FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Erectile dysfunction
Impotence of organic origin
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 N48.4
ICD-9 607.84

'Erectile dysfunction' (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. There are various underlying causes, such as diabetes, many of which are medically reversible. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ...


The causes of erectile dysfunction may be physiological or psychological. Psychological impotence can often be helped by almost anything that the patient believes in; there is a very strong placebo effect. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... “Placebo effect” redirects here. ...


Folk remedies have long been advocated, with some being advertised widely since the 1930s. The introduction of perhaps the first pharmacologically effective remedy for impotence, sildenafil (trade name Viagra), in the 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Sildenafil citrate, sold under the names Viagra, Revatio and generically under various other names, is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), developed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


The Latin term impotentia coeundi describes simple inability to insert the penis into the vagina. It is now mostly replaced by more precise terms. The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ...

Contents

Medical symptoms

Erectile dysfunction is characterized by the inability to maintain an erection. Normal erections during sleep and in the early morning suggest a psychogenic cause, while loss of these erections may signify underlying disease, often cardiovascular in origin. Other factors leading to erectile dysfunction are diabetes mellitus (causing neuropathy) or hypogonadism (decreased testosterone levels due to disease affecting the testicles or the pituitary gland). The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Neuropathy, strictly speaking, is any disease that affects the nervous system. ... Hypogonadism is a medical term for a defect of the reproductive system which results in lack of function of the gonads (ovaries or testes). ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... The testicles, or testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (pituitary fossa) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. ...


Medical diagnosis

There are no formal tests to diagnose erectile dysfunction. Some blood tests are generally done to exclude underlying disease, such as diabetes, hypogonadism and prolactinoma. Impotence is also related to generally poor physical health, poor dietary habits, obesity, and most specifically cardiovascular disease such as coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease. Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Hypogonadism is a medical term for a defect of the reproductive system which results in lack of function of the gonads (ovaries or testes). ... A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ... Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a disease in the large blood vessels of the arms, legs, and feet. ...


A useful and simple way to distinguish between physiological and psychological impotence is to determine whether the patient ever has an erection. If never, the problem is likely to be physiological; if sometimes (however rarely), it is more likely to be psychological. The current diagnostic and statistical manual of mental diseases (DSM-IV) has included a listing for impotence. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ...


Clinical Tests Used to Diagnose ED

Duplex ultrasound
Duplex ultrasound is used to evaluate blood flow, venous leak, signs of atherosclerosis, and scarring or calcification of erectile tissue. Injecting prostaglandin, a hormone-like stimulator produced in the body, induces erection. Ultrasound is then used to see vascular dilation and measure penile blood pressure. Measurements are compared to those taken when the penis is flaccid.
Penile nerves function
Tests such as the bulbocavernosus reflex test are used to determine if there is sufficient nerve sensation in the penis. The physician squeezes the glans (head) of the penis, which immediately causes the anus to contract if nerve function is normal. A physician measures the latency between squeeze and contraction by observing the anal sphincter or by feeling it with a gloved finger inserted past the anus. Specific nerve tests are used in patients with suspected nerve damage as a result of diabetes or nerve disease.
Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT)
It is normal for a man to have five to six erections during sleep, especially during rapid eye movement (REM). Their absence may indicate a problem with nerve function or blood supply in the penis. There are two methods for measuring changes in penile rigidity and circumference during nocturnal erection: snap gauge and strain gauge.
Penile biothesiometry
This test uses electromagnetic vibration to evaluate sensitivity and nerve function in the glans and shaft of the penis. A decreased perception of vibration may indicate nerve damage in the pelvic area, which can lead to impotence.
Penile Angiogram
Invasive test - allows visualization of the circulation in the penis and is used during the repair of a priapism.
Dynamic Infusion Cavernosometry
(Abbreviated DICC) technique in which fluid is pumped into the penis at a known rate and pressure. It gives a measurement of the vascular pressure in the corpus cavernosum during an erection. To do this test, a vasodilator like prostaglandin E-1 is injected to measure the rate of infusion required to get a rigid erection and to help find how severe the venous leak is.
Corpus Cavernosometry
Cavernosography is an adjunct to Dynamic Infusion Cavernosometry, where a contrast material is injected and then it is x-rayed to visualize any leakage.
Digital Subtration Angiography
In DSA, the images are acquired digitally. The computer creates a mask from lower-contrast x-rays of the same area and digitally isolates the blood vessels (this is done manually through darkroom masking with traditional angiography).
Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
This is similar to magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance angiography uses magnetic fields and radio waves to provide detailed images of the blood vessels. Doctors may inject a "contrast agent" into the patient's bloodstream that causes vascular tissues to stand out against other tissues. The contrast agent provides for enhanced information regarding blood supply and vascular anomalies. Aside from the IV used to introduce the contrast material into the bloodstream, magnetic resonance angiography is noninvasive and painless.

Patient about to undergo an angiogram, image courtesy of WHO. Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique in which an X-ray picture is taken to visualize the inner opening of blood filled structures, including arteries, veins and the heart chambers. ... Bronze sculpture depicting Priapus. ... Vasodilation is where blood vessels in the body become wider following the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall. ... Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ... Venous leakage - An erection is produced when blood to the penis compress the veins in the corpora cavernosa so the blood cannot leave. ... Magnetic Resonance Image showing a median sagittal cross section through a human head. ...

Pathophysiology

Penile erection is managed by two different mechanisms. The first one is the reflex erection, which is achieved by directly touching the penile shaft. The second is the psychogenic erection, which is achieved by erotic stimuli. The former uses the peripheral nerves and the lower parts of the spinal cord, whereas the latter uses the limbic system of the brain. In both conditions an intact neural system is required for a successful and complete erection. Stimulation of penile shaft by the nervous system leads to the secretion of nitric oxide (NO), which causes the relaxation of smooth muscles of corpora cavernosa (the main erectile tissue of penis), and subsequently penile erection. Additionally, adequate levels of testosterone (produced by the testes) and an intact pituitary gland are required for the development of a healthy male erectile system. As can be understood from the mechanisms of a normal erection, impotence may develop due to hormonal deficiency, disorders of the neural system, lack of adequate penile blood supply or psychological problems. Restriction of blood flow can arise from impaired endothelial function due to the usual causes associated with coronary artery disease, but can also include causation by prolonged exposure to bright light or chronic exposure to high noise levels. The limbic system within the brain. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... The Human Nervous System The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (pituitary fossa) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ... Environmental noise can produce irreversible hearing loss Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ...


A few causes of impotence may be iatrogenic (medically caused). Various antihypertensives (medications intended to control high blood pressure) and some drugs that modify central nervous system response may inhibit erection by denying blood supply or by altering nerve activity. Psychiatric medications, especially SSRIs have been shown to cause erectile dysfunction in patients, both males and females. Although usually reversible, these sexual side effects can, in rare cases, last for months or years or permanently after the drug has been completely withdrawn. This disorder is known as Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction. An iatrogenic (pronounced , IPA) condition is a state of ill health or adverse effect caused by medical treatment, usually due to mistakes made in treatment. ... Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Post SSRI Sexual Dysfunction (PSSD) is a type of sexual dysfunction caused by the previous use of SSRI antidepressants. ...


Surgical intervention for a number of different conditions may remove anatomical structures necessary to erection, damage nerves, or impair blood supply.Complete removal of the prostate gland or external beam radiotherapy of the gland are common causes of impotence; both are treatments for advanced prostate cancer. Some studies have shown that male circumcision may result in an increased risk of impotence,[1][2] while others have found no such effect,[3][4][5] and another found the opposite.[6] This article is being rewritten at Circumcision/temp Circumcision is the removal of some or all of the prepuce or foreskin though often the frenulum is also excised. ...


Excessive alcohol use has long been recognised as one cause of impotence, leading to the euphemism "brewer's droop," or "whiskey dick;" Shakespeare made light of this phenomenon in Macbeth. Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer Macbeth is among the most famous of William Shakespeares plays, as well as his shortest tragedy. ...


A study in 2002 found that ED can also be associated with bicycling. The number of hours on a bike and/or the pressure on the penis from the saddle of an upright bicycle is directly related to erectile dysfunction.[7]


Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause. Testosterone supplements may be used for cases due to hormonal deficiency. However, the cause is more usually lack of adequate penile blood supply as a result of damage to inner walls of blood vessels. This damage is more frequent in older men, and often associated with disease, in particular diabetes. A disease or medical condition is an abnormality that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Treatments (with the exception of testosterone supplementation, where effective) work on a temporary basis: they enable an erection to be attained and maintained long enough for intercourse, but do not permanently improve the underlying condition.


ED can in many cases be treated by drugs taken orally, injected, or as penile suppositories. These drugs increase the efficacy of NO, which dilates the blood vessels of corpora cavernosa. When oral drugs or suppositories fail, injections into the erectile tissue of the penile shaft are extremely effective but occasionally cause priapism. When pharmacological methods fail, a purpose-designed external vacuum pump can be used to attain erection, with a separate compression ring fitted to the penis to maintain it. These pumps should be distinguished from other "penis pumps" (supplied without compression rings) which, rather than being used for temporary treatment of impotence, are claimed to increase penis length if used frequently, or vibrate as an aid to masturbation. Mulher sentada de coxas abertas, 1916 drawing by Gustav Klimt Masturbation refers to sexual stimulation, particularly of ones own genitals and often to the point of orgasm, which is performed manually, by other types of bodily contact (except for sexual intercourse), by use of objects or tools, or by...


More drastically, inflatable or rigid penile implants may be fitted surgically. Implants are irreversible and costly.


All these mechanical methods are based on simple principles of hydraulics and mechanics and are quite reliable, but have their disadvantages.


In a few cases there is a vascular problem which can be treated surgically.


Uncontroversial treatments

PDE5 Inhibitors
The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases constitute a group of enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of the cyclic nucleotides cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. They exist in different molecular forms and are unevenly distributed throughout the body. These multiple forms or subtypes of phosphodiesterase were initially isolated from rat brain by Uzunov and Weiss in 1972 and were soon afterwards shown to be selectively inhibited by a variety of drugs in brain and other tissues (Weiss,1975; Fertel and Weiss, 1976). The potential for selective phosphodisterase inhibitors to be used as therapeutic agents was predicted as early as 1977 by Weiss and Hait. This prediction has now come to pass in a variety of fields, one of which is in the pharmacological treatment of erectile dysfunction.

One of the forms of phophodiesterase is termed PDE5. The prescription PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil (Viagra®), vardenafil (Levitra®) and tadalafil (Cialis®) are prescription drugs which are taken orally. They work by blocking the action of PDE5, which causes cGMP to degrade. CGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5|cGMP]] causes the smooth muscle of the arteries in the penis to relax, allowing the corpus cavernosum to fill with blood. A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, often shortened to PDE5 inhibitor, is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase type 5 on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis. ... Sildenafil citrate, sold under the names Viagra, Revatio and generically under various other names, is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), developed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. ... Vardenafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. ... Tadalafil is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence). ... The phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes found in rod and cone photoreceptor cells of the retina belong to a large family of cyclic nucleotide PDEs that catalyze cAMP and cGMP hydrolysis. ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger derived from GTP. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). ... A corpus cavernosum is one of a pair of a sponge-like regions of erectile tissue which contain most of the blood in the male penis during erection. ...

Vacuum pump
An external vacuum pump will produce an engorged penis with success approaching 90%; a penis ring will maintain this state, although it should be removed after not more than 30 minutes. The erection is not as rigid or hard as a natural erection; drugs or injections, when they work, may be preferable. Various studies show the degree of satisfaction of users and their partners to be vary variable, even when drugs and injections do not work; in one study, about 20% of men who tried a (high-priced) pump decided to proceed to purchase one. Other studies show higher percentages of satisfied users.
In some cases frequent use of a vacuum pump can eventually improve the degree of erection attainable without use of the pump. Claims of cheap "penis pumps" to permanently increase maximum penis size should be viewed with caution, however.
Some vacuum pumps, such as Osbon ErecAid, are sold at a higher price with 100% refund within 90 days to dissatisfied users, with a somewhat lower price with 50% refund guarantee.[8]This pump is supported by medical insurance schemes, including the UK's NHS and US Medicare and private insurers. The better-known pumps sell for prices of around 200 GBP/400 USD (2006). There is at least one vacuum pump with rings which sells for around one-fifth of this price.[9]

(Specific devices are mentioned for information only; mention should not be taken as endorsement). The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly-funded healthcare system of the United Kingdom. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ...

Dopamine Receptor Agonist
Apomorphine acts mainly on D2-like receptors and is administered sublingually in the presence of sexual stimulation. Studies have been inconclusive with efficacy rates ranging from 48-55% to 9-38%.[10] Currently, the use of apomorphine is limited to pateints with mild ED.
Inflatable implant
Rigid implant
Surgical treatment of certain cases

Apomorphine is a type of dopaminergic agonist, a morphine derivative. ...

Controversial and unapproved treatments

Bremelanotide
The experimental drug bremelanotide (formerly PT-141) does not act on the vascular system like the former compounds but allegedly increases sexual desire and drive in males as well as females. It is applied as a nasal spray. Bremelanotide allegedly works by activating melanocortin receptors in the brain. It is currently in Phase IIb trials.
Melaontan II
Like bremelanotide the experimental drug Melanotan II does not act on the vascular system either but increases libido. Melanotan II works by activating melanocortin receptors in the brain.
hMaxi-K
hMaxi-K is a form of gene therapy using a plasmid vector that expresses the hSlo gene, that encodes the alpha-subunit of the Maxi-K channel. It has undergone phase I safety trials.[11]
Ginseng
A double-blind study appears to show evidence that ginseng is better than placebo:[1] see the ginseng article for more details.
Enzyte
Enzyte is a product that has been advertised by saturation coverage on television channels such as CourtTV. However, the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) has filed a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) about Enzyte for deceptive advertising. It is manufactured by Berkeley Nutritionals, which is alleged to be the subject of an investigation by the Attorney General of Ohio and the defendant in class-action lawsuits.
Enzyte is a supplement that claims to increase the male libido or frequency of erections of the penis. Commercials for Enzyte are shown regularly on television. These commercials feature a man named Bob who never stops smiling, apparently because he had taken Enzyte and improved the size of his sex organs. The commercials are riddled with symbolic phallic imagery, e.g. golf clubs, remarkably tall glasses of iced tea, and a hose spraying barely a trickle of water (carried by someone who doesn't use Enzyte).
The effectiveness of Enzyte is in dispute. Some medical professionals in fact advise against taking Enzyte, saying that it can lead to damage. The Center for Science in the Public Interest have urged the Federal Trade Commission to disallow further television advertising for Enzyte due to a lack of proper studies supporting claims. Enzyte maker Berkeley Premium Nutraceuticals, Inc., is currently under a class action lawsuit for false advertising.
Enzyte is said to contain: Tribulus terrestris; Yohimbe Extract; Niacin; Epimedium; Avena sativa; Zinc Oxide; Maca; Muira Pauma; Ginkgo biloba; L-Arginine; Saw Palmetto. Other ingredients: gelatin, rice bran, oat fiber, magnesium stearate, silicon dioxide.
Herbal and other alternative treatments
These are generally ineffective when tested blind, but may be useful for their psychological (placebo) effect: if a good result is expected, any highly praised, and often expensive, treatment can be effective. Reputable drugs can also benefit from the same effect.
Prelox
Prelox is a Proprietary mix/combination of naturally occurring ingredients, L-arginine aspartate and Pycnogenol. In double blind tests carried out by Dr. Steven Lamm at New York University School of Medicine, 81.1% of men overall judged Prelox to be effective in improving their ability to engage in sexual activity.Prelox® for improvement of erectile function: A review European Bulletin of Drug Research, Volume 11, No. 3, 2003. Steven Lamm, Frank Schoenlau, Peter Rohdewald Whilst the supplements should be taken daily, the manufacturers claim that it brings the spontaneity back into ones' love life; unlike other products which must be remembered to be taken a fixed time before sexual activity.

Chemical structure of Bremelanotide (formerly PT-141) Bremelanotide (formerly PT-141) is the generic term for a new medication for use in treating sexual dysfunction in men (erectile dysfunction or impotence) as well as sexual dysfunction in women (sexual arousal disorder). ... Melanocortins are a group of pituitary peptide hormones that include adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and the alpha, beta and gamma melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH). ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Melanotan and melanotan II are both analogs of the peptide hormone alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) that tend to induce skin tanning. ... Libido in its common usage means sexual desire; however, more technical definitions, such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general, referring to libido as the free creative—or psychic—energy an individual has to put toward personal development, or individuation. ... Melanocortins are a group of pituitary peptide hormones that include adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and the alpha, beta and gamma melanocyte stimulating hormones (MSH). ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in particular. ... Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... BK channels, also called MaxiK or slo1 channels, are large conductance Ca2+ and voltage-activated K+ channels, which allow K+ to leave the cytoplasm under physiological conditions when activated by membrane potential and/or intracellular Ca2+ . This results in hyperpolarization or a decrease in cell excitability. ... Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment, usually on living, conscious, human subjects. ... Species Subgenus Panax Section Panax Series Notoginseng Panax notoginseng Series Panax Panax bipinnatifidus Panax ginseng Panax japonicus Panax quinquefolius Panax vietnamensis Panax wangianus Panax zingiberensis Section Pseudoginseng Panax pseudoginseng Panax stipuleanatus Subgenus Trifolius Panax trifolius Panax is a genus of 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots... Species Subgenus Panax Section Panax Series Notoginseng Panax notoginseng Series Panax Panax bipinnatifidus Panax ginseng Panax japonicus Panax quinquefolius Panax vietnamensis Panax wangianus Panax zingiberensis Section Pseudoginseng Panax pseudoginseng Panax stipuleanatus Subgenus Trifolius Panax trifolius Panax is a genus of 11 species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots... Courtroom Television Network LLC, more commonly known as Court TV, is an American cable television network owned by Time Warner and Liberty Media that launched on July 1, 1991. ... The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) is a non-profit organization that focuses on issues relating to foods and the foodservices industry. ... FTC headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Federal Trade Commission (or FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Libido in its common usage means sexual desire; however, more technical definitions, such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general, referring to libido as the free creative—or psychic—energy an individual has to put toward personal development, or individuation. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Mural of Mercury in Pompeii. ... The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, generally regarded as the worlds Home of Golf. Golf is a sport in which individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs, and also is one of the few ball games that does not use... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... FTC headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Federal Trade Commission (or FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. ... Commercialism redirects here. ... In law, a class action is an equitable procedural device used in litigation for determining the rights of and remedies, if any, for large numbers of people whose cases involve common questions of law and fact. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Tribulus terrestris Linnaeus Tribulus terrestris is a flowering plant in the family Zygophyllaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World in southern Europe, southern Asia, throughout Africa, and in northern Australia. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Species About 25 species, including: Epimedium acuminatum Epimedium alpinum Epimedium diphyllum Epimedium grandiflorum Epimedium leptorrhizum Epimedium perralderianum Epimedium pinnatum Epimedium pubigerum Epimedium sagittatum Epimedium sempervirens Epimedium setosum Epimedium sutchuenense Epimedium, also known as Barrenwort, Bishops Hat, Fairy Wings, Horny Goatweed, or Yin Yang Huo (Chinese : 淫羊藿), is a genus of... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and sometimes known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid. ... Binomial name Serenoa repens Hooker Saw Palmetto, Serenoa repens, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa. ...

History

Dr. John R. Brinkley initiated a boom in male impotence cures in the US in the 1920's and 1930's. His radio programs recommended expensive goat gland implants and "mercurochrome" injections as the path to restored male virility, including operations by surgeon Serge Voronoff. After the Kansas State Medical Board revoked his medical license and the Federal Radio Commission refused to renew his radio license (both in 1930), Brinkley moved his operations just over the Texas border to Mexico where he opened a medical clinic and broadcast advertisements into the US from a border blaster radio station. John Romulus Brinkley (later John Richard Brinkley) was born on July 8, 1885 and died on May 26, 1942. ... Serge Voronoff (born close to the russian village of Voronov) (July 10, 1866 - September 1, 1951) was a Russian-born French physiologist and surgeon. ... The Federal Radio Commission (FRC) was a government body that regulated radio use in the United States from its creation in 1927 until its replacement by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1935. ... A border blaster, unlike an international broadcasting station, is a term that has been specifically used to describe licensed commercial radio stations that have transmited at very high power to the United States of America from various points along the Mexican side of the border. ...


Surgeons began providing patients with inflatable penile implants in the 1970s. Penis enlargement procedures (sometimes referred to as male enhancement procedures in spam email and television advertisements) are techniques designed to make the human penis larger. ... Template:A year The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


Modern drug therapy for ED made a significant advance in 1983 when British physiologist Giles Brindley, Ph.D. dropped his trousers and demonstrated to a shocked American Urological Association audience his phentolamine-induced erection. The drug Brindley injected into his penis was a non-specific vasodilator, an alpha-blocking agent, and the mechanism of action was clearly corporal smooth muscle relaxation. The effect that Brindley discovered established the fundamentals for the later development of specific, safe, orally-effective drug therapies.[12]


Reference: Helgason ÁR, Adolfsson J, Dickman P, Arver S, Fredrikson M, Göthberg M, Steineck G. Sexual desire, erection, orgasm and ejaculatory functions and their importance to elderly Swedish men: A population-based study. Age and Ageing. 1996:25:285-291.[2]


References

Uzunov, P. and Weiss, B.: Separation of multiple molecular forms of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase in rat cerebellum by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 284:220-226, 1972.


Weiss, B.: Differential activation and inhibition of the multiple forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Adv. Cycl. Nucl. Res. 5:195-211, 1975.


Fertel, R. and Weiss, B.: Properties and drug responsiveness of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of rat lung. Mol. Pharmacol. 12:678-687, 1976.


Weiss, B. and Hait, W.N.: Selective cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 17:441-477, 1977.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Palmer J, Link D (1979). "Impotence following anesthesia for elective circumcision.". JAMA 241 (24): 2635-6. PMID 439362.  - Reproduced at www.cirp.org Circumcision Information and Resource Pages
  2. ^ Shen Z, Chen S, Zhu C, Wan Q, Chen Z (2004). "[Erectile function evaluation after adult circumcision]". Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 10 (1): 18-9. PMID 14979200. 
  3. ^ Senkul T, IşerI C, şen B, KarademIr K, Saraçoğlu F, Erden D (2004). "Circumcision in adults: effect on sexual function.". Urology 63 (1): 155-8. PMID 14751371.  - Reproduced at www.cirp.org Circumcision Information and Resource Pages
  4. ^ Collins S, Upshaw J, Rutchik S, Ohannessian C, Ortenberg J, Albertsen P (2002). "Effects of circumcision on male sexual function: debunking a myth?". J Urol 167 (5): 2111-2. PMID 11956452.  - Reproduced at www.cirp.org Circumcision Information and Resource Pages
  5. ^ Masood S, Patel H, Himpson R, Palmer J, Mufti G, Sheriff M (2005). "Penile sensitivity and sexual satisfaction after circumcision: are we informing men correctly?". Urol Int 75 (1): 62-6. PMID 16037710. 
  6. ^ Laumann E, Masi C, Zuckerman E (1997). "Circumcision in the United States. Prevalence, prophylactic effects, and sexual practice.". JAMA 277 (13): 1052-7. PMID 9091693.  - Reproduced at www.cirp.org Circumcision Information and Resource Pages
  7. ^ Schrader S, Breitenstein M, Clark J, Lowe B, Turner T (Nov-Dec 2002). "Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity testing in bicycling patrol officers.". J Androl 23 (6): 927-34. PMID 12399541. 
  8. ^ Osbon ErecAid - Guarantee. Timm Medical Technologies. Retrieved on July 23, 2006.
  9. ^ Vacuum pump range. Noogleberry. Retrieved on July 23, 2006.
  10. ^ K. Hatzimouratidis & D. Hatzichristou (2006). An Update on Pharmacological Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction.
  11. ^ Melman A, Bar-Chama N, McCullough A, Davies K, Christ G (2005). "The first human trial for gene transfer therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: preliminary results.". Eur Urol 48 (2): 314-8. PMID 15964135. 
  12. ^ Brindley G (Oct 1983). "Cavernosal alpha-blockade: a new technique for investigating and treating erectile impotence." (Abstract). Br J Psychiatry 143: 332-7. PMID 6626852. 

July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links

  • Erectile Dysfunction at MedicineNet
  • Enzyte investigation reported on CBS-TV news site
  • SexHealthMatters.org, managed by the Sexual Medicine Society of North America has been created to educate patients in the matters of sexual dysfunction, namely ED (Erectile Dysfunction).
  • Erectile Dysfunction at Netdoctor - information on the condition, causes, and treatments
  • National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
  • How Stuff Works - Erectile dysfunction
  • Missing Night Erections - The Unknown Side of Erectile Dysfunction
  • - Male Impotence, all you need to know.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Erectile Dysfunction or Impotence - urologychannel (620 words)
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability of a man to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for his sexual needs or the needs of his partner.
Erectile dysfunction has many causes, most of which are treatable, and is not an inevitable consequence of aging.
Because blood must stay in the penis to maintain rigidity, erectile tissue is enclosed by fibrous elastic sheathes (tunicae) that cinch to prevent blood from leaving the penis during erection.
Erectile dysfunction - CNN.com (2522 words)
When erectile dysfunction proves to be a pattern or a persistent problem, it can interfere with a man's self-image as well as his and his partner's sexual life.
Erectile dysfunction may also be a sign of a physical or emotional problem that requires treatment.
But if erectile dysfunction lasts longer than two months or is a recurring problem, see your doctor for a physical exam or for a referral to a doctor who specializes in erectile problems.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m