "preventive security" response to partisan attacks, his statements citing Viktor Suvorov that Operation Barbarossa was an "preventive war" forced on Hitler by an alleged impeding Soviet attack, his claim that too much scholarship on the Shoah has been done by "biased" Jewish historians or his use of Nazi-era language such as Nolte's practice of referring to the Red Army soldiers in World War II as “Asiatic hordes”[102]. Many British and American historians have been angered by Nolte's statements that there was no moral difference between British "area bombing" of German cities in World War II and American war crimes in the Vietnam War and Nazi war crimes[103]. Nolte called the destruction of Hamburg by the RAF an example of the British determination to obliterate the German population[104]. Many have charged that Nolte’s argument was meant to create a moral equivalence between British “area bombing”, American war crimes in Vietnam such as the My Lai Massacre and the Shoah. Another line of criticism has centered around Nolte's frequent, and heavy use of the work of the widely discredited British Holocaust denier David Irving to support his arguments[105]. The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sonderweg, (literally: sonder= special, weg= path) is a theory in historiography that considers the German-speaking lands, or the country Germany, to have followed its own, unique course through its evolution and history, separate from other European countries: therefore, a route of development which is special or an alternative. In... The History of Germany begins with the establishment of the nation from Ancient Roman times to the 8th century, and then continues into the Holy Roman Empire dating from the 9th century until 1806 . ... Shirer (at far left) after winning a National Book Award in 1961 for his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pictured with fellow authors and award winners Conrad Richter and Randall Jarrell. ... Alan John Percivale Taylor (March 25, 1906 – September 7, 1990) was a renowned English historian of the 20th century. ... Anti-German sentiment should not be confused with Anti-Germans (communist current), also called Anti-German. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... The Commissar Order (German: Kommissarbefehl) was a written order given by Adolf Hitler on 6 June 1941, prior to Operation Barbarossa. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see... Viktor Suvorov (; real name Vladimir Rezun : ) (born April 20, 1947) is a Russian writer and historian. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The large port city of Hamburg, Germany, was very heavily bombed many times by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. During one of the attacks in July 1943 a firestorm was created that caused tens of thousands of mostly... This article is about the city in Germany. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... The My Lai Massacre ( , approximately ) (Vietnamese: thảm sát Mỹ Lai) was the mass murder of 347 to 504 defenseless Vietnamese civilians, mostly women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968, in the hamlet of My Lai, during the Vietnam War. ... kobe is the best NOT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! yesssssssssss not because KG is. ... For other persons of the same name, see David Irving (footballer) and David Irving (politician). ...


Nolte has always denied these allegations of Nazi sympathies. Likewise, Nolte has pointed out that he always refused frequent offers to speak at the gatherings of the Institute for Historical Review; Nolte's critics such as Deborah Lipstadt have charged that the nature of Nolte's arguments about the Holocaust such as his suggestion in Der europäische Bürgerkrieg that the Wannsee Conference may not have occurred has led to these frequent invitations to speak at the I.H.R.[106]. Likewise, Nolte has often vehemently criticized the laws banning Holocaust denial in Germany as a violation of free speech, and has called for their repeal. Lipstadt has argued that in her view the nature of Nolte's work is a more insidious and dangerous form of revisionism than the work of David Irving. In a 2003 interview, Lipstadt was quoted as saying "Historians such as the German Ernst Nolte are, in some ways, even more dangerous than the deniers. Nolte is an anti-Semite of the first order, who attempts to rehabilitate Hitler by saying that he was no worse than Stalin; but he is careful not to deny the Holocaust. Holocaust deniers make Nolte's life more comfortable. They have, with their radical argumentation, pulled the center a little more to their side. Consequently, a less radical extremist, such as Nolte, finds himself closer to the middle ground, which makes him more dangerous"[107]. Ward Churchill has defended Nolte against Lipstadt’s charges under the grounds that Nolte is indeed correct about the Holocaust as just one of many genocides throughout the ages, and therefore, cannot be seen as singularly evil[108]. Through Nolte has never denied the Holocaust, he has often praised the work of David Irving, David Hoggan, Fred Leuchter, Arthur Butz, Paul Rassinier and other Holocaust deniers as superior to the work of "mainstream" scholars; in 1993 Nolte wrote that "radical revisionists have presented research which, if one is familiar with the source material and the critique of the sources, is probably superior to that of the established historians of Germany"[109]. Earlier, in his 1987 book Der europäische Bürgerkrieg, Nolte claimed that the intentions of Holocaust deniers are "often honorable", and that some of their claims are "not obviously without foundation"[110]. Logo/Banner of the Institute for Historical Review (Acronym IHR) The Institute for Historical Review (IHR), founded in 1978, is an American Holocaust denial[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] organization which describes itself as a public-interest educational, research and publishing center dedicated to promoting greater public awareness... Lipstadts book: Denying The Holocaust Deborah Esther Lipstadt (born March 18, 1947, New York City) is an American historian and author of the book Denying the Holocaust. ... The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ... For other persons of the same name, see David Irving (footballer) and David Irving (politician). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ward LeRoy Churchill (born October 2, 1947) is an American writer and political activist. ... For other persons of the same name, see David Irving (footballer) and David Irving (politician). ... David Leslie Hoggan (March 23, 1923-August 7, 1988) was an American historian whose work was the subject of much controversy. ... Fred A. Leuchter, Jr. ... Arthur R. Butz (born 1933 in New York City) is an American Holocaust denier and an associate professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University, where has been tenured since 1974. ... Paul Rassinier Paul Rassinier (1906-1967) was a French pacifist, political activist, historian and author. ...


In 1992, Nolte again attracted controversy with a biography of his mentor, Martin Heidegger, whose turn to Nazism in the early 1930s was justified by Nolte under the grounds that in the context of the times, support for Nazis was a "rational" choice for a German to make[111]. Nolte argued that Heidegger was "gerechtfertiger" (justified) in joining the N.S.D.A.P. as in Nolte's view the only other alternative was the K.P.D.[112]. In April 1993, an exchange took place on the pages of the New York Review of Books between Thomas Sheehan and Nolte over the former’s hostile review of Nolte’s biography of Heidegger. Nolte protested that Sheehan misquoted and misinterpreted some of his statements[113]. Sheehan in response to state that Nolte had deliberately engaged in selective misquotation of his review[114]. Perhaps in jest, Nolte described himself in his letter of protest as an “wicked revisionist”[115]. Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (pronounced ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... The New York Review of Books (or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Another controversy around Nolte was caused in 1994 when Nolte made a speech that maintained that there was much that was “positive” about National Socialism, and that in his opinion, unfortunately too many historians had neglected the "positive" aspects of Nazism[116]. Since the Historikerstreit, Nolte has became an increasing marginalized figure within the German historical profession. The reception on the part of most historians to his 1991 book Geschichtsdenken im 20. Jahrhundert (Historical Thinking In the 20th Century) was very hostile at best. In the latter work, Nolte asserted that the 20th century produced three “extraordinary states”, namely the Germany, Soviet Union, and Israel. Nolte claimed that all three “abnormal once”, but whereas the Soviet Union and Germany were now “normal” states, Israel was still an “abnormal” state and was in Nolte’s view, in danger of becoming a fascist state that might commit genocide against the Palestinians. Many criticized Nolte’s book as both anti-Semitic and anti-Israeli, with its implied conclusion that there is a moral equivalence between Soviet Communism, German National Socialism and Israeli democracy. Likewise, the book was criticized for including an hypothetical act of mass murder on the part of Israel being lumped in with real cases of German and Soviet mass murder. Another controversial work by Nolte was his 1998 book Historische Existenz (Historical Existence). An prominent theme of the latter book was a restatement of Nolte's view first expressed during the Historikerstreit, that because a disproportionate number of Soviet partisans were Jews, the Einsatzgruppen massacres, which saw one million Soviet Jews shot in 1941-1942 were an acceptable "preventive security" tactic that should not be regarded as either an war crime or an crime against humanity. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ...


Between 1995-1997, Nolte via a series of letters had a debate with French historian François Furet over the relationship between fascism and Communism. The debate had been started by a footnote in Furet's book, Le Passé d'une illusion (The Passing of an Illusion), in which Furet had expressed his disagreement with Nolte's theories about Communism and fascism, leading Nolte to write a letter of protest to Furet. Furet argued that both ideologies were twins that shared the same origins, while Nolte repeated his views of fascism as a response to, and as a twin to Communism. After Furet's death, the letters were subsequently published in a book in France in 1997 as Fascisme et Communisme: échange épistolaire avec l'historien allemand Ernst Nolte prolongeant la Historikerstreit (Fascism and Communism: Epistolary Exchanges With The German Historian Ernst Nolte Extending The Historikerstreit), which was translated into English as Fascism and Communism in 2001. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... François Furet (27 March 1927 – 12 July 1997) was an influential French historian. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Nolte often contributes Feulliton (opinion pieces) to German newspapers such as Die Welt and the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. In a feulliton piece published in Die Welt entitled “Auschwitz als Argument in der Geschichtstheorie” (Auschwitz As Argument In The Historical Theory) on January 2, 1999, Nolte criticized his old enemy Richard J. Evans’s book In The Defence of History, under the grounds that aspects of the Holocaust are open to revision, and that therefore, Evans’s attacks on Nolte during the Historikerstreit were unwarranted [117]. Specifically, citing the American political scientist Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Nolte argued that the effectiveness of the gas chambers as killing instruments were exaggerated, that more Jews were killed by mass shooting than by mass gassing, that number of people killed at Auschwitz death camp were overestimated after 1945 (with about 1 million rather than 4 million being killed at Auschwitz), that Binjamin Wilkomirski's memoir of Auschwitz was a forgery and accordingly, the history of the Holocaust is open to reinterpretation[118]. In August 2000, Nolte wrote a favorable review in the Die Woche newspaper of Norman Finkelstein’s book The Holocaust Industry, claiming Finkelstein’s book buttressed his claim that the memory of the Holocaust had been used by Jewish groups for their own reasons. Most recently, in a 2006 interview, Nolte in a partial return to the theories he first expressed in The Three Faces of Fascism, has written that Islamic fundamentalism is the third variant, after Communism and National Socialism of the “resistance to transcendence”, and has expressed regret that he will not have enough time to fully study Islamic fascism[119]. In an 2004 book review of Richard Overy's monograph The Dictators, the American historian Anne Applebaum argued that it was a valid intellectual exercise to compare the German and Soviet dictatorships, but complained that Nolte’s arguments had needlessly discredited the comparative approach[120]. In response, in 2005, Nolte was defended against Applelbaum's charge of attempting to justify the Holocaust by Paul Gottfried, who contended that Nolte had merely argued that he Nazis had made a link in their own minds between Jews and Communists, and the Holocaust was an attempt by the Nazis to eliminate the most likely supporters of Communism[121]. Die Welt is a German national daily newspaper published by the Axel Springer company. ... Publishing house in Frankfurt am Main The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) is an influential high-quality national German newspaper, founded in 1949. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany. ... Daniel Jonah Goldhagen (born 1959) is an American political scientist. ... Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Binjamin Wilkomirski was a name Bruno Grosjean / Dössekker (born 1941) adopted when he pretended to be a Holocaust survivor. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering is a book by Norman G. Finkelstein, who is jewish, which argues that an industry has exploited the memory of the Holocaust to further Jewish and Israeli interests, and has corrupted the Jewish culture and Jewish heritage of Judaism as... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating literalistic interpretations of the texts of Islam and of Sharia law. ... Islamofascism is a controversial neologism suggesting an association of the ideological or operational characteristics of certain modern Islamist movements with European fascist movements of the early 20th century, neofascist movements, or totalitarianism. ... Richard Overy has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich. ... Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Gottfried Paul Edward Gottfried is Raffensperger Professor of Humanities at Elizabethtown College and a Guggenheim recipient. ...


On June 4, 2000, Nolte was awarded the Konrad Adenauer Prize for Literature. The award attracted widespread protests and controversy. The man who delivered Nolte his award, Dr. Horst Möller, of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte (Institute for Contemporary History), praised Nolte’s scholarship while trying to steer clear of Nolte’s more controversial claims[122]. In response, Heinrich August Winkler argued that Möller should have resigned as the director of the Institute under the grounds that "Mr. Möller allowed himself to become party to an intellectual political offensive aimed at integrating rightist and revisionist positions in the conservative mainstream."[123]. Benjamin Meed, the president of the American Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors called the award a “repugnant insult to memory”. [124]. In his acceptance speech, Nolte commented that "We should leave behind the view that the opposite of National Socialist goals is always good and right" and that because of what in his view, was excessive Jewish support for Communism, that the Nazis might had "rational reasons" for their anti-Semitism[125]. In 2003-2004, Nolte was a prominent defender of Martin Hohmann, whose views about the Shoah were very similar to Nolte's. Some of Nolte’s claims made in his 1993 book Streitpunkte (Points of Contention) such as his assertion that historical understanding of the Holocaust has been “distorted” by “biased” Jewish historians were recently favorably cited by a web-site maintained by the government of Iran promoting Holocaust denial. Currently, Nolte is a professor emeritus of contemporary history at the Free University of Berlin. is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Institut für Zeitgeschichte (IfZ) (Institute of Contemporary History) in Munich was founded in 1949 under the name „Deutsches Institut für Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Zeit“ (German Institute for the History of the National Socialist Time) by the German state and the Free State of Bavaria, incited by the... Heinrich August Winkler (* 1938 in Königsberg); is a German historian. ... Ben Meed (1918-2006), a Polish Jews, fought in the Warsaw ghetto underground, planned the 1981 World Gathering of Jewish Holocaust Survivors, and served on the Advisory Board of the Presidents Commission on the Holocaust. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Martin Hohmann was an independent member of the German Bundestag; he had originally been elected for the Christian Democratic Union, the centre-right party. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Satellite photo of Berlin. ...


Work

  • Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche : die Action française der italienische Faschismus, der Nationalsozialismus, München : R. Piper, 1963, translated into English as The Three Faces of Fascism; Action Francaise, Italian Fascism, National Socialism, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1965.
  • Der Faschismus : von Mussolini zu Hitler. Texte, Bilder und Dokumente, Munich: Desch, 1968.
  • Die Krise des liberalen Systems und die faschistischen Bewegungen, Munich : R. Piper, 1968.
  • Sinn und Widersinn der Demokratisierung in der Universität, Rombach Verlag: Freiburg, 1968.
  • Les Mouvements fascistes, l'Europe de 1919 a 1945, Paris : Calmann-Levy, 1969.
  • Deutschland und der kalte Krieg, Munich: R. Piper, 1974, ISBN 3492020925.
  • Theorien über den Faschismus, Köln : Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1976, ISBN 346200607X.
  • "The Problem of Fascism In Recent Scholarship" pages 26-42 from Reappraisals of Fascism edited by Henry A. Turner, New York: Franklin Watts, 1976, ISBN 0-531-05372-5.
  • Die faschistischen Bewegungen : die Krise des liberalen Systems und die Entwicklung der Faschismen, München : Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 1977, ISBN 3423040041.
  • Marxismus, Faschismus, kalter Krieg: Vortrage u. Aufsatze 1964-1976, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977, translated into English as Marxism, Fascism, Cold War, Assen, The Netherlands : Van Gorcum, 1982, ISBN 9023218779.
  • Marxismus und industrielle Revolution, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1983, ISBN 3608911286.
  • "Between Myth and Revisionism? The Third Reich in the Perspective of the 1980s" pages 17-38 from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1985, ISBN 0333352726.
  • Der europäische Bürgerkrieg 1917–1945: Nationalsozialismus und Bolschewismus Frankfurt : Proyläen , 1987, ISBN 978-3776690033.
  • Das Vergehen der Vergangenheit : Antwort an meine Kritiker im sogenannten Historikerstreit, Berlin : Ullstein, 1987, ISBN 978-3550072178.
  • Nietzsche und der Nietzscheanismus, Frankfurt: Propyläen, 1990, ISBN 978-3776621532.
  • Lehrstück oder Tragödie?: Beiträge zur Interpretation der Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts, Böhlau 1991, ISBN 3412042919.
  • Geschichtsdenken im 20. Jahrhundert: Von Max Weber bis Hans Jonas, Frankfurt: Propyläen, 1991 , ISBN 3-549-05379-7.
  • Martin Heidegger: Politik und Geschichte im Leben und Denken, Frankfurt: Propyläen, 1992, ISBN 978-3549072417.
  • "The Past That Will Not Pass" pages 18-23 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1993, ISBN 0391037846.
  • Streitpunkte: Heutige und kunftige Kontroversen um den Nationalsozialismus, Frankfurt: Propyläen, 1993, ISBN 978-3549052341.
  • Die Deutschen und ihre Vergangenheiten: Erinnerung und Vergessen von der Reichsgrundung Bismarcks bis heute, Frankfurt : Propyläen, 1995, ISBN 3-7766-9004-6.
  • Historische Existenz: Zwischen Anfang und Ende der Geschichte?, Munich: Piper 1998, ISBN 3492040705.
  • co-written with François Furet Fascisme et Communisme: échange épistolaire avec l'historien allemand Ernst Nolte prolongeant la Historikerstreit, Paris: Plon, 1998, translated into English by Katherine Golsan as Fascism and Communism with a preface by Tzvetan Todorov, Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2001, ISBN 0803219954.
  • Der kausale Nexus. Über Revisionen und Revisionismen in der Geschichtswissenschaft; Studien, Artikel und Vorträge 1990–2000, Herbig Verlag: Munich, 2002, ISBN 3-7766-2279-2.
  • Les Fondements historiques du national-socialisme, Paris: Editions du Rocher, 2002.
  • L'eredità del nazionalsocialismo, Rome: Di Renzo Editore, 2003.
  • co-written with Siegfried Gerlich Einblick in ein Gesamtwerk, Edition Antaios: Dresden 2005, ISBN 3-9350-6361-X.
  • Die Weimarer Republik. Demokratie zwischen Lenin und Hitler, Herbig Verlag: Munich, 2006, ISBN 3-7766-2491-4.

François Furet (27 March 1927 – 12 July 1997) was an influential French historian. ... Tzvetan Todorov (Bulgarian: ) (born on March 1, 1939 in Sofia) is a Franco-Bulgarian philosopher. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Maier, Charles "Immoral Equivalence" pages 36-41 from the New Republic, December 1, 1986 page 38.
  2. ^ Strute, Karl and Doelken, Theodor (editors) Who's Who In Germany 1982-1983 Volume 2 N-Z, Verlag AG: Zurich, 1983 page 1194.
  3. ^ Strute, Karl and Doelken, Theodor (editors) Who's Who In Germany 1982-1983 Volume 2 N-Z, Verlag AG: Zurich, 1983 page 1194.
  4. ^ http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2003-03-28-roman-fr.html
  5. ^ Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988 pages 26 & 42; Maier, Charles "Immoral Equivalence" from the New Republic, December 1, 1986 page 38.
  6. ^ http://www.stanford.edu/dept/relstud/faculty/sheehan/pdf/NormalNa.pdf
  7. ^ Strute, Karl and Doelken, Theodor (editors) Who's Who In Germany 1982-1983 Volume 2 N-Z, Verlag AG: Zurich, 1983 page 1194.
  8. ^ Griffin, Roger International Fascism Arnold: London, 1998 page 47
  9. ^ Griffin, Roger International Fascism Arnold: London, 1998 page 47
  10. ^ Griffin, Roger International Fascism Arnold: London, 1998 page 47
  11. ^ Griffin, Roger International Fascism Arnold: London, 1998 page 48
  12. ^ Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusettes, 1988 pages 85-86.
  13. ^ Griffin, Roger International Fascism Arnold: London, 1998 pages 47-48
  14. ^ Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship, London: Arnold 1989 page 27.
  15. ^ Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship, London: Arnold 1989 page 27; Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusettes, 1988 pages 86-87.
  16. ^ Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship, London: Arnold 1989 page 27; Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusettes, 1988 pages 86-87.
  17. ^ Epstein, Klaus "A New Study of Fascism" pages 2-25 from Reappraisals of Fascism edited by Henry A. Turner, New York: Franklin Watts, 1976 pages 19-22.
  18. ^ Marrus, Michael The Holocaust In History, Toronto : Lester & Orpen Dennys : Hanover : University Press of New England, 1987 pages 38-39.
  19. ^ Bauer, Yehuda Rethinking the Holocaust New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001 page 104
  20. ^ Griffin, Roger International Fascism Arnold: London, 1998 page 48
  21. ^ Griffin, Roger International Fascism Arnold: London, 1998 page 48.
  22. ^ Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship, London: Arnold 1989 page 27.
  23. ^ Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusettes, 1988 pages 84-85, 87 & 100-101.
  24. ^ Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988 page 87.
  25. ^ Lukacs, John The Hitler of History New York: Vintage Books, 1997, 1998 page 118.
  26. ^ Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988 pages 27-28
  27. ^ Lukacs, John The Hitler of History New York: Vintage Books, 1997, 1998 page 35; Maier, Charles "Immoral Equivalence"from the New Republic, December 1, 1986 page 38.
  28. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 27.
  29. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 page 7.
  30. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 pages 7-8.
  31. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 page 8.
  32. ^ Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988 page 28.
  33. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 page 8.
  34. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 page 9.
  35. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 pages 8-9.
  36. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism?’ from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch page 31.
  37. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism?’ from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch pages 30-31.
  38. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism?’ from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch page 32.
  39. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism?’ from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch pages 33-34.
  40. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism?’ from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch page 33.
  41. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism?’ from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch page 36.
  42. ^ Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988 page 29.
  43. ^ Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988 page 30.
  44. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 28
  45. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism” pages 17-38 from Aspects of the Third Reich, edited by H.W. Koch, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985 pages 35-36; Nolte, Ernst "The Past That Will Not Pass" pages 18-23 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1993 page 22.
  46. ^ Nolte, Ernst "The Past That Will Not Pass" pages 18-23 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1993 pages 21-22
  47. ^ Nolte, Ernst "The Past That Will Not Pass" pages 18-23 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1993 page 21; Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 disputes Nolte's evidence for the "rat cage" torture being a common Bolshevik practice pages 37-38.
  48. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 page 5.
  49. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 page 5.
  50. ^ Muller, Jerry "German Historians At War" pages 33-42 from Commentary, Volume 87, Issue #5, May 1989 pages 37-38
  51. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism” pages 17-38 from Aspects of the Third Reich, edited by H.W. Koch, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985 pages 27-28.
  52. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism” from Aspects of the Third Reich, edited by H.W. Koch, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985 pages 27-28.
  53. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism” from Aspects of the Third Reich, edited by H.W. Koch, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985 pages 27-28.
  54. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism” from Aspects of the Third Reich, edited by H.W. Koch, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985 page 28.
  55. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 27
  56. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 28.
  57. ^ Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusettes, 1988 pages 86-87
  58. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 pages 9-10.
  59. ^ Nolte, Ernst "Standing Things On Their Heads: Against Negative Nationalism In Interpreting History" pages 149-154 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1993 page 152; both Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship, London: Arnold, 1989 page 176 & Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 37.
  60. ^ Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship, London: Arnold, 1989 page 173.
  61. ^ Katz, Steven The Holocaust in Historical Context Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994 pages 23-24
  62. ^ http://www.codoh.com/thoughtcrimes/8706nolt.html.
  63. ^ http://www.codoh.com/thoughtcrimes/8706nolt.html.
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  65. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 31
  66. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 pages 56-57.
  67. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 pages page 57.
  68. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 pages 152-153
  69. ^ Nolte, Ernst “Between Myth and Revisionism” pages 17-38 from Aspects of the Third Reich, edited by H.W. Koch, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985 page 21.
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  71. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 pages 32-33.
  72. ^ Habermas, Jürgen “A Kind of Settlement of Damages On Apologetic Tendencies In German History Writing” pages 34-44 from Forever In the Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, 1993 page 43.
  73. ^ Low, Alfred "Historikerstreit" page 474 from Modern Germany, Volume 1 A-K, edited by Dieter Buse and Jürgen Doerr, Garland Publishing, New York, United States of America, 1998
  74. ^ Augstein, Rudolf "The New Auschwitz Lie" pages 131-134 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1993 pages 133-134.
  75. ^ Low, Alfred "Historikerstreit" page 474 from Modern Germany, Volume 1 A-K, edited by Dieter Buse and Jürgen Doerr, Garland Publishing, New York, United States of America, 1998
  76. ^ Low, Alfred "Historikerstreit" page 474 from Modern Germany, Volume 1 A-K, edited by Dieter Buse and Jürgen Doerr, Garland Publishing, New York, United States of America, 1998
  77. ^ Jäckel, Eberhard "The Impoverished Practice of Insinuation: The Singular Aspect of National-Socialist Crimes Cannot Be Denied" pages 74-78 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, 1993 pages 77-78.
  78. ^ Hirschfeld, Gerhard "Erasing the Past?" pages 8–10 from History Today Volume 37, Issue 8, August 1987 page 9
  79. ^ Mommsen, Hans "Search for the 'Lost History'?" pages 101-113 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, 1993 page 108.
  80. ^ Mommsen, Wolfgang J. "Neither Denial nor Forgetfulness Will Free Us" pages 202-215 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, 1993 pages 208-209.
  81. ^ Broszat, Martin "Where the Roads Part" pages 125-129 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, 1993 page 126.
  82. ^ Baldwin, Peter Reworking the Past page 9
  83. ^ Muller, Jerry "German Historians At War" from Commentary page 40
  84. ^ Lukacs, John The Hitler of History page 238
  85. ^ Hildebrand, Klaus "The Age of Tyrants: History and Politics" pages 50-55 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1993 pages 54-55.
  86. ^ Fest, Joachim "Encumbered Remembrance: The Controversy about the Incomparability of National-Socialist Mass Crimes" pages 63-71 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1993 pages 64-65.
  87. ^ Koch, H.W. “Introduction” from Aspects of the Third Reich pages 378-379
  88. ^ Nolte, Ernst "Letter to the Editor of Die Zeit August 1, 1986" pages 56-57 from Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? edited by Ernst Piper, Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1993 page 57.
  89. ^ Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship, London: Arnold, 1989 page 171.
  90. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 177
  91. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 pages 116-117
  92. ^ Thomas, Gina (editor) The Unresolved Past, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990 pages vii-viii.
  93. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 38.
  94. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 38.
  95. ^ Lukacs, John The Hitler of History New York: Vintage Books, 1997, 1998 pages 180-181.
  96. ^ Vidal-Naquet, Pierre Assassins of Memory, New York: Columbia University Press, 1992 page 126.
  97. ^ Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship, London: Arnold, 1989 page 176.
  98. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 pages 38-39.
  99. ^ Nolte, Ernst "Between Myth and Revisionism?" from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch pgaes 19-20.
  100. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 page 31; Nolte, Ernst "Between Myth and Revisionism?" from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch page 36.
  101. ^ Nolte, Ernst "Between Myth and Revisionism?" from Aspects of the Third Reich edited by H.W. Koch pages 20 & 22
  102. ^ Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 pages 33-34, 42-43, 56, 82-83, 184-185; Kershaw, Ian The Nazi Dictatorship, London: Arnold, 1989 pages 175-177.
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  105. ^ Lukacs, John The Hitler of History New York: Vintage Books, 1997, 1998 page 229; Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow New York: Pantheon Books, 1989 pages 166-167.
  106. ^ Lipstadt, Deborah Denying the Holocaust New York: Free Press, 1993 pages 214-215.
  107. ^ http://www.jcpa.org/phas/phas-11.htm
  108. ^ http://zena.secureforum.com/znet/ZMag/articles/cot96church.htm.
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References

  • Baldwin, Peter Reworking The Past : Hitler, the Holocaust, and the Historians' Debate, Boston : Beacon Press, 1990 ISBN 0-8070-4302-8.
  • Bauer, Yehuda Rethinking the Holocaust New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-300-082256-8.
  • Craig, Gordon "The War of the German Historians" pages 16-19 from New York Review of Books, February 15, 1987.
  • Eley, Geoff "Nazism, Politics and the Image of the Past: Thoughts on the West German Historikerstreit" pages 171-288 from Past and Present, Volume 121, 1988.
  • Epstein, Klaus "A New Study of Fascism" pages 2-25 from Reappraisals of Fascism edited by Henry Ashby Turner, New York: Franklin Watts, 1976, ISBN 0-531-05372-5.
  • Evans, Richard In Hitler's Shadow: West German Historians and the Attempt to Escape the Nazi Past, New York, NY: Pantheon, 1989 ISBN 0-679-72348-X.
  • Friedländer, Saul Memory, History, And The Extermination Of The Jews Of Europe, Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1993 ISBN 0-253-32483-1
  • Griffin, Roger (editor) International Fascism Theories, Causes, and the New Consensus, London: Arnold, 1998, ISBN 0 340 70613 9.
  • Gutman, Yisreal "Nolte and Revisionism" pages 115-150 from Yad Vashem Studies, Volume 19, 1988.
  • Hirschfeld, Gerhard "Erasing the Past?" pages 8–10 from History Today Volume 37, Issue 8, August 1987.
  • Kershaw, Sir Ian The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretations, London: Arnold, 1989 ISBN 0-340-49008-X.
  • Kulka, Otto Dov "Singularity and Its Relativization: Changing Views in German Historiography on National Socialism and the `Final Solution'" pages 151-186 from Yad Vashem Studies, Volume 19, 1988.
  • Lipstadt, Deborah Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory, New York : Free Press ; Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada ; New York ; Oxford : Maxwell Macmillan International, 1993, ISBN 0-02-919235-8.
  • Low, Alfred "Historikerstreit" page 474 from Modern Germany An Encyclopedia of History, People, and Culture, Volume 1 A-K, edited by Dieter Buse and Jürgen Doerr, Garland Publishing, New York, New York, United States of America, 1998 ISBN 0-8153-0503-6.
  • Lukacs, John The Hitler of History, New York : A. A. Knopf, 1997 ISBN 0-679-44649-4.
  • Maier, Charles The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust and German National Identity, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988 ISBN ISBN 0-674-92975-6.
  • Maier, Charles "Immoral Equivalence" pages 36-41 from The New Republic, Volume 195, Number 22, Issue 3, 750, December 1, 1986.
  • Marrus, Michael The Holocaust In History, Toronto : Lester & Orpen Dennys : Hanover : University Press of New England, 1987 ISBN 0-88619-155-6.
  • Muller, Jerry "German Historians At War" pages 33-42 from Commentary Volume 87, Issue #5, May 1989.
  • Piper, Ernst (editor) Forever In The Shadow of Hitler? : Original Documents Of The Historikerstreit, The Controversy Concerning The Singularity Of The Holocaust, translated by James Knowlton and Truett Cates, Atlantic Highlands, N.J. : Humanities Press, 1993 ISBN 0-391-03784-6.
    • Augstein, Rudolf "The New Auschwitz Lie" pages 131-134.
    • Broszat, Martin "Where the Roads Part" pages 125-129.
    • Fest, Joachim "Encumbered Remembrance: The Controversy about the Incomparability of National-Socialist Mass Crimes" pages 63-71.
    • Habermas, Jürgen “A Kind of Settlement of Damages On Apologetic Tendencies In German History Writing” pages 34-44.
    • Hildebrand, Klaus "The Age of Tyrants: History and Politics" pages 50-55.
    • Jäckel, Eberhard "The Impoverished Practice of Insinuation: The Singular Aspect of National-Socialist Crimes Cannot Be Denied" pages 74-78.
    • Mommsen, Hans "Search for the 'Lost History'?" pages 101-113.
    • Mommsen, Wolfgang "Neither Denial nor Forgetfulness Will Free Us" pages 202-215.
  • Strute, Karl and Doelken, Theodor (editors) Who's Who In Germany 1982-1983 Volume 2 N-Z, Verlag AG: Zurich, 1983, ISBN 0510-4009.
  • Thomas, Gina (editor) The Unresolved Past A Debate In German History, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990, ISBN 0-312-057996-2.
  • Vidal-Naquet, Pierre Assassins of Memory Essays on the Denial of the Holocaust, New York: Columbia University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-231-07457-1.
  • Wistrich, Robert S. "Holocaust Denial" pages 293-301 from The Holocaust Encyclopedia edited by Walter Laqueur, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-300-08432-3.
  • Wyden, Peter The Hitler Virus: The Insidious Legacy of Adolf Hitler, Arcade Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-55970-616-3.

Yehuda Bauer Yehuda Bauer (born 1926) is an historian and scholar of the Holocaust. ... Gordon Alexander Craig (November 13, 1913 - November 2, 2005) was a Scottish-born U.S historian of German, Swiss and of diplomatic history. ... Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. ... Professor Richard Evans (born 1947) is a British historian of Germany. ... Saul Friedländer (born 1932) is a French-Israeli historian. ... Roger Griffin is a British academic at Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England whose theory on fascism determines that it is palingenetic ultra-nationalism with concepts and acts of national rebirth being the its defining feature. ... Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ... Lipstadts book: Denying The Holocaust Deborah Esther Lipstadt (born March 18, 1947, New York City) is an American historian and author of the book Denying the Holocaust. ... John Lukacs (born 31 January 1924 in Budapest his name spelled Lukács) is a Hungarian-born historian who has written more than twenty-five books, including Five Days in London, May 1940 and The New Republic. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... Michael Robert Marrus (born February 3, 1941) is a Canadian historian of France, the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... // Commentary, a monthly magazine founded by the American Jewish Committee in 1945, bills itself as Americas premier monthly magazine of opinion. ... Pierre Vidal-Naquet (1930, Paris) is a French historian, teacher at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS). ... Dr. Robert S. Wistrich ‎ Robert S(olomon) Wistrich (born 1945) is the Neuburger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the Universitys Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism. ... Walter Laqueur (born 1921) is an American historian and political commentator. ...

External links

  • Interview with Ernst Nolte in French

  Results from FactBites:
 
Right-wing historian Ernst Nolte receives the Konrad Adenauer Prize for Science (1273 words)
Nolte's thesis was that the rational core lying at the heart of the Nazi extermination of the Jews was a defensive reaction on the part of the fascists to the threat of Bolshevism in the East.
Nolte deliberately obliterated the distinction between genuine communism embodied in the initial strivings of the Bolshevik Party in the October Revolution and the counterrevolutionary crimes of Stalinism.
Nolte's article and book constitute the opening shots in what was to become known in Germany as the “Historians' debate”, initiated when other historians and philosopher Jurgen Habermas took issue with Nolte's position and opened up a discussion on the origins of National Socialism and the Holocaust.
Ernst Nolte - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1800 words)
Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923) is a German nationalist historian.
Nolte has argued that after the Japanese attack on the United States in 1941, the U.S. authorities interned the entire Japanese-American population, so by the same logic, the Germans were within their rights to "intern" the Jewish population of Europe in concentration camps.
In his essay Nolte argued that if the PLO were to destroy Israel, then the subsequent history written in the new Palestinian state would portray the former Israeli state in the flest of colors; in Nolte’s opinion, a similar situation exists in regards to the history of Nazi Germany.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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