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Encyclopedia > Erik Erikson
Erik Erikson June 15, 1902 - May 12, 1994
Part of a series of articles on
Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis

Constructs
Psychosexual development
Psychosocial development
ConsciousPreconscious • Unconscious
Id, ego, and super-ego
LibidoDrive
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Important Figures
Sigmund FreudCarl Jung
Alfred AdlerOtto Rank
Anna Freud
Karen HorneyJacques Lacan
Ronald FairbairnMelanie Klein
Harry Stack Sullivan
Erik EriksonNancy Chodorow
Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition Carl Gustav Jung (IPA: ) (July 26, 1875, Kesswil – June 6, 1961, Küsnacht) was a Swiss psychiatrist, influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. ... Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist, founder of the school of individual psychology. ... Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 – October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychologist. ... Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney [horn-eye], born Danielsen (September 16, 1885, – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... Jacques Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn (1889-1964) was a noted Scottish psychoanalyst and is generally regarded as the father of British object relations theory. ... Melanie Klein Melanie Klein (March 30, 1882 – September 22, 1960) was an Austrian-born British psychoanalyst, who devised therapeutic techniques for children with great impact on contemporary methods of child care and rearing. ... Herbert Harry Stack Sullivan (February 21, 1892, Norwich, New York - January 14, 1949, Paris, France) was an American psychiatrist whose work in psychoanalysis was based on direct and verifiable observation (versus the more abstract conceptions of the unconscious mind favored by Sigmund Freud and his disciples). ... Nancy Chodorow is a feminist sociologist and psychoanalyst born 20 January 1944 in New York City. ...


Important works
The Interpretation of Dreams
Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis
"Beyond the Pleasure Principle"
A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is an enlish Launguage translation of the works of Jaques Lacan. ... Beyond the Pleasure Principle Published in 1920, Beyond the Pleasure Principle marked a turning point for Freud, and a major modification of his previous theoretical approach. ...


Schools of Thought
Self psychologyLacanian
Analytical psychologyObject relations
InterpersonalRelational
AttachmentEgo psychology Self psychology is a school of psychoanalytic theory and therapy developed in the United States. ... Jacques Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ... Object relations theory is the idea that the ego-self exists only in relation to other objects, which may be external or internal. ... Interpersonal psychoanalysis is based on the theories of Harry Stack Sullivan, an American psychiatrist who believed that the details of patients interpersonal interactions with others provided insight into the causes and cures of mental disorder. ... Relational psychoanalysis is a school of psychoanalysis in the United States that emphasizes the role of real and imagined relationships with others in mental disorder and psychotherapy. ... Mother and child. ... Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ...

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Erik Homburger Erikson (June 15, 1902May 12, 1994) was a German developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis. is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Psychoanalysis is the revelation of unconscious relations, in a systematic way through an associative process. ... Eriksons stages of psychosocial development describe eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... Erik Erikson, the psychologist who coined the term identity crisis, believes that the identity crisis is the most important conflict human beings encounter when they go through eight developmental stages in life. ...

Contents

Biography

Erik Erikson's lifelong interest in psychology of identity may be traced to his childhood. He was born as a result of his mother's extramarital affair and the circumstances of his birth were concealed from him in his childhood. His mother, Karla Abrahamsen, came from a prominent Jewish family in Copenhagen [1], which traced its origin to the northern German lands [2]. Her father, Josef, was a merchant in dried goods; her mother Henrietta died when Karla was only 15. Karla's older brothers Einar, Nicolai, and Axel were active in local Jewish charity and helped maintain a free soup kitchen for indigent Jewish immigrants from Russia [3]. An affair is a euphemism for a situation where two people are involved in an illicit sexual, romantic and/or passionate attachment, usually for a limited duration. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Copenhagen (IPA: or ; Danish: IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city. ...


Since Karla Abrahamsen was officially married to Jewish stockbroker Waldemar Isidor Salomonsen at the time, her son, born in Germany, was registered as Erik Salomonsen. There is no more information about his biological father, except that he was a Dane and his given name probably was Erik. It is also suggested that he was married at the time that Erikson was conceived[citation needed]. Following her son's birth, Karla trained to be a nurse, moved to Karlsruhe and in 1904 married a Jewish pediatrician Theodor Homburger. In 1909 Erik Salomonsen became Erik Homburger and in 1911 he was officially adopted by his stepfather. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ...


The development of identity seems to have been one of his greatest concerns in Erikson's own life as well as in his theory. During his childhood and early adulthood he was known as Erik Homburger, and his parents kept the details of his birth a secret. He was a tall, blond, blue-eyed boy who was raised in the Jewish religion. At temple school, the kids teased him for being Nordic; at grammar school, they teased him for being Jewish. Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences for an individuals comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...


As a youth, Erikson was a student and teacher of art. While teaching at a private school in Vienna, he became acquainted with Anna Freud, the daughter of Sigmund Freud. Erikson underwent psychoanalysis, and the experience made him decide to become an analyst himself. He was trained in psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute and also studied the Montessori method of education, which focused on child development.[1] “Wien” redirects here. ... Anna Freud (December 3, 1895 - October 9, 1982) was the sixth and last child of Sigmund and Martha Freud. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Following Erikson’s graduation from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute in 1933, the Nazis had just come to power in Germany, and he emigrated with his wife, first to Denmark and then to the United States, where he became the first child psychoanalyst in Boston. Erikson held positions at Massachusetts General Hospital, the Judge Baker Guidance Center, and at Harvard’s Medical School and Psychological Clinic, establishing a solid reputation as an outstanding clinician. 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Massachusetts General Hospital (often abbreviated to Mass General or just MGH) is a teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and biomedical research facility in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ...


In 1936, Erikson accepted a position at Yale University, where he worked at the Institute of Human Relations and taught at the Medical School. After spending a year observing children on a Sioux reservation in South Dakota, he joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley, where he was affiliated with the Institute of Child Welfare, and opened a private practice as well. While in California, Erikson also studied children of the Yurok Native American tribe. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... “Yale” redirects here. ... An Emil Hoas Production For the helicopter H-13 Sioux, see Bell 47 Wahktageli (Coward Warrior), a Yankton Sex chief (Karl Bodmer) Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer) Horse racing of the Sioux Indians (Karl Bodmer) The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American people. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,163 sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Berkeley may refer to: // The Berkeley family of England Lord Berkeley (disambiguation page) Baron Berkeley Berkeley Baronets Anthony Berkeley a pseudonym of Anthony Berkeley Cox, writer Busby Berkeley, film choreographer Elizabeth Berkeley, wife of Charles Noel Somerset, 4th Duke of Beaufort Edmund Berkeley, mathematician and computer scientist, founder of the... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Yurok (also Weitspekan) is an Algic language. ...


After publishing the book for which Erikson is best known, Childhood and Society, in 1950, he left the University of California when professors there were asked to sign loyalty oaths.[2] He spent ten years working and teaching at the Austen Riggs Center, a prominent psychiatric treatment facility in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where he worked with emotionally troubled young people. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Austen Riggs Center is a not-for-profit, open psychiatric care center in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, in the United States. ... Stockbridge is a town in Berkshire County in Western Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ...


In the 1960s, Erikson returned to Harvard as a professor of human development and remained at the university until his retirement in 1970. 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Erikson's greatest innovation was to postulate not five stages of development, as Sigmund Freud had done with his psychosexual stages, but eight. Erikson elaborated Freud's genital stage into adolescence, and added three stages of adulthood. His widow Joan Serson Erikson elaborated on his model before her death, adding a ninth stage (old age) to it, taking into consideration the increasing life expectancy in Western cultures. Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The genital stage is a stage of child development in one of the theories postulated by Sigmund Freud and elaborated by his followers. ... OK TEENAGERS ARE VIRGINS “Adolescent” redirects here. ...


Erikson is also credited with being one of the originators of Ego psychology, which stressed the role of the ego as being more than a servant of the id. According to Erikson, the environment in which a child lived was crucial to providing growth, adjustment, a source of self awareness and identity. Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ...


His 1969 book Gandhi's Truth, which focused more on his theory as applied to later phases in the life cycle, won Erikson a Pulitzer Prize and a U.S. National Book Award. For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... The National Book Awards is one of the most preeminent literary prizes in the United States. ...


Erikson's theory of personality

Although Erikson always insisted that he was a Freudian, he is better described as a Neo-Freudian. Subsequent authors have described him as an "ego psychologist," insofar as, in contrast to the stress laid in orthodox Freudianism on the id, Erikson emphasised the ego. Perhaps the most conspicuous way in which his theory differs from that of Freud is that, in contrast to Freud's list of stages that take development up through adolescence, Erikson lists eight stages of development, spanning the entire lifespan. Each of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development are marked by a conflict, for which successful resolution will result in a favourable outcome, for example, trust vs. mistrust, and by an important event that this conflict resolves itself around, for example, weaning. Eriksons stages of psychosocial development describe eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... The Neo-Freudian psychologists were those followers of Sigmund Freud who accepted the basic tenets of his theory of psychoanalysis but altered it in some way. ... Eriksons stages of psychosocial development describe eight developmental stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. ...

  1. Stage One Oral-Sensory: from birth to one, trust vs. mistrust, feeding;
  2. Stage Two Muscular-Anal: 1-3 years, autonomy vs. shame, toilet training;
  3. Stage Three Locomotor: 3-6 years, initiative vs. inadequacy, independence;
  4. Stage Four Latency: 6-12 years, industry vs. inferiority, school;
  5. Stage Five Adolescence: 12-18 years, identity vs. confusion, peer relationships;
  6. Stage Six Young Adulthood: 18-40 years, intimacy vs. isolation, love relationships;
  7. Stage Seven Middle Adulthood: 40-65 years, generativity vs. stagnation, parenting;
  8. Stage Eight Maturity: 65 years until death, integrity vs. despair, acceptance of one's life.

Favourable outcomes of each stage are sometimes known as "virtues", a term used, in the context of Eriksonian work, as it is applied to medicines, meaning "potencies." For example, the virtue that would emerge from successful resolution. Oddly, and certainly counter-intuitively, Erikson's research reveals with breath-taking clarity how each individual must learn how to hold both extremes of each specific life-stage challenge in tension with one another, not rejecting one end of the tension or the other. Only when both extremes in a life-stage challenge are understood and accepted as both required and useful, can the optimal virtue for that stage surface. Thus, 'trust' and 'mis-trust' must both be understood and accepted, in order for realistic 'hope' to emerge as a viable solution at the first stage. Similarly, 'integrity' and 'despair' must both be understood and embraced, in order for actionable 'wisdom' to emerge as a viable solution at the last stage.


The Erikson life-stage virtues, in the order of the stages in which they may be acquired, are:

  1. hope
  2. will
  3. purpose
  4. competence
  5. fidelity
  6. love (in intimate relationships, work and family)
  7. caring
  8. wisdom

Ego Identity Versus Role Confusion - Ego identity enables each person to have a sense of individuality, or as Erikson would say, "Ego identity, then, in its subjective aspect, is the awareness of the fact that there is a self-sameness and continuity to the ego's synthesizing methods and a continuity of one's meaning for others" (1963) Role Confusion however, is, according to Barbara Engler in her book Personality Theories (2006), "The inability to conceive of oneself as a productive member of one's own society" (158). This inability to conceive of oneself as a productive member is a great danger; it can occur during adolescence when looking for an occupation. [[Image:Spes or Hope. ... Volition is the study of will, choice, and decision. ... Purpose in its most general sense is the anticipated aim which guides action. ... Look up competence, incompetence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the financial services company, see Fidelity Investments. ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... Look up care, carer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A function is part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred in a system that evolved or was designed with some goal. ...


Scientific Support of Erikson's Theories

Most empirical research into Erikson's theories has stemmed around his views on adolescence and attempts to establish identity. His theoretical approach was studied and supported, particularly regarding adolescence, by James Marcia [3]. Marcia's work extended Erikson's; distinguishing different forms of identity, and there is some empirical evidence that those people who form the most coherent self-concept in adolescence are those who are most able to make intimate attachments in early adulthood. This supports Eriksonian theory, in that it suggests that those best equipped to resolve the crisis of early adulthood are those who have most successfully resolved the crisis of adolescence. James E. Marcia is a Canadian developmental psychologist, and Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, Canada. ...


Bibliography

Major works

  • Childhood and Society (1950)
  • Young Man Luther. A Study in Psychoanalysis and History (1958)
  • Gandhi's Truth: On the Origin of Militant Nonviolence (1969)
  • Adulthood (edited book, 1978)
  • Vital Involvement in Old Age (with J.M. Erikson and H. Kivnick, 1986)
  • The Life Cycle Completed (with J.M. Erikson, 1987)

Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...

Collections

  • Identity and the Life Cycle. Selected Papers (1959)
  • A Way of Looking at Things: Selected Papers 1930-1980 (Editor: S.P. Schlien, 1995)
  • The Erik Erikson Reader (Editor: Robert Coles, 2001)

Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert Coles (b. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

Related works

  • Erikson on Development in Adulthood: New Insights from the Unpublished Papers (Carol Hren Hoare, 2002)
  • Erik Erikson, His Life, Work, and Significance (Kit Welchman, 2000)
  • Identity's Architect: A Biography of Erik H. Erikson (Lawrence J. Friedman, 1999)
  • Erik H. Erikson: The Power and Limits of a Vision, N.Y., The Free Press (Paul Roazen, 1976)
  • "Everybody Rides the Carousel" (documentary film) (Hubley, 1976)
  • Erik H. Erikson: the Growth of His Work (Robert Coles, 1970)

For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Coles (b. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...

See also

  • Erikson Institute - graduate school in child development in Chicago, Illinois

24. ...

References

  1. ^ Erikson Erik (1902-1979), Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2nd ed. Gale Group, 2001
  2. ^ C. George Boeree, Erik Erikson, 1902 - 1994 page at Shippensburg University
  3. ^ Marcia, J. E., (1966), Development and validation of ego identity status, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3, pp. 551-58
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Erik Erikson (7054 words)
Erikson was moved by the difficulties faced by the Lakota childen and adolescents he talked to and observed.
Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, 1902.
However, Erikson is much more society and culture-oriented than most Freudians, as you might expect from someone with his anthropological interests, and he often pushes the instincts and the unconscious practically out of the picture.
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Human Development, eight crisis stages human life-cycle, for teaching and ... (8914 words)
Erikson's psychosocial theory of the 'eight stages of human development' drew from and extended the ideas of Sigmund Freud and Freud's daughter Anna Freud, and particularly the four (or five, depending on interpretation) Freudian stages of development, known as Freud's psychosexual stages or Freud's sexual theory.
Erikson was keen to improve the way children and young people are taught and nurtured, and it would be appropriate for his ideas to be more widely known and used in day-to-day life, beyond the clinical and counselling professions.
Erik's Canadian wife Joan M Erikson, whom he met and married in Vienna, was also keenly interested and expert in the life stages theory and its application to childhood development and psychoanalysis.
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