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Encyclopedia > Ernst Mach
Ernst Mach
Ernst Mach

Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the "Mach number" and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. 19th century (or early 20th century) photograph. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 - The Royal Army Medical Corps first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... A physicist is a scientist trained in physics. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Mach number (Ma) (pronounced mack in British English and mock in American English) is defined as a ratio of speed to the speed of sound in the medium in case. ... A Mach band is an optical illusion, named after Ernst Mach. ...


Ernst Mach was born in Chrlice (now part of Brno), Czech Republic. He was educated at home until the age of 14, then went briefly to gymnasium before entering the University of Vienna at 17. There he studied mathematics, physics and philosophy, and received a doctorate in physics in 1860. His early work was focused on Doppler effect in optics and acoustics. In 1864 he took a job as professor of mathematics in Graz, in 1866 he was also appointed as a professor of physics. During that period Mach became interested also in physiology of sensory perception. In 1867 Mach took the chair of a professor of experimental physics at Charles University, Prague. Brno ▶(?) (-Czech, German: Brünn) is the second-largest city of the Czech Republic, located in the southeast of the country, at the confluence of the Svitava and Svratka rivers. ... A gymnasium is a type of school of secondary education in parts of Europe. ... University of Vienna, main building, seen from Beethovens apartment The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Austria was founded in 1365 by Rudolph IV and hence named Alma mater Rudolphina. ... Mathematics is often defined as the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. ... A black hole concept drawing by NASA. Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Sound waves emanating from an ambulance moving to the right. ... See also: List of optical topics Optics (appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. ... Acoustics is a branch of physics and is the study of sound, mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Graz Schlossberg Clock Tower Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec IPA: /gra. ... 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Charles University of Prague (also simply University of Prague; Czech: Univerzita Karlova; Latin: Universitas Carolina) is the oldest and most prestigious Czech university and among the oldest universities in Europe, being founded in 1340s (for the exact year, see below). ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ...


Mach returned to the University of Vienna as professor of inductive philosophy in 1895, but he suffered a stroke two years later and retired from active research in 1901, when he was appointed to the Austrian parliament. He continued to lecture and publish in retirement. Mach died on 19 February 1916 in Haar, Germany. 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 - The Royal Army Medical Corps first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... There are several meanings of Haar. ...

Contents


Physics

Enlarge
Bust of Mach in the Rathauspark (City Hall Park), Vienna, Austria.

Most of his studies in the field of experimental physics were devoted to interference, diffraction, polarization and refraction of light in different media under external influences. These studies were soon followed by his important explorations in the field of supersonic velocity. Mach's paper on this subject was published in 1877 and correctly describes the sound effects observed during the supersonic motion of a projectile. Mach deduced and mathematically confirmed the existence of a shock wave which has the form of a cone with the projectile at the apex. The ratio of the speed of projectile to the speed of sound vp/vs is now called the Mach number. It plays a crucial role in dualdynamics and thermodynamics. He also contributed to cosmology the hypothesis known as Mach's principle. Download high resolution version (1417x1913, 1664 KB) Bust of Ernst Mach, physicist, in the Rathauspark (City Hall Park), Vienna, Austria. ... Download high resolution version (1417x1913, 1664 KB) Bust of Ernst Mach, physicist, in the Rathauspark (City Hall Park), Vienna, Austria. ... Interference of two circular waves - Wavelength (decreasing bottom to top) and Wave centers distance (increasing to the right). ... Diffraction is the bending and spreading of waves when they meet an obstruction. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is a property of waves, such as light and other electromagnetic radiation. ... // Headline text This article refers to refraction in waves. ... This page is about high speed motion of bodies such as airplanes through air or other fluids. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... In fluid dynamics, a shock wave is a nonlinear or discontinuous pressure wave. ... The speed of sound c (from Latin celeritas, velocity) varies depending on the medium through which the sound waves pass. ... Mach number (Ma) (pronounced mack in British English and mock in American English) is defined as a ratio of speed to the speed of sound in the medium in case. ... Machs principle is a hypothesis first stated by the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach in 1893, which states that: The inertia of any system is the result of the interaction of that system and the rest of the universe. ...


Sensory perception

In the area of sensory perception, he is best known for an optical illusion called the Mach band. An optical illusion is a type of illusion characterized by visually perceived images that are deceptive or misleading [1]. Information gathered by the eye is interpreted by the brain to give the perception that something is present when it is not. ... A Mach band is an optical illusion, named after Ernst Mach. ...


Philosophy of science

Mach developed a philosophy of science which was influential in the 19th and 20th centuries. Mach held that scientific laws are summaries of experimental events, constructed for the purpose of human comprehension of complex data. Thus scientific laws have more to do with the mind than with reality as it exists apart from the mind. Some quotations from Mach's writings will illustrate his philosophy. These selections are taken from his essay "The economical nature of physical inquiry", excerpted by Kockelmans (citation below). The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including the formal sciences, natural sciences, and social sciences. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...

The goal which it [physical science] has set itself is the simplest and most economical abstract expression of facts.
When the human mind, with its limited powers, attempts to mirror in itself the rich life of the world, of which it itself is only a small part, and which it can never hope to exhaust, it has every reason for proceeding economically.
In reality, the law always contains less than the fact itself, because it does not reproduce the fact as a whole but only in that aspect of it which is important for us, the rest being intentionally or from necessity omitted.
In mentally separating a body from the changeable environment in which it moves, what we really do is to extricate a group of sensations on which our thoughts are fastened and which is of relatively greater stability than the others, from the stream of all our sensations.
Suppose we were to attribute to nature the property of producing like effects in like circumstances; just these like circumstances we should not know how to find. Nature exists once only. Our schematic mental imitation alone produces like events.

In accordance with this philosophy, Mach opposed Ludwig Boltzmann and others who proposed an atomic theory of physics. Since atoms are too small to observe directly, and no atomic model at the time was consistent, the atomic hypothesis seemed to Mach to be unwarranted, and perhaps not sufficiently "economical". Ludwig Boltzmann Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for the invention of statistical mechanics. ...


Mach had a direct influence on the Vienna Circle philosophers and the school of logical positivism in general. Albert Einstein entitled him as "forerunner of Theory of relativity". Moritz Schlick around 1930 The Vienna Circle was a group of philosophers and scientists organized in Vienna under Moritz Schlick. ... Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism, rational empiricism, and also neo-positivism) is a philosophy that originated in the Vienna Circle in the 1920s. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Mach's positivism was also influential on many Russian Marxists, such as Alexander Bogdanov. In 1908, Lenin wrote a philosophical work Materialism and Empirio-Criticism in which he criticized the views of "Russian Machists". Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Alexander Bogdanov (1873 - 1928) was a Russian physician, philosopher, economist, writer, and revolutionary. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ...


References

  • J. Kockelmans. Philosophy of science: the historical background. New York: The Free Press, 1968.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Ernst Mach

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ernst Mach - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (776 words)
Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the "Mach number" and the optical illusion known as Mach bands.
Mach returned to the University of Vienna as professor of inductive philosophy in 1895, but he suffered a stroke two years later and retired from active research in 1901, when he was appointed to the Austrian parliament.
Mach's paper on this subject was published in 1877 and correctly describes the sound effects observed during the supersonic motion of a projectile.
Ernst Mach (336 words)
Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 - February 19, 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher.
Ernst Mach was born in Chrlice (now part of Brno), Czechia.
Mach deduced and experimentally confirmed the existence of a shock wave which has the form of a cone with the projectile at the apex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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