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Encyclopedia > Erich Fromm
Erich Fromm
Erich Fromm

Erich Pinchas Fromm (March 23, 1900March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned Jewish-German-American social psychologist, psychoanalyst, and humanistic philosopher. He was associated with what became known as the Frankfurt School of critical theory. Image File history File links Fromm2k. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Social psychology is often conceived to be the study of how individuals perceive, influence, and relate to others. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ...



Erich Fromm started his studies in 1918 at the University of Frankfurt am Main with two semesters of jurisprudence. During the summer semester of 1919, Fromm studied at the University of Heidelberg, where he switched from studying jurisprudence to sociology under Alfred Weber (brother of the famous sociologist Max Weber), the brilliant psychiatrist-philosopher Karl Jaspers, and Heinrich Rickert. Fromm received his Ph.D. in sociology from Heidelberg in 1922. And, then during the mid 1920s, he was was trained to become a psychoanalyst through Frieda Reichmann's psychoanalytic sanatorium in Heidelberg. He began his own clinical practice in 1927. In 1930, he joined the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research and completed his psychoanalytical training. After the Nazi takeover of power in Germany, the Jewish Fromm moved to Geneva and then in 1934, to Columbia University in New York. Karen Horney's long-term infatuation with Fromm is the subject of her book Self Analysis and it is reasonable to believe that each had a lasting influence on the other's thought. After leaving Columbia, Fromm helped form the New York Branch of the Washington School of Psychiatry in 1943, and in 1946 co-founded the William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis, and Psychology. The Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main (commonly called the University of Frankfurt) was founded in 1914 as a Citizens University, which means that while it was a State university of Prussia, it had been founded and financed by the wealthy and active liberal citizenry of Frankfurt am... Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alfred Weber (July 30, 1868 in Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany - May 2, 1958 in Heidelberg) was a German economist, sociologist and theoretician of culture whose work was influential in the development of modern economic geography. ... For other persons named Max Weber, see Max Weber (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Heinrich John Rickert ( 25 May 1863 - 25 July 1936) was a German philosopher of the Baden School. ... Doctor of Philosophy (from Greek , meaning Teacher of Philosophy), typically abbreviated Ph. ... Psychoanalysis is the revelation of unconscious relations, in a systematic way through an associative process. ... Frieda Fromm-Reichmann (October 23, 1889 - 1957) was a German psychiatrist and contemporary of Sigmund Freud who emigrated to America during World War Two. ... A view of the city from the castle (Schloss) A view of stone bridge from the castle (Schloss) The castle (Schloss) above the town Shopping district Heidelberg and the other cities of the Neckar valley View from the so called alley of philosophers (Philosophenweg) towards the Old Town, with Heidelberg... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... The Institute for Social Research (German: Institut für Sozialforschung) is a research organization covering topics such as sociology and continental philosophy, best known as the institutional home of the Frankfurt School. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Columbia University is a private research university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... Karen Horney Karen Horney [horn-eye], born Danielsen (September 16, 1885, – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The William Alanson White Institute, founded in 1946, is an institution for training psychoanalysts. ...

When Fromm moved to Mexico City in 1950, he became a professor at the UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico) and established a psychoanalytic section at the medical school there. He taught at the UNAM until his retirement in 1965. Meanwhile, he taught as a professor of psychology at Michigan State University from 1957 to 1961 and as an adjunct professor of psychology at the graduate division of Arts and Sciences at New York University after 1962. In 1974 he moved to Muralto, Switzerland, and died at his home in 1980, five days before his eightieth birthday. All the while, Fromm maintained his own clinical practice and published a glowing series of books. The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; abbreviation: UNAM) was founded in 1551, and is now the largest university in Latin America and it is considered the best University of this region based on the Beijing University and the London Times suplemments. ... The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; abbreviation: UNAM) was founded in 1551, and is now the largest university in Latin America and it is considered the best University of this region based on the Beijing University and the London Times suplemments. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a public university in East Lansing, Michigan. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... New York University (NYU) is a major research university in New York City. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...

Psychological Theory

Fromm framing his writing
Fromm framing his writing

Beginning with his first seminal work of 1941, Escape from Freedom (known in Britain as The Fear of Freedom), Fromm's writings were notable as much for their social and political commentary as for their philosophical and psychological underpinnings. His second important work, Man for Himself: An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics, first published in 1947, continued and enriched the ideas of Escape from Freedom. Taken together, these books outlined Fromm's theory of human character, which was a natural outgrowth of Fromm's theory of human nature. Fromm's most popular book was The Art of Loving, an international bestseller first published in 1956, which recapitulated and complemented the theoretical principles of human nature found in Escape from Freedom and Man for Himself - principles which were revisited in many of Fromm's other major works. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A seminal work [semen = seed (from the Latin seminalis)] is a work from which other works come--it is an engendering work which is so important in its ideas or technique that other people take these up and create new works too. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Central to Fromm's world view was his interpretation of the Talmud, which he began studying as a young man under Rabbi J. Horowitz and later studied under Rabbi Salman Baruch Rabinkow while working towards his doctorate in sociology at the University of Heidelberg and under Nehemia Nobel and Ludwig Krause while studying in Frankfurt. Fromm's grandfather and two great grandfathers on his father's side were rabbis, and a great uncle on his mother's side was a noted Talmudic scholar. However, Fromm turned away from orthodox Judaism in 1926, towards secular interpretations of scriptural ideals. A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (pronounced ) meaning a look onto the world. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...

The cornerstone of Fromm's humanistic philosophy is his interpretation of the biblical story of Adam and Eve's exile from the Garden of Eden. Drawing on his knowledge of the Talmud, Fromm pointed out that being able to distinguish between good and evil is generally considered to be a virtue, and that biblical scholars generally consider Adam and Eve to have sinned by disobeying God and eating from the Tree of Knowledge. However, departing from traditional religious orthodoxy, Fromm extolled the virtues of humans taking independent action and using reason to establish moral values rather than adhering to authoritarian moral values. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden The Garden of Eden (from Hebrew Gan Ēden, גַּן עֵדֶן) is described in the Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man—Adam—and woman—Eve—lived after they were created by God. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Tree of Knowledge may refer to: The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil mentioned in the Book of Genesis The Bodhi tree under which the Buddha received enlightenment according to Buddhism The metaphysical Tree of Jiva and Atman in Vedic mythology The Axis mundi, or world axis, which takes...

Beyond a simple condemnation of authoritarian value systems, Fromm used the story of Adam and Eve as an allegorical explanation for human biological evolution and existential angst, asserting that when Adam and Eve ate from the Tree of Knowledge, they became aware of themselves as being separate from nature while still being part of it. This is why they felt "naked" and "ashamed": they had evolved into human beings, conscious of themselves, their own mortality, and their powerlessness before the forces of nature and society, and no longer united with the universe as they were in their instinctive, pre-human existence as animals. According to Fromm, the awareness of a disunited human existence is the source of all guilt and shame, and the solution to this existential dichotomy is found in the development of one's uniquely human powers of love and reason. However, Fromm so distinguished his concept of love from popular notions of love that his reference to this concept was virtually paradoxical. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement in which individual human beings are understood as having full responsibility for creating the meanings of their own lives. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... The suckling of a newborn at its mothers nipple is an example of an instinctive behavior. ... Animalia redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that the section Shame campaign from the article Smear campaign be merged into this article or section. ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ...

Fromm considered love to be an interpersonal creative capacity rather than an emotion, and he distinguished this creative capacity from what he considered to be various forms of narcissistic neuroses and sado-masochistic tendencies that are commonly held out as proof of "true love." Indeed, Fromm viewed the experience of "falling in love" as evidence of one's failure to understand the true nature of love, which he believed always had the common elements of care, responsibility, respect, and knowledge. Drawing from his knowledge of the Talmud, Fromm pointed to the story of Jonah, who did not wish to save the residents of Nineveh from the consequences of their sin, as demonstrative of his belief that the qualities of care and responsibility are generally absent from most human relationships. Fromm also asserted that few people in modern society had respect for the autonomy of their fellow human beings, much less the objective knowledge of what other people truly wanted and needed. Emotional redirects here. ... This article is about narcissism as a word in common use. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Yunus redirects here. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ...

Fromm believed that freedom was an aspect of human nature that we either embrace or escape. He observed that embracing our freedom of will was healthy, whereas escaping freedom through the use of escape mechanisms, was the root of psychological conflicts. Three main escape mechanisms that Fromm outlined are automaton conformity, authoritarianism, and destructiveness. Automaton conformity is changing one's ideal self to what is perceived as the preferred type of personality of society, losing one's true self. The use of automaton conformity displaces the burden of choice from the self to society. Authoritarianism is allowing oneself to be controlled by another. This removes the freedom of choice almost entirely by submitting that freedom to someone else. Lastly, destructiveness is any process which attempts to eliminate others or the world as a whole to escape freedom. Fromm said that "the destruction of the world is the last, almost desperate attempt to save myself from being crushed by it" (1941).

The word biophilia was frequently used by Fromm as a description of a productive psychological orientation and "state of being". For example, in an addendum to his book The Heart of Man: Its Genius For Good and Evil, Fromm wrote as part of his famous Humanist Credo: Biophilia is the love (philia) of Nature (bio). ...

"I believe that the man choosing progress can find a new unity through the development of all his human forces, which are produced in three orientations. These can be presented separately or together: biophilia, love for humanity and nature, and independence and freedom." (c. 1965)

The concept of biophilia was used by Fromm as an inverse to necrophilia, while some other resources state the opposite of biophilia as biophobia. Look up Necrophilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Erich Fromm postulated five basic needs:

  1. Relatedness - relationships with others, care, respect, knowledge;
  2. Transcendence - creativity, develop a loving and interesting life;
  3. Rootedness - feeling of belonging;
  4. Sense of Identity - see ourselves as a unique person and part of a social group.

Fromm's thesis of the "escape from freedom" is epitomized in the following passage. The "individualized man" referenced by Fromm is man bereft of "primary ties" of belonging (nature, family, etc.), also expressed as "freedom from":

"There is only one possible, productive solution for the relationship of individualized man with the world: his active solidarity with all men and his spontaneous activity, love and work, which unite him again with the world, not by primary ties but as a free and independent individual . . . . However, if the economic, social and political conditions . . . do not offer a basis for the realization of individuality in the sense just mentioned, while at the same time people have lost those ties which gave them security, this lag makes freedom an unbearable burden. It then becomes identical with doubt, with a kind of life which lacks meaning and direction. Powerful tendencies arise to escape from this kind of freedom into submission or some kind of relationship to man and the world which promises relief from uncertainty, even if it deprives the individual of his freedom." (Erich Fromm, Escape from Freedom [N.Y.: Rinehart, 1941], pp. 36-7. The point is repeated on pp. 31, 256-7.)

In terms of Karl Marx's societal dialectic, Fromm is saying in the above that if the "relations of production" (Fromm's "economic, social and political conditions") are ineluctably hostile to the development of the "productive forces"--man, principally, and, in Fromm, "individualized man"--the principal productive force (man), instead of changing the relations of production in a positive way (as Marx predicted), will achieve a "dynamic adaptation" (i.e., an active psychological adaptation); yielding "socially patterned defects" associated with a specific "social character," whereby the productive force (man) internalizes without cavil the imperatives of the relations of production. Thus Fromm disavows Marx's assumption that the historical development of the productive forces must be lineally economic (always more productive capacity, etc.) and determinative (such that the relations of productions must do all the adjusting). With reference to Marx's mentor (G.W.F. Hegel), Fromm's view is as if Hegel's Absolute Spirit were to get sick--mentally, of course--instead of relentlessly superseding the various inadequate "shapes of consciousness" (the philosophical progenitors of Marx's "relations of production") on the high historical road to absolute self-knowledge (liberation from all self-misconceptions, analogous to Marx's goal of human self-emancipation). In this manner a Frommian Absolute Spirit would experience its truth as unbearable, hence something that must be "repressed"; the upshot being a neurotic World Spirit escaping from its erstwhile Enlightenment destiny. In such a world, contrary to the master's (Hegel) formula, the historically real would not be rational; nor would the rational comprehension of such a world attain to reality. The post-mortem does not vivify the corpse. Fromm therefore implies that Marx's materialistic "transformational criticism" (via Feuerbach)--turning Hegel's idealism "right side up"--erred by leaving the agency that is inverted to materiality (Absolute Spirit) untouched in its exclusively progressive imperative. Marx said that the worker had nothing to lose but his chains, and a world to win. Fromm's psychological demurrer shows how and why the worker becomes attached to his chains, very much in the classic Buddhist sense of "attachment" (upadhi); and thereby has a human world to lose.

Critique of Freud

Fromm examined the life and work of Sigmund Freud at length. He identified a discrepancy between early and later Freudian theory: namely that prior to World War One, Freud described human drives as a tension between desire and repression, but after it he framed human drives as a struggle between biologically-universal Life and Death (Eros and Thanatos) instincts. Fromm charged Freud and his followers with never acknowledging the contradictions between the two theories. Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856–September 23, 1939; IPA pronunciation: [] in German, [] in English) was a Jewish-Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856–September 23, 1939; IPA pronunciation: [] in German, [] in English) was a Jewish-Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...

He also criticized Freud's dualistic thinking. According to Fromm, Freudian descriptions of human consciousness as struggles between two poles was narrow and limiting. Fromm also condemned him as a misogynist unable to think outside the patriarchal milieu of early 20th century Vienna.

However, Fromm expressed a great respect for Freud and his accomplishments, in spite of these failings.

Political ideas and activities

Fromm's most well-known work, Escape from Freedom, focuses on the human urge to seek a source of authority and control upon reaching a freedom that was thought to be an individual’s true desire. The culmination of Fromm's social and political philosophy was his book The Sane Society, published in 1955, which argued in favor of humanistic and democratic socialism. Building primarily upon the early works of Karl Marx, Fromm sought to re-emphasise the ideal of personal freedom, missing from most Soviet Marxism, and more frequently found in the writings of libertarian socialists and liberal theoreticians. Fromm's brand of socialism rejected both Western capitalism and Soviet communism, which he saw as dehumanizing and bureaucratic social structures that resulted in a virtually universal modern phenomenon of alienation. He became one of the founders of socialist humanism, promoting the early writings of Marx and his humanist messages to the US and Western European publics. In the early 1960s, Fromm published two books dealing with Marxist thoughts (Marx's Concept of Man and Beyond the Chains of Illusion: my Encounter with Marx and Freud). In 1965, working to stimulate the Western and Eastern cooperation between Marxist humanists, Fromm published a series of articles entitled Socialist Humanism: An International Symposium. Humanism is a system of thought that defines a socio-political doctrine (-ism) whose bounds exceed those of locally developed cultures, to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Libertarian socialism is a political philosophy dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the state. ... This box:      Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately [1] owned and operated for profit and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Look up alienation, alienate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dr. Seuss Jean Shepherd Ringo Starr John Steinbeck Gloria Steinem Tom Stoppard Hunter S. Thompson Gore Vidal Peter Vincent Kurt Vonnegut Andy Warhol Alan Watts Bob Weir Brian Wilson Tom Wolfe There were six Olympics held during the decade. ... The term Marxist humanism has as its foundation Marxs conception of the alienation of the labourer as he advances it in his Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844--an alienation that is born of a capitalist system in which the worker no longer functions as (what Marx terms) a...

For a period, Fromm was also active in US politics. He joined the Socialist Party of America in the mid-1950s, and did his best to help them provide an alternative viewpoint to the prevailing McCarthyism of the time. This alternative viewpoint was best expressed in his 1961 paper May Man Prevail? An Inquiry into the Facts and Fictions of Foreign Policy. However, as a co-founder of SANE, Fromm's strongest political interest was in the international peace movement, fighting against the nuclear arms race and US involvement in the Vietnam war. After supporting Senator Eugene McCarthy's losing bid for the Democratic presidential nomination, Fromm more or less retreated from the American political scene, although he did write a paper in 1974 entitled Remarks on the Policy of Détente for a hearing held by the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... Sanity is a legal term denoting that an individual is of sound mind and therefore can bear legal responsibility for his or her actions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Eugene Joseph Gene McCarthy (March 29, 1916 – December 10, 2005) was an American politician and a longtime member of the U.S. Congress. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ...


  • Escape from Freedom (1941)
  • Man for himself, an inquiry into the psychology of ethics (1947)
  • Psychoanalysis and Religion (1950)
  • Forgotten language; an introduction to the understanding of dreams, fairy tales, and myths (1951)
  • The Sane Society (1955)
  • The Art of Loving (1956)
  • Sigmund Freud's mission; an analysis of his personality and influence (1959)
  • Psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism (1960)
  • May Man Prevail? An inquiry into the facts and fictions of foreign policy (1961)
  • Marx's Concept of Man (1961)
  • Beyond the Chains of Illusion: my encounter with Marx and Freud (1962)
  • The Dogma of Christ and Other Essays on Religion, Psychology and Culture (1963)
  • The Heart of Man, its genius for good and evil (1964)
  • Socialist Humanism (1965)
  • You Shall Be as Gods: a radical interpretation of the Old Testament and its tradition (1967)
  • The Revolution of Hope, toward a humanized technology (1968)
  • The Nature of Man (1968)
  • The Crisis of Psychoanalysis (1970)
  • Social character in a Mexican village; a sociopsychoanalytic study (Fromm & Maccoby) (1970)
  • The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness (1973)
  • To Have or to Be? (1976)
  • Greatness and Limitation of Freud's Thought (1979)
  • The Art of Being (1993)
  • The Art of Listening (1994)
  • On Being Human (1997)

The Art of Loving is a book written by Erich Fromm and published in 1956 by Harper & Row. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Erich Fromm
  • Erich Fromm on the Mystical Site www.mysticism.nl
  • Website der Internationalen Erich-Fromm-Gesellschaft
  • www.erich-fromm.info - german site - Curriculum vitae and available books.
  • Clark, Neil. "Wanted: an Erich Fromm party." Guardian Unlimited, February 20, 2007.

  Results from FactBites:
Erich Fromm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1236 words)
Erich Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned German-American psychologist and humanistic philosopher.
According to Fromm, the awareness of a disunited human existence is the source of all guilt and shame, and the solution to this existential dichotomy is found in the development of one's uniquely human powers of sex and reason.
Drawing from his knowledge of the Talmud, Fromm pointed to the story of Jonah, who did not wish to save the residents of Nineveh from the consequences of their sin, as demonstrative of his belief that the qualities of care and responsibility are generally absent from most human relationships.
  More results at FactBites »



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