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Encyclopedia > Ergot
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Ergot
Claviceps purpurea
Claviceps purpurea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Euascomycetes
Order: Hypocreales
Family: Clavicipitaceae
Genus: Claviceps
Species

About 50, including:
Claviceps africanum
Claviceps fusiformis
Claviceps paspali
Claviceps purpurea
Image File history File links Koeh-185. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Subphyla/Classes Archaeascomycetes Euascomycetes Hemiascomycetes or Pezizomycotina Laboulbeniomycetes Eurotiomycetes Lecanoromycetes Leotiomycetes Pezizomycetes Sordariomycetes Dothideomycetes (and many more) Saccharomycotina Saccharomycetes Taphrinomycotina Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes The Ascomycota, formerly known as the Ascomycetae, or Ascomycetes, are a Division of Fungi, whose members are commonly known as the Sac Fungi, which produce spores... Classes Pezizomycotina is a subdivision of the Ascomycota (fungi which form their spores in a sac-like ascus) and is more or less the same thing as the older taxon Euascomycota. ... Genera Gibberella Hypocrea Hypomyces Nectria Hypocreales is a taxonomic order within the class Sordariomycetes. ... Families xx Clavicipitaceae is a family of fungi within the order Hypocreales. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ...

Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses. The form the fungus takes to winter-over is called a sclerotium, and this small structure is what is usually referred to as 'ergot', although referring to the members of the Claviceps genus as 'ergot' is also correct. There are about 50 known species of Claviceps, most of them in the tropical regions. Economically important species are Claviceps purpurea (parasitic on grasses and cereals), C. fusiformis (on pearl millet, buffel grass), C. paspali (on dallis grass), and C. africana[1](on sorghum). C. purpurea can affect a number of cereals including rye (its most common host), triticale, wheat and barley. It affects oats only rarely. For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses. ... A sclerotium is a compact mass of hardened mycelium (as an ergot) stored with reserve food material that in some higher fungi becomes detached and remains dormant until a favorable opportunity for growth occurs. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Binomial name Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Triticale Triticale (x Triticosecale) is an artificial or man-made hybrid of rye and wheat first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ...


There are three races or varieties of C. purpurea, differing in their host specifity [2]:

  • G1 — land grasses of open meadows and fields;
  • G2 — grasses from moist, forest, and mountain habitats;
  • G3 (C. purpurea var. spartinae) — salt marsh grasses (Spartina, Distichlis).

Contents

Life cycle of the fungus

An ergot kernel called a sclerotium develops when a floret of flowering grass or cereal is infected by a spore of Claviceps fungus. The infection process mimics a pollen grain growing into an ovary during fertilization. The fungus then destroys the plant ovary and attaches itself to a vascular bundle originally intended for seed nutrition. The first stage of ergot infection manifests itself as a white soft tissue (known as sphacelia) producing sugary honeydew, which often drops out of the grass florets. This honeydew contains millions of asexual spores (conidia) which are dispersed to other florets by insects. Later, the sphacelia convert into a hard dry sclerotium inside the husk of the floret. At this stage, alkaloids and lipids accumulate in the sclerotium. This article is about a biological reproductive structure; for the video game, see Spore (video game). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky substance secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap. ... It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... Conidia are asexual spores of fungus. ... {{Taxobox | color = pink | name = Insects | fossil_range = Carboniferous - Recent | image = European honey bee extracts nectar. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ...


Claviceps species from tropic and subtropic regions produce macro- and microconidia in their honeydew. Macroconidia differ in shape and size between the species, whereas microconidia are rather uniform, oval to globose (5x3μm). Macroconidia are able to produce secondary conidia. A germ tube emerges from a macroconidium through the surface of a honeydew drop and a secondary conidium of the oval to pearlike shape is formed to which the contents of the original macroconidium migrates. Secondary conidia form white frost-like surface on honeydew drops and are spread by wind. No such process occurs in Claviceps purpurea, Claviceps grohii, Claviceps nigricans, and Claviceps zizaniae, all from North temperate regions.


When a mature sclerotium drops to the ground, the fungus remains dormant until proper conditions trigger its fruiting phase (onset of spring, rain period, etc.). It germinates, forming one or several fruiting bodies with head and stipe, variously colored (resembling a tiny mushroom). In the head, threadlike sexual spores are formed, which are ejected simultaneously, when suitable grass hosts are flowering. Ergot infection causes a reduction in the yield and quality of grain and hay produced, and if infected grain or hay is fed to livestock it may cause a disease called ergotism. In fungi, the fruiting body (also known as sporocarp) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. ... Diagram of a basidiomycete stipe with a annulus and vulva In mycology a stipe refers to the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Sexual reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, classically due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. ...


Black and protruding sclerotia of C. purpurea are well known. However, many tropical ergots have brown or greyish sclerotia, mimicking the shape of the host seed. For this reason, the infection is often overlooked.


Effects on humans and animals

Main article: Ergotism

Ergot contains alkaloids of the ergoline group, which have a wide range of activities including effects on circulation and neurotransmission. Ergotism is the name for the collection of symptoms a human or animal has when it has ingested too much of this fungus. Ergotism went also under the name "St. Anthony's fire" hinting at burning sensations in the limbs[3]. Another effect of ergot alkaloids is vasoconstriction, therefore ergotism may lead to gangrene and loss of the limbs due to limited blood circulation. This may also cause insanity, convulsions, or death, due to limited circulation to the brain. Other symptoms include strong uterine contractions, nausea, seizures, and unconsciousness. Monks of the order of St. Anthony the Great specialized in treating ergotism victims with balms containing tranquilizing and blood circulation-stimulating plants; they were also skilled in amputations. Entire villages have been known to suffer ergotism after the village bakery used infected grain. Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, classically due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... Diagram of the human circulatory system. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. ... Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, classically due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... This article contain photographs that you may find disturbing. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for thought. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... For the Beck song, see Nausea (song). ... This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ... Saint Anthony the Great (251 - 356), also known as Saint Anthony Abbot, Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks, was an Egyptian Christian saint and the outstanding leader among the Desert Fathers, who were Christian monks in the...


In addition to ergot alkaloids, Claviceps paspali also produces tremorgens (paspalitrem) causing "paspalum staggers" in cattle.


Historically, controlled doses of ergot were used to induce abortions and to stop maternal bleeding after childbirth, but simple ergot extract is no longer used as a pharmaceutical. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ...


Among those who studied ergot and its derivatives was Albert Hofmann, whose experiments led to the discovery of LSD, a powerfully hallucinogenic ergot derivative that affects the serotonin system. Contrary to some rumors, ergot contains no LSD, but there are links between the two substances: Dr. Dr. Albert Hofmann (born January 11, 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zürich. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ...

  • LSD was first synthesized during research on the active ingredients of ergot.
  • Lysergic acid, a raw material used in the synthesis of LSD, was and still is prepared from ergot.

In the January 4, 2007 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine, a paper was released documenting a British study of over 11,000 Parkinson's Disease patients, which found that two commonly used Parkinson's drugs derived from ergot, Pergolide and Cabergoline, may increase the risk of leaky heart valves by up to 700%. Italian researchers taking echocardiograms of 155 patients also determined that up to 1/3rd of the patients who took either of the two drugs could develop leaky heart valves. Heart valve problems cause shortness of breath and fatigue, two symptoms commonly shared with Parkinson's Disease. Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society with the highest impact factor for a general medical journal. ... Pergolide is an ergoline-based dopamine receptor agonist used for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. ... // Introduction and Phrmacology Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex® and Cabaser®), an ergot-derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2-Receptors. ...


Speculations

Ergot on wheat spikes
Ergot on wheat spikes

The disease cycle of the ergot fungus was first described in the 1800s, but the connection with ergot and epidemics among people and animals was known several hundred years before that. Image File history File linksMetadata Ergot01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ergot01. ... Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1805 - 1815). ...


Human poisoning due to the consumption of rye bread made from ergot-infected grain was common in Europe in the Middle Ages. The epidemic was known as St. Anthony's Fire or ignis sacer. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, classically due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. ... Ergotism is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, classically due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus which infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs. ...


It has also been posited — though speculatively — that the Salem Witch Trials were initiated by young women who had consumed ergot-tainted rye. The Great Fear in France during the Revolution has also been linked by some historians to the influence of ergot. 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials, which began in 1692 (also known as the Salem witch hunt and the Salem witchcraft episode), resulted in a number of convictions and executions for witchcraft in both Salem Village and Salem... The Great Fear (French: ) occurred in July and August of 1789 in France at the start of the French Revolution. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Poisonings due to consumption of seeds treated with mercury compounds are sometimes misidentified as ergotism, such as the case of mass-poisoning in the French village Pont-Saint-Esprit in 1951: General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Pont-Saint-Esprit is a commune of southern France, in the Gard d partement. ...

The mass poisoning which took place in the French town of Pont-St. Esprit in 1951 has been widely presented in the lay and scientific press as an example of ergotism. While the poisoning was traced to bread, ergotism was not the cause of the syndrome, which was due to a toxic mercury compound used to disinfect grain to be planted as seed. Some sacks of grain treated with the fungicide were inadvertently ground into flour and baked into bread. Albert Hofmann arrived at this conclusion after visiting Pont-St. Esprit, and analyzing samples of the bread (which contained no ergot alkaloids) and autopsy samples of four of the victims who succumbed (Hofmann 1980; Hofmann 1991). On the other hand, Swedish toxicologist Bo Holmstedt insists the poisoning was in fact due to ergotism (Holmstedt 1978)…[1] Dr. Dr. Albert Hofmann (born January 11, 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zürich. ...

As Dr. Simon Cotton (member of the Chemistry Department of Uppingham School, U.K.) notes, there have been numerous cases of mass-poisoning due to consumption of mercury-treated seeds: Uppingham School is a co-educational public school situated in the small town of Uppingham in Rutland, England. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ...

More horrifying than this were epidemics of poisoning, caused by people eating treated seed grains. There was a serious epidemic in Iraq in 1956 and again in 1960, whilst use of seed wheat (which had been treated with a mixture of C2H5HgCl and C6H5HgOCOCH3) for food, caused the poisoning of about 100 people in West Pakistan in 1961. Another outbreak happened in Guatemala in 1965. Most serious was the disaster in Iraq in 1971–2, when according to official figures 459 died. Grain had been treated with methyl mercury compounds as a fungicide and should have been planted. Instead it was sold for milling and made into bread. It had been dyed red as a warning and also had warning labels in English and Spanish that no one could understand.[2]

Kykeon, the beverage consumed by participants in the ancient Greek mystery of Eleusinian Mysteries, might have been based on hallucinogens from ergot. Kykeon (Gr. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries were initiation ceremonies held every five years for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ...


Currently, rye grain is infected repeatedly to produce ergot. Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ...


See also

Notes

  1. ^ Jonathan Ott, Pharmacotheon: Entheogenic Drugs, their Plant Sources and History (Kennewick, W.A.: Natural Products Co., 1993), pg. 145. See also Dr. Albert Hofmann, LSD: My Problem Child (New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1980), Chapter 1: "How LSD Originated," pg. 6.
  2. ^ See Simon Cotton, B.Sc., Ph.D., "Dimethylmercury and Mercury Poisoning", Molecule of the Month (MOTM; published on the School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, U.K. website), October 2003.

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Dr. Dr. Albert Hofmann (born January 11, 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zürich. ... The University of Bristol is a university in Bristol, England. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. ... Bromocriptine is an ergoline derivative dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors and Parkinsons disease. ... // Introduction and Phrmacology Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex® and Cabaser®), an ergot-derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2-Receptors. ... LSA, also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. ... Ergonovine, also known as ergometrine, d-lysergic acid beta-propanolamide, is one of primary ergot alkaloids and an alkaloid of many species of morning glory, too. ... Ergotamine is a vasoconstrictor used for migraine prevention and is sometimes mixed with caffeine. ... Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. ... Chemical structure of lysergol Lysergol, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... Chemical structure of d-lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide D-lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide, also known as d-lysergic acid methyl carbinolamide, is a psychedelic alkaloid of the ergoline family, and occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. ... Lisuride (brand name in Germany Dopergin) is an anti-Parkinsons drug of the iso-ergoline class, chemically related to the dopaminergic ergoline parkinson drugs. ... Methergine is a blood vessel constrictor most commonly used to prevent or control excessive bleeding following childbirth and spontaneous or elective abortion. ... Methysergide (UML-491) is a prescription drug used for prophylaxis of migraine headaches and is sold under the brand names Sansert® and Deseril® in 2mg dosages. ... Pergolide is an ergoline-based dopamine receptor agonist used for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. ... Hallucinogenic drugs or hallucinogens are drugs that can alter sensory perceptions, elicit alternate states of consciousness, or cause hallucinations. ... Amides of lysergic acid are collectively known as lysergamides. ... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-ALLYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (AL-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. AL-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, and is around the same potency as LSD itself with an active dose... ALD-52 or N-acetyl-LSD, is a chemical analogue of LSD-25 (D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide), discovered by Albert Hofmann, but later just filed away. ... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-BUTYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (BU-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. BU-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, but is significantly less potent than LSD with a dose of 500 micrograms... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-CYCLOPROPYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (CYP-LAD) is an analogue of LSD and presumably has similar effects. ... N,N-Diallyllysergamide (DAL) As the tartrate salt, there is at best a touch of sparkle seen at 600 micrograms orally, but there is a sedation also reported. ... N,N-Dimethyllysergamide (DAM-57) is a derivative of ergine. ... Ergonovine, also known as ergometrine, d-lysergic acid beta-propanolamide, is one of primary ergot alkaloids and an alkaloid of many species of morning glory, too. ... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-ETHYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (ETH-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. ETH-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, and is slightly more potent than LSD itself with an active dose reported... D-Lysergic Acid Ethylamide, (LAE-32) is a derivative of ergine. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... N-Pyrrolidyllysergamide (LPD-824) is a derivative of ergine. ... N-Morpholinyllysergamide (LSM-775) is a derivative of ergine. ... Chemical structure of d-lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide D-lysergic acid α-hydroxyethylamide, also known as d-lysergic acid methyl carbinolamide, is a psychedelic alkaloid of the ergoline family, and occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. ... Methylergonovine, also known as methylergometrine, methylergobasin, and d-lysergic acid 1-butanolamide, is a synthetic analogue of ergonovine, a psychedelic alkaloid found in ergot, and many species of morning glory. ... N1-Methyl-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (MLD-41, 9,10-didehydro-N,N-diethyl-1,6-dimethyl-ergoline-8-beta-carboxamide) is a derivative of LSD. The 1-methyl homologue of LSD is has more of somatic than sensory effect, has fewer visuals and is less well accepted than LSD, with... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-PROPYNYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (PARGY-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. PARGY-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, but is slightly less potent than LSD with a dose of 160 micrograms... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-PROPYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (PRO-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. PRO-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, and is around as potent as LSD itself with an active dose reported... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... Binomial name Argyreia nervosa (Burm. ... Binomial name Ipomoea tricolor Cav. ... Binomial name Ipomoea violacea L. Ipomoea violacea, sometimes known as the Morning Glory, is a species of morning glory that occurs throughout the tropics. ... Binomial name Rivea corymbosa (L.)Hallier f. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ergot - LoveToKnow 1911 (862 words)
The ear loses its starch, and ceases to grow, and its ovaries become penetrated with the white spongy tissue of the mycelium of the fungus which towards the end of the season forms the sclerotium, in which state the fungus lies dormant through the winter.
Ergot should be kept in stoppered bottles in order to preserve it from the attacks of a species of mite, and to prevent the oxidation of its fatty oil.
Ergot is used in therapeutics as a haemostatic, and is very valuable in haemoptysis and sometimes in haematemesis.
CSP - 'Ergot and Ergotism' by George Barger (0 words)
In the same chapter Galen discusses symptoms due to a heavy contamination of corn with darnel in a year when, owing to scarcity, the farmers and bakers did not clean the corn with the sieves intended for the purpose; the symptoms (headache, and afterwards ulcers) were not exactly those of ergotism.
Ergot is generally more abundant on the edge of a field than in the middle, probably because the plants on the periphery are not so readily pollinated, or are more frequently visited by insects.
It was through the investigation of ergot extracts that the remarkable and unsuspected pharmacological properties of histamine were discovered, which have since given rise to a voluminous literature.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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