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Encyclopedia > Eris (dwarf planet)
Eris

Eris (center) and Dysnomia (left of center).
Keck Observatory.
Discovery
Discovered by: M. E. Brown,
C. A. Trujillo,
D. L. Rabinowitz[1]
Discovery date: October 21, 2003[1]
Orbital characteristics
Epoch March 6, 2006
(JD 2453800.5)[3]
Aphelion distance: 97.56 AU (14.60 Tm)
Perihelion distance: 37.77 AU (5.65 Tm)
Semi-major axis: 67.6681 AU (10.12 Tm)
Eccentricity: 0.44177
Sidereal period: 203,500 days (557 yr)
Avg. orbital speed: 3.436 km/s
Max. orbital speed: 4.126 km/s
Min. orbital speed: 2.567 km/s
Mean anomaly: 197.63427°
Inclination: 44.187°
Longitude of ascending node: 35.8696°
Argument of perihelion: 151.4305°
Satellites: 1
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius: 1200 km ± 50 km
(750 mi ± 30 mi,
or 19% of Earth)
Mass: 1.66×1022kg[4]
Sidereal rotation period: > 8 h?
Albedo: 0.86 ± 0.07
Surface temp.:
   Kelvin
min mean max
approx. 30 K approx. 42.5 K approx. 55 K
Absolute magnitude: −1.12 0.01

Eris (IPA: /ˈɛɹɪs, ˈɪɹɪs/), also designated 136199 Eris and formerly 2003 UB313 (see minor planet names), is the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system and the ninth largest body orbiting the Sun directly. It is between 2,400 and 3,000 kilometres (1,490 to 1,860 miles) in diameter and 27% more massive than Pluto.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Mauna Kea Observatory, an institute of the University of Hawaii, is considered one of the most important land-based observatories in the world for its isolated, unobstructed views of space without interference from man-made light sources. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... Chadwick A. Chad Trujillo (born November 22, 1973), is the co-discoverer of Eris, which he claims to be the Tenth Planet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the (integer) number of days that have elapsed since Monday, January 1, 4713 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar [1]. That day is counted as Julian day zero. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... tera- (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ... The metre or meter is a measure of length. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... In astronomy, a Julian year is a unit of time defined as exactly 365. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... In the study of orbital dynamics the mean anomaly is a measure of time, specific to the orbiting body p, which is a multiple of 2π radians at and only at periapsis. ... A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually symbolized °, is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1/360 of a full rotation. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... The Longitude of the ascending node (☊, also noted Ω) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. ... The argument of periapsis (ω) is the orbital element describing the angle between an orbiting bodys ascending node (the point where the body crosses the plane of reference from South to North) and its periapsis (the point of closest approach to the central body), measured in the orbital plane and... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... On a prograde planet like the Earth, the sidereal day is shorter than the solar day. ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ... Fig. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us, in the absence of interstellar extinction. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... Minor planet names, including those of asteroids and dwarf planets, are managed by the Minor Planet Center, a branch of the IAU. They consist, in their final form, of a number originally assigned in approximate order of discovery, now assigned only after the orbit is determined, coupled with a name... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


Eris was discovered in 2005 by a Mount Palomar-based team led by Mike Brown. It is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) native to a region of space beyond the Kuiper belt known as the scattered disc. Eris has one moon, named Dysnomia; recent observations found no evidence of further satellites. With the exception of some comets, the pair are currently the most distant known objects in the Solar System.[6] Palomar Observatory is a privately-owned observatory located in San Diego County, California, 90 miles (145 km) southeast of Mount Wilson Observatory, on Palomar Mountain. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Artists rendering of the Kuiper Belt and hypothetical more distant Oort cloud. ... The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our solar system, thinly populated by icy planetoids known as scattered disk objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ... Comet Hale-Bopp, showing a white dust tail and blue gas tail (February 1997) A comet is a small astronomical object similar to an asteroid but composed largely of ice. ...


Eris’ size resulted in its discoverers and NASA labeling it the solar system's tenth planet. This, along with the prospect of other similarly sized objects being discovered in the future, stimulated the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to define the term "planet" for the first time. Under a new definition approved on August 24, 2006, Eris was designated a "dwarf planet" along with Pluto and Ceres.[7] The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (French: Union astronomique internationale) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ... Photograph of the planet Neptune and its moon Triton, taken by Voyager 2 as it entered the outer solar system. ... The final definition left the solar system with eight planets, pictured above (not to scale) Displays the remaining eight planets with the celestial bodies that have now been designated as dwarf planets. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Spectral type: G[8] Absolute magnitude: 3. ...

Contents

Discovery

Eris was discovered by the team of Mike Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David Rabinowitz[6] on January 5, 2005, from images taken on October 21, 2003. The discovery was announced on July 29, 2005, the same day as two other large TNOs, (136108) 2003 EL61 and (136472) 2005 FY9. The search team has been systematically scanning for large outer solar system bodies for several years, and had previously been involved in the discovery of several other very large TNOs, including 50000 Quaoar, 90482 Orcus, and 90377 Sedna. Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... Chadwick A. Chad Trujillo (born November 22, 1973), is the co-discoverer of Eris, which he claims to be the Tenth Planet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... (also written (136108) 2003 EL61), nicknamed Santa, is a large Kuiper belt object, roughly one-third the mass of Pluto, discovered by Mike Browns group at Caltech in the United States and J. L. Ortiz et al. ... (also written (136472) 2005 FY9) is a very large Kuiper belt object discovered on March 31, 2005 by the team led by Michael Brown. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... 50000 Quaoar (pronounced kwaa·waar or kwow·ər, English IPA: , Tongva ) [2] is a Trans-Neptunian object orbiting the Sun in the Kuiper belt. ... 90482 Orcus (originally known by the provisional designation 2004 DW) is a Kuiper Belt object (KBO) that was discovered by Michael Brown of Caltech, Chad Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory, and David Rabinowitz of Yale University. ... you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ...


Routine observations were taken by the team on October 21, 2003, using the 48-inch (122 cm) Samuel Oschin reflecting telescope at Mount Palomar Observatory, California, but the object captured on the images was not discovered at that point due to its very slow motion across the sky: the team's automatic image-searching software excluded all objects moving at less than 1.5 arcseconds per hour to reduce the number of false positives returned. When Sedna was discovered, it was moving at 1.75 arcsec/h, and in light of that the team reanalyzed their old data with a lower limit on the angular motion, sorting through the previously excluded images by eye. In January 2005, the re-analysis revealed Eris' slow motion against the background stars. October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Samuel Oschin telescope is a 48-inch (1. ... A reflecting telescope (reflector) is an optical telescope which uses a combination of curved and plane (flat) mirrors to reflect light and form an image (catoptric), rather than lenses to refract or bend light to form an image (dioptric). ... Palomar Observatory is a privately-owned observatory located in San Diego County, California, 90 miles (145 km) southeast of Mount Wilson Observatory, on Palomar Mountain. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... A second of arc or arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement which comprises one-sixtieth of an arcminute, or 1/3600 of a degree of arc or 1/1296000 ≈ 7. ... A false positive, also called false alarm, exists when a test reports, incorrectly, that it has found a signal where none exists in reality. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ...

Animation showing the movement of Eris on the images used to discover it. Eris is located on the left side, slightly above the middle of the image. The three frames were taken over a period of three hours.

Follow-up observations were then carried out to make a preliminary determination of its orbit, which allowed its distance and size to be estimated. The team had planned to delay announcing their discovery until further observations had been made which would have allowed more accurate determinations of the body's size and mass, but were forced to bring forward the announcement when the discovery of another object they had been tracking (2003 EL61) was announced by another group in Spain.[6] Image File history File links Animation of the images from which 2003 UB313 was discovered. ... Image File history File links Animation of the images from which 2003 UB313 was discovered. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... 2003 EL61 (also written 2003 EL61), nicknamed Santa (non-official designation), is a large and very unusual Kuiper belt object discovered by Mike Brown at Caltech in the United States. ...


Yet more observations released in October 2005 revealed that the object had a moon, later named Dysnomia. Observations of the orbit permitted scientists to determine the mass of Eris in June 2007 to be 1.66 x 1022 kg 0.02 x 1022 kg.
Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ...


Classification

Distribution of trans-Neptunian Objects.

Eris is classified as a dwarf planet and a scattered disk object (SDO). The latter is a category of the TNOs that are believed to have been "scattered" from the Kuiper belt into more distant and unusual orbits following gravitational interactions with Neptune as the solar system was forming. Although its high orbital inclination is unusual among the known SDOs, theoretical models suggest that objects that were originally near the inner edge of the Kuiper belt are scattered into orbits with higher inclinations than objects from the outer belt.[8] Inner-belt objects are expected to be generally more massive than outer-belt objects, and so astronomers expect to discover more large objects like Eris in high-inclination orbits. Image File history File links TheTransneptunians_73AU.svg // Summary (voir plus loin pour la description en français) The distribution and classification of the trans-Neptunian Objects. ... Image File history File links TheTransneptunians_73AU.svg // Summary (voir plus loin pour la description en français) The distribution and classification of the trans-Neptunian Objects. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our solar system, thinly populated by icy planetoids known as scattered disk objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Artists rendering of the Kuiper Belt and hypothetical more distant Oort cloud. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... Atmospheric characteristics Surface pressure ≫100 MPa Hydrogen - H2 80% ±3. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ...


As Eris is larger than Pluto, it was initially described as the "tenth planet" by NASA and in media reports of its discovery.[9] In response to the uncertainty over its status, and because of continuing debate over whether Pluto should be classified as a planet, the IAU delegated a group of astronomers to develop a new definition of the term planet. This definition was clarified under the new IAU definition of a planet, adopted on 24 August 2006. Eris has been termed a dwarf planet (a term distinct from "planet") by the IAU.[10] Brown has since stated his approval of the new "dwarf planet" label.[11] The IAU subsequently placed Eris into its Minor Planet Catalogue, giving it the designation (136199) Eris.[12] Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (French: Union astronomique internationale) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ... Photograph of the planet Neptune and its moon Triton, taken by Voyager 2 as it entered the outer solar system. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... This is a list of numbered minor planets, nearly all of them asteroids, in sequential order. ...


Name

Eris (Athenian painting, circa 550 BCE)

Eris is named after the goddess Eris (Greek Έρις), a personification of strife and discord.[13] This name was assigned on September 13, 2006 following an unusually long period in which it was best known by the provisional designation 2003 UB313, which was granted automatically by the IAU under their naming protocols for minor planets. Image File history File linksMetadata Eris_(Discordia). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Eris_(Discordia). ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Eris (ca. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The provisional designation of comets and asteroids are similar to each other: they both follow a pattern set in 1925 by the Minor Planet Center of the IAU. Historical designations At first, astronomers strove to assign symbols to the minor planets: 1 Ceres a stylized sickle 2 Pallas a lozenge... Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (French: Union astronomique internationale) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ... Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ...


Nicknames

Before the name Eris was granted, two nicknames were used for the planet by the popular media.

  • "Xena" was an informal name used by the discovery team. It was inspired by eponymous heroine of the television series Xena: Warrior Princess. The discovery team had reportedly saved the nickname 'Xena' for the first body they discovered that was larger than Pluto. According to Brown, "We chose it since it started with an X (planet “X”), it sounds mythological (OK, so it’s TV mythology, but Pluto is named after a cartoon, right?), and (this part is actually true) we’ve been working to get more female deities out there (i.e. Sedna). Also at the time the TV show was still on TV, which shows you how long we’ve been searching!"[14]
  • The nickname "Lila" has also been used, but this is a misunderstanding of planetlila, part of the URL of the discovery web page;[15] the web page's name was derived from the name of Mike Brown's then-newborn daughter, Lilah.

Xena. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... // Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a technical, Web-related term used in two distinct meanings: In popular usage, it is a widespread synonym for Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) — many popular and technical texts will use the term URL when referring to URI; Strictly, the idea of a uniform syntax for... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ...

Choosing an official name

The delay in assigning a name was due to uncertainty over whether the object was classified as a planet or a minor planet; different nomenclature procedures apply to these different classes of object.[16] The decision on a name had to wait until after the August 24, 2006 IAU ruling defining the object as a dwarf planet.[17] The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The final definition left the solar system with eight planets, pictured above (not to scale) Displays the remaining eight planets with the celestial bodies that have now been designated as dwarf planets. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ...


Brown had previously speculated that Persephone would be a good name for the object. However, this was not possible once the object was classified as a dwarf planet, because there is already an asteroid with that name (399 Persephone).[6] Because IAU regulations demand a name from a creation mythology for objects with orbital stability beyond Neptune's orbit, the team had also been considering such possibilities.[15] Proserpine by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1874) (Tate Gallery, London In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, PersephónÄ“) was the Queen of the Underworld of epic literature. ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... 399 Persephone is a typical Main belt asteroid. ... In ancient times, only the Sun and Moon, a few hundred stars and the most easily visible planets had names. ... Creation beliefs and stories describe how the universe, the Earth, life, and/or humanity came into being. ... Adjectives: Neptunian Atmosphere Surface pressure: ≫ 100 kPa (cloud level) Composition: 80% ± 3. ...


The discovery team proposed 'Eris' on 6 September 2006. On 13 September 2006 it was accepted as the official name by the IAU.[18][15] The name in part reflects the discord in the astronomical community caused by the debate over the object's (and Pluto's) nature. September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Orbit

The diagram illustrates the orbit of Eris (blue) compared to those of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (white/grey). The segments of orbits below the ecliptic are plotted in darker colours, and the red dot is the Sun. The diagram on the left is a polar view while the diagrams on the right are different views from the ecliptic.

Eris has an orbital period of 556.7 years, and currently lies at almost its maximum possible distance from the Sun (aphelion). At a distance of roughly 97 astronomical units, it is currently the most distant known large object from the Sun in the solar system. Its semimajor axis is 67.669 AU, its perihelion distance is 37.78 AU, and its aphelion distance is 97.56 AU. Approximately forty known TNOs (most notably 2000 OO67 and Sedna), while currently closer to the Sun than Eris, have greater average orbital distances.[19] Image File history File links Eris_Orbit. ... Image File history File links Eris_Orbit. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... 2000 OO67 is a Trans Neptunian Object notable for its highly eccentric orbit. ... you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ...


Its orbit is highly eccentric, and brings it to within 37.8 AU of the Sun (a typical perihelion for scattered objects), still safe from direct interaction with Neptune (at ~30 AU). For comparison, Pluto, like other plutinos, follows a less inclined and less eccentric orbit and, protected by orbital resonance, it can cross Neptune’s orbit. Unlike the terrestrial planets and gas giants, whose orbits all lie roughly in the same plane as the Earth's, Eris' orbit is very inclined — it is tilted at an angle of about 44 degrees to the ecliptic. (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our solar system, thinly populated by icy planetoids known as scattered disk objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). ... Adjectives: Neptunian Atmosphere Surface pressure: ≫ 100 kPa (cloud level) Composition: 80% ± 3. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... In astronomy, a plutino is a trans-Neptunian object that has a 3:2 orbital resonance with Neptune. ... In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when two orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other. ... The inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, their sizes to scale. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Two intersecting planes in three-dimensional space In mathematics, a plane is a two-dimensional manifold or surface that is perfectly flat. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually symbolized °, is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1/360 of a full rotation. ... The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ...


The object currently has an apparent magnitude of about 19, making it bright enough to be detectable in some amateur telescopes. A telescope with an 8" lens or mirror and a CCD can detect Eris under favorable conditions.[a] The reason it had not been noticed until now is because of its steep orbital inclination: most searches for large outer solar system objects concentrate on the ecliptic plane, in which most solar system material is found. The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... A telescope (from the Greek tele = far and skopein = to look or see; teleskopos = far-seeing) is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ...


Eris is now in the constellation Cetus. It was in Sculptor until 1929, and will enter Pisces in 2036.[20] Because the orbit of Eris is highly inclined, it only passes through a few constellations of the traditional Zodiac. Cetus (a name from Greek mythology, referring to a Whale or Sea monster, see Ceto) is a constellation of the southern sky, in the region known as the Water, near other watery constellations like Aquarius, Pisces, and Eridanus. ... Categories: Astronomy stubs | Modern constellations | Constellations | Sculptor constellation ... For other uses, see Pisces. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


Size, mass and density

The diameter of Eris has been measured to be 2,400 kilometres (1,491 mi) using images from the Hubble Space Telescope.[21] The brightness of an object depends both on its size and the amount of light it reflects (its albedo). At a distance of 97 AU, an object with a radius of 3,000 km (1,864 mi) would have an angular size of 40 milliarcseconds,[22] which is directly measurable with HST; although resolving such small objects is at the very limit of Hubble's capabilities,[b] sophisticated image processing techniques such as deconvolution can be used to measure such angular sizes fairly accurately.[c] DIAMETER is an AAA protocol (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting) succeeding its predecessor RADIUS. // The name is a pun on the RADIUS protocol, which is the predecessor (a diameter is twice the radius). ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ... Angular size is a measurement of how large or small something is using rotational measurement (degrees of arc, arc_minutes, and arc-seconds). ... A milliarcsecond (m, mas) , or a thoundsanth of an arcsecond. ... Deconvolution is a process used to reverse the effects of convolution on recorded data. ...


The Earth Dysnomia (136199) Eris Charon (134340) Pluto (136472) 2005 FY9 (136108) 2003 EL61 (90377) Sedna (90482) Orcus (50000) Quaoar (20000) Varuna

Eris compared to Pluto, (136472) 2005 FY9, (136108) 2003 EL61, Sedna, Orcus, Quaoar, Varuna, and Earth.

This revised estimate of the diameter makes Eris only 4% larger than Pluto. According to Hubble, Eris' diameter measures 2,397 km (1,489 mi), give or take 100 km (62 mi). Pluto is about 2,306 km (1,433 mi) across. It also indicates that the albedo is 0.86, higher than any other large body in the solar system other than Enceladus. It is speculated that the high albedo is due to the surface ices being replenished due to temperature fluctuations as Eris' eccentric orbit takes it closer and farther from the Sun.[23] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2750x1995, 1859 KB) Summary Comparison of the eight largest TNOs, based on the public domain NASA image: Image:2006-16-d-print. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... [5] Atmospheric characteristics Pressure trace, significant spatial variability [6], [7] Water vapour 91% [8] Carbon dioxide 3. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ...


In 2007, a series of observations of the largest Trans-Neptunian objects with the Spitzer Space Telescope gave an estimate of Eris's diameter of 2600 +400 −200 km.[24] According to these data, Hubble's estimate is the lowest possible figure, and Eris's diameter is more likely to be greater than Pluto's by 13%, and perhaps as much as 30%. The Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility [SIRTF]) is an infrared space observatory, the fourth and final of NASAs Great Observatories. ...


The mass of Eris is about 27 percent greater than Pluto (based on the current value for Dysnomia's period, 15.774 days).[25] [26] Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ...


Thermal measurement

Previous observations of the thermal emission of Eris at a wavelength of 1.2 mm, where the object's brightness depends only on temperature and surface area, indicated a diameter of 3000+270−100 km, about a third larger than Pluto.[27] If the object rotates quickly, resulting in a more even heat distribution and a temperature of 23 to 24 kelvin (-250 to -249 degrees Celsius), a likely diameter would be in the higher portion of the range (best fit 3090 km); if it rotates slowly, the visible surface would be warmer (about 27 K, or -246 degrees Celsius) and a likely diameter would be in the smaller end of the range (best fit 2860 km). The 2860 km figure implies a Pluto-like albedo of 60%, consistent with its Pluto-like spectral signature. The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ...


The apparent inconsistency of the HST PSF results (2400 ± 100 km) with the above IRAM results (3000 ± 370 km) will certainly be studied at more length. Brown explains it by a slightly lower absolute magnitude than the one assumed by Bertoldi (−1.12 ± 0.01 versus −1.16 ± 0.1, resulting by itself in almost 100 km difference in diameter). Assuming further the highest diameter (2500 km) and pole-on position of the object[d] the difference between the results would appear consistent with 1.1-σ error margin. The Institut de radioastronomie millimétrique (IRAM) operates two observatories at millimetre wavelengths, which are open to the international astronomical community: The 30-m single-dish telescope on Pico Veleta (2850 m), located in Sierra Nevada (Spain), and the six-antenna interferometer on the Plateau de Bure (2550 m) in... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us, in the absence of interstellar extinction. ... In probability and statistics, the standard deviation of a probability distribution, random variable, or population or multiset of values is a measure of the spread of its values. ...


Another possible explanation for the IRAM results is offered by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie. The ratio between the bolometric albedo (representing the total reflected energy and used in the thermal method) and the geometric albedo (representing the reflection in some visual wavelength and used to calculate the diameter from HST pictures) is not known with high precision and depends on many factors. By itself, this uncertainty could bridge the gap between the two measures.[27] The Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy is located in Bonn, Germany. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standardized distance away. ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ...


Surface and atmosphere

The infrared spectrum of Eris, compared to that of Pluto, shows the marked similarities between the two bodies. Arrows denote methane absorption lines.

The discovery team followed up their initial identification of Eris with spectroscopic observations made at the 8 m Gemini North Telescope in Hawaii on January 25, 2005. Infrared light from the object revealed the presence of methane ice, indicating that the surface of Eris is rather similar to Pluto, which was the only TNO already known to show the presence of methane. Neptune's moon Triton is probably related to Kuiper Belt objects, and also has methane on its surface.[28] Image File history File links Near infrared spectrum of possible new planet 2003 UB313, taken with the Gemini 8m telescope. ... Image File history File links Near infrared spectrum of possible new planet 2003 UB313, taken with the Gemini 8m telescope. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... High resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines). ... The Gemini Observatory is an astronomical observatory consisting of 8-metre telescopes at two different sites. ... Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Triton (trye-tÉ™n, IPA: , Greek Τρίτων), or Neptune I, is the planet Neptunes largest moon. ... Artists rendering of the Kuiper Belt and hypothetical more distant Oort cloud. ...


Due to its orbit, surface temperatures vary between about 56 and 30 kelvins (−217 and −243 degrees Celsius).[6]


Unlike the somewhat reddish Pluto and Triton, however, Eris appears almost grey.[6] Pluto's reddish color is believed to be due to deposits of tholins on its surface, and where these deposits darken the surface, the lower albedo leads to higher temperatures and the evaporation of methane deposits. In contrast, Eris is far enough away from the Sun that methane can condense onto its surface even where the albedo is low. The condensation of methane uniformly over the surface reduces any albedo contrasts and would cover up any deposits of red tholins.[29] Tholin is a heteropolymer formed by solar ultraviolet irradiation of simple organic compounds such as methane or ethane. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Water vapor condensing over a cup of hot tea Condensation is the change in matter of a substance to a denser phase, such as a gas (or vapor) to a liquid. ...


Even though Eris can be up to three times further from the Sun than Pluto, it approaches close enough that some of the various ices that exist on the surface might become warm enough to sublimate. Methane is very volatile and its presence shows either that Eris has always resided in the distant reaches of the solar system where it is cold enough for methane ice to persist, or that it has an internal source of methane to replenish gas that escapes from its atmosphere. This contrasts with observations of another recently-discovered TNO, 2003 EL61, which reveal the presence of water ice but not methane.[30] Sublimation of an element or substance is a conversion between the solid and the gas phases with no intermediate liquid stage. ... The ability of a liquid to evaporate quickly and at relatively low temperatures. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... View of Jupiters active atmosphere, including the Great Red Spot. ... 2003 EL61 (also written 2003 EL61), nicknamed Santa (non-official designation), is a large and very unusual Kuiper belt object discovered by Mike Brown at Caltech in the United States. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Moon

Eris and Dysnomia: artist's impression. Eris is the main object, Dysnomia the small non-reddish dot just above it.
Main article: Dysnomia (moon)

During 2005, the adaptive optics team at the Keck telescopes in Hawaii carried out observations of the four brightest TNOs (Pluto, 2005 FY9, 2003 EL61, and Eris), using the newly commissioned laser guide star adaptive optics system.[31] Observations taken on September 10 revealed a moon in orbit around Eris, which received its name (Dysnomia) at the same time as its primary. In keeping with the "Xena" nickname already in use for Eris, the moon was previously nicknamed "Gabrielle" by its discoverers, after the television warrior princess's sidekick. The name Dysnomia is taken from a mythological demon of lawlessness who was Eris' daughter. Brown's group has pointed out the link with the former nicknames, as the character of Xena was played by Lucy Lawless.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4800x3600, 6460 KB) Summary Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4800x3600, 6460 KB) Summary Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... The W. M. Keck Observatory is home to the two largest optical/near-infrared telescopes at the 4,145 meter (13,600 ft) summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. ... Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... 2005 FY9 (also written 2005 FY9), codenamed Easterbunny by its discoverers, is a very large Kuiper belt object discovered on March 31, 2005 by the team led by Michael Brown. ... 2003 EL61 (also written 2003 EL61), nicknamed Santa (non-official designation), is a large and very unusual Kuiper belt object discovered by Mike Brown at Caltech in the United States. ... Lick Observatory laser guide star, built by LLNL. Laser guide stars are a form of artificial star created for use in astronomical adaptive optics imaging. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the Gregorian calendar (254th in leap years). ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ... Xena. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dysnomia (Δυσνομία), the daughter of Eris, is the daimon of lawlessness. Compare Eunomia, one of the Horae, embodiments of order. ... Lucy Lawless (born Lucille Frances Ryan on March 29, 1968 in Mount Albert, New Zealand) is a New Zealand actress and singer best known for her role as Xena on the television series Xena: Warrior Princess from 1995 to 2001. ...


See also

Solar System Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1274, 113 KB) Original caption released with image This is a montage of planetary images taken by spacecraft managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA. Included are (from top to bottom) images of Mercury, Venus, Earth (and Moon), Mars... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ... Photograph of the planet Neptune and its moon Triton, taken by Voyager 2 as it entered the outer solar system. ... The 2006 definition of planet by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) states that, in the solar system, a planet is a celestial body that: is in orbit around the Sun, has sufficient mass so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and has cleared the neighborhood around its... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Look up Sedna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Sedna may refer to: Sedna, the Inuit goddess of the sea 90377 Sedna, a planetoid Sedna Planitia, a landform on the planet Venus Sedna, an Irish king This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share... Planet X is a large hypothetical planet with an orbit beyond that of Neptune. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In ancient times, only the Sun and Moon, a few hundred stars and the most easily visible planets had names. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (French: Union astronomique internationale) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For an example of an amateur image of Eris, see Fred Bruenjes' Astronomy
  2. ^ The Resolution of the High Resolution Channel of the ACS is 40 marcsec (milliarcseconds) and the size of 1 pixel is ~25 marcsec i.e. ~1875 km at the distance of Eris.
  3. ^ The reference to 'direct' measure by HST should not mislead into thinking that this method is as 'direct' and model-independent as measuring say Neptune’s size. Basically, the method consists in finding the statistically best fit to a smeared image of the size of less than 2 pixels by comparing it with smeared images of the background stars, using a given computer model of the optics (PSF). A non technical description of the method is given on Brown’s page, a detailed description of this approach and its limitations are discussed in a paper on Quaoar[32]
  4. ^ If the object is in pole-on position the side facing the Sun (and the observer) gets hotter producing stronger emissions thus resulting in overestimation of the diameter using the thermal method.

Introduction The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third generation axial instrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). ... Adjectives: Neptunian Atmosphere Surface pressure: ≫ 100 kPa (cloud level) Composition: 80% ± 3. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... Image formation in a confocal microscope: central longitudinal (XZ) slice. ... 50000 Quaoar (pronounced kwaa·waar or kwow·ər, English IPA: , Tongva ) [2] is a Trans-Neptunian object orbiting the Sun in the Kuiper belt. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Staff (May 1, 2007). Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets. IAU: Minor Planet Center. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  2. ^ Staff (February 29, 2004). Minor Planet Designations. IAU: Minor Planet Center. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
  3. ^ Asteroid Observing Services
  4. ^ M.E. Brown and E.L. Schaller (2007). "The Mass of Dwarf Planet Eris". Science 316 (5831). DOI:10.1126/science.1139415. 
  5. ^ Dwarf Planet Outweighs Pluto. space.com (2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Mike Brown (2006). The discovery of 2003 UB313 Eris, the largest known dwarf planet. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  7. ^ IAU (2006-08-16). The IAU draft definition of "planet" and "plutons". Press release. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  8. ^ Gomes R. S., Gallardo T., Fernández J. A., Brunini A. (2005). "On the origin of the High-Perihelion Scattered Disk: the role of the Kozai mechanism and mean motion resonances". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 91: 109-129. DOI:10.1007/s10569-004-4623-y. 
  9. ^ NASA-Funded Scientists Discover Tenth Planet. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  10. ^ "IAU 2006 General Assembly: Resolutions 5 and 6", IAU, 24 August 2006. 
  11. ^ Robert Roy Britt (2006). Pluto Demoted: No Longer a Planet in Highly Controversial Definition. space.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  12. ^ IAU Circular 8747 - Official publication of the IAU reporting the naming of Eris and Dysnomia (PDF file)
  13. ^ Blue, Jennifer (2006-09-14). 2003 UB 313 named Eris. USGS Astrogeology Research Program. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  14. ^ Xena and Gabrielle. Status (January, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  15. ^ a b c d The Discovery of Eris, the Largest Known Dwarf Planet. California Institute of Technology, Department of Geological Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  16. ^ International Astronomical Association homepage. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  17. ^ Green, Daniel W.E. (2006-09-13). (134340) PLUTO, (136199) ERIS, AND (136199) ERIS I (DYSNOMIA). Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  18. ^ IAU0605: IAU Names Dwarf Planet Eris. International Astronomical Union News (2006-09-14). Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  19. ^ List of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects. Harvard University, Minor Planets Center. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  20. ^ Horizon Online Ephemeris System. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  21. ^ Comment on the recent Hubble Space Telescope size measurement of 2003 UB313 by Brown et al.. Max Planck Institute (2006). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  22. ^ Bertoldi F., Altenhoff W., Weiss A., Menten K. M., Thum C. (2006). "The trans-neptunian object UB313 is larger than Pluto". Nature 439 (7076): 563 - 564. DOI:10.1038/nature04494. 
  23. ^ M. E. Brown, E.L. Schaller, H.G. Roe, D. L. Rabinowitz, C. A. Trujillo (2006). "Direct measurement of the size of 2003 UB313 from the Hubble Space Telescope". The Astronomical Journal 643 (2): L61–L63. DOI:10.1086/504843. 
  24. ^ John Stansberry, Will Grundy, Mike Brown, John Spencer, David Trilling, Dale Cruikshank, Jean-Luc Margot (2007). Physical Properties of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects: Constraints from Spitzer Space Telescope. ,University of Arizona, Lowell Observatory, California Institute of Technology, NASA Ames Research Center, Southwest Research Institute, Cornell University. Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
  25. ^ Mike Brown (2007). Dysnomia, the moon of Eris. CalTech. Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
  26. ^ M.E. Brown and E.L. Schaller (2007). "The Mass of Dwarf Planet Eris". Science 316 (5831). DOI:10.1126/science.1139415. 
  27. ^ a b Comment on the Recent Hubble Space Telescope size measurement of 2003 UB313 by Brown et al.. Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (2006-02-02). Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  28. ^ Gemini Observatory Shows That "10th Planet" Has a Pluto-Like Surface. Gemini Observatory (2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  29. ^ M. E. Brown, C. A. Trujillo, D. L. Rabinowitz (2005). "Discovery of a Planetary-sized Object in the Scattered Kuiper Belt". The Astrophysical Journal 635 (1): L97-L100. DOI:10.1086/499336. 
  30. ^ J. Licandro, W. M. Grundy, N. Pinilla-Alonso, P. Leisy (2006). "Visible spectroscopy of 2003 UB313: evidence for N2 ice on the surface of the largest TNO". Astronomy and Astrophysics 458: L5-L8. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361:20066028. 
  31. ^ M. E. Brown, M. A. van Dam, A. H. Bouchez, D. LeMignant, C. A. Trujillo, R. Campbell, J. Chin, Conrad A, .S. Hartman, E. Johansson, R. Lafon, D. L. Rabinowitz, P. Stomski, D. Summers, P. L. Wizinowich (2006). "Satellites of the largest Kuiper belt objects". The Astrophysical Journal 639 (1): L43-L46. DOI:10.1086/501524. 
  32. ^ M. E. Brown and C. A. Trujillo (2004). "Direct Measurement of the Size of the Large Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar". The Astronomical Journal 127 (7076): 2413 – 2417. DOI:10.1086/382513.  Describing in detail the method applied to the recent measure of 2003 UB313

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... IAU is a three-letter acronym that denotes: International Astronomical Union International American University International Association of Universities International Association of Ultra Runners for ultramarathoners. ... A news release, press release or press statement is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... IAU is a three-letter acronym that denotes: International Astronomical Union International American University International Association of Universities International Association of Ultra Runners for ultramarathoners. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chadwick A. Trujillo (born November 22, 1973) is a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech researching the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... Chadwick A. Trujillo (born November 22, 1973) is a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech researching the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... Chadwick A. Trujillo (born November 22, 1973) is a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech researching the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... Chadwick A. Trujillo (born November 22, 1973) is a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech researching the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Observatories involved

  • Keck Observatory, Hawaiʻi, US
  • Palomar
  • Gemini
  • IRAM (Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique Institut for Milimetric Radio Astronomy): French-German (Max-Planck Institut fur Radioastronomy, Bonn) and Spanish (where the 30 m telescope is situated) collaborative programme.
  • HST
 v  d  e The Solar System
The Sun Mercury Venus The Moon Earth Phobos and Deimos Mars Ceres The asteroid belt Jupiter Jupiter's natural satellites Saturn Saturn's natural satellites Uranus Uranus' natural satellites Neptune's natural satellites Neptune Charon, Nix, and Hydra Pluto The Kuiper belt Dysnomia Eris The scattered disc The Oort cloud
The Sun · Mercury · Venus · Earth · Mars · Ceres · Jupiter · Saturn · Uranus · Neptune · Pluto · Eris
Planets · Dwarf planets · Moons: Terrestrial · Martian · Jovian · Saturnian · Uranian · Neptunian · Plutonian · Eridian
Small bodies:   Meteoroids · Asteroids/Asteroid moons (Asteroid belt) · Centaurs · TNOs (Kuiper belt/Scattered disc) · Comets (Oort cloud)
See also astronomical objects, the solar system's list of objects, sorted by radius or mass, and the Solar System Portal
Minor planets
Previous minor planet 136199 Eris Next minor planet
List of asteroids

Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... This article is about the planet. ... Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Spectral type: G[8] Absolute magnitude: 3. ... Adjectives: Jovian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 20–200 kPa[4] (cloud layer) Composition: ~86% Molecular hydrogen ~13% Helium 0. ... Adjectives: Saturnian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 140 kPa Composition: >93% hydrogen >5% helium 0. ... Adjectives: Uranian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 120 kPa (at the cloud level) Composition: 83% Hydrogen 15% Helium 1. ... Adjectives: Neptunian Atmosphere Surface pressure: ≫ 100 kPa (cloud level) Composition: 80% ± 3. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... The eight planets and three dwarf planets of the Solar System. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... The relative sizes of and distance between Mars, Phobos, and Deimos, to scale. ... Jupiters outer moons and their highly inclined orbits. ... The Saturnian system (photographic montage) Saturn has fifty-six confirmed natural satellites, plus three unconfirmed moons. ... Uranus has 27 known moons. ... Neptune (top) and Triton (bottom), 3 days after the Voyager 2 flyby. ... The planet Pluto has three known moons. ... Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ... A Small Solar System Body (SSSB) is a term defined in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union to describe objects in the Solar System that are neither planets nor dwarf planets: [1] This encompasses: all minor planets apart from the dwarf planets, : the classical asteroids, (except for 1 Ceres, the... It has been suggested that micrometeoroid be merged into this article or section. ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... 243 Ida and its moon Dactyl An asteroid moon is an asteroid that orbits another asteroid. ... For details on the physical properties of bodies in the asteroid belt see Asteroid and Main-belt comet. ... The centaurs are a class of icy planetoids that orbit the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune, named after the mythical race of centaurs. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Artists rendering of the Kuiper Belt and hypothetical more distant Oort cloud. ... The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our solar system, thinly populated by icy planetoids known as scattered disk objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... This image is an artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ... See also Lists of astronomical objects Category: ... Below is a list of solar system objects with diameter >500km: The Sun, a spectral class G2 star Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars Jupiter Io Europa Ganymede Callisto complete list of Jupiters natural satellites Saturn Tethys Dione Rhea Titan Iapetus complete list of Saturns natural satellites Uranus Ariel... This is a list of solar system objects by radius, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius. ... This is a list of Solar system objects by mass, in decreasing order. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... Artists rendering of the Kuiper Belt and hypothetical more distant Oort cloud. ... 90482 Orcus (originally known by the provisional designation 2004 DW) is a Kuiper Belt object (KBO) that was discovered by Michael Brown of Caltech, Chad Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory, and David Rabinowitz of Yale University. ... Adjectives: Plutonian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... 28978 Ixion (IPA pronunciation: , Wiktionary:Ixion) is a Kuiper belt object discovered on May 22, 2001. ... The correct title of this article is (55637) 2002 UX25. ... 20000 Varuna (VAR oo na) is a large classical Kuiper Belt object (KBO). ... (55636) 2002 TX300 (Also written as (55636) 2002 TX300) is a large Trans-Neptunian object discovered in October 15, 2002 by the NEAT program. ... (also written (136108) 2003 EL61), nicknamed Santa, is a large Kuiper belt object, roughly one-third the mass of Pluto, discovered by Mike Browns group at Caltech in the United States and J. L. Ortiz et al. ... 50000 Quaoar (pronounced kwaa·waar or kwow·ər, English IPA: , Tongva ) [2] is a Trans-Neptunian object orbiting the Sun in the Kuiper belt. ... (also written (136472) 2005 FY9) is a very large Kuiper belt object discovered on March 31, 2005 by the team led by Michael Brown. ... (55565) 2002 AW197 is a trans-Neptunian object. ... The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our solar system, thinly populated by icy planetoids known as scattered disk objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). ... (84522) 2002TC302 is a large Scattered Disk Object (SDO), orbiting the sun at a distance of 39. ... 2004 XR190 (also written 2004 XR190) is a newly discovered trans-Neptunian object located in the scattered disc. ... you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ... Triton (trye-tÉ™n, IPA: , Greek Τρίτων), or Neptune I, is the planet Neptunes largest moon. ... See also Lists of astronomical objects Category: ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale; from left to right): Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, the asteroid belt, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth and its Moon, and Mars. ... Below is a list of solar system objects with diameter >500km: The Sun, a spectral class G2 star Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars Jupiter Io Europa Ganymede Callisto complete list of Jupiters natural satellites Saturn Tethys Dione Rhea Titan Iapetus complete list of Saturns natural satellites Uranus Ariel... This is a list of solar system objects by radius, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius. ... This is a list of Solar system objects by mass, in decreasing order. ... Pronunciation of Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects, and other planetoids of the outer solar system Pronunciation key ... Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ... This is a list of numbered minor planets, nearly all of them asteroids, in sequential order. ...


 
 

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