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Encyclopedia > Erechtheum
Erechtheum, from SW
Erechtheum, from SW
The Porch of Maidens
The Porch of Maidens

The Erechtheum, or Erechtheion, is an ancient Greek temple on the north side of the Acropolis of Athens in Greece, notable for a design that is both elegant and unusual. Photo of Erechtheum in Athens, taken October 1992 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 650px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo of Erechtheum in Athens, taken October 1992 by Stan Shebs and licensed under GFDL, 650px across File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3114x2076, 1388 KB) The Porch of Maidens at Erechteum. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3114x2076, 1388 KB) The Porch of Maidens at Erechteum. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1836x1134, 805 KB)Acropolis of Athens I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1836x1134, 805 KB)Acropolis of Athens I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Greeks began to build monumental temples in the first half of the 8th century BC. The temples of Hera at Samos and of Poseidon at Isthmia were among the first erected. ... The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ...


The temple as seen today was built between 421 BC and 407 BC. Its architect may have been Mnesicles, and it derived its name from a shrine dedicated to the legendary Greek hero Erichthonius. Some have suggested that it may have been built in honour of the legendary king Erechtheus, who is said to have been buried nearby. It is believed to have been a replacement for an older temple destroyed by the Persians around 480 BC. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 426 BC 425 BC 424 BC 423 BC 422 BC - 421 BC - 420 BC 419 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 412 BC 411 BC 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC - 407 BC - 406 BC 405 BC... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Mnesicles (5th century BCE) was the architect of the great Propylaea of the Athenian Acropolis, set up by Pericles about 437 BCE. The Erechtheum is also sometimes ascribed to him. ... // Greek mythological characters (Most of the gods and goddesses had Roman equivalents. ... King Erichthonius (also called Erechtheus I) was, according to some legends, autochthonous (born of the soil), and in other accounts he was the son of Hephaestus and Gaia or Athena or Atthis. ... Erechtheus in Greek Mythology was the name of a king of Athens, and a secondary name for two other characters In Homers Iliad the name is applied to the earth-born son of Hephaestus later mostly called Erichthonius by later writers. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Events King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece. ...


The Erectheum was associated with some of the most ancient and holy relics of the Athenians. The Palladion, which was a xoanon (defined as a wooden effigy fallen from heaven - not man-made) of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), the tomb of Cecrops and the tomb of Erechtheus. The marks of Poseidon's trident and the salt water well (the "salt sea") that resulted from Poseidon's strike, the sacred olive tree planted by Athena in her successful rivalry with Poseidon for the city, and the precincts of Herse, Pandrosus and Aglaurus (the three daughters of Cecrops) where Kekrops'grave and Athena's olive tree were located (adjacent to the erechtheion) and of the tribal heroes Pandion and Boutes. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Palladium (mythology). ... Xoanon Publishing was founded in 1992 e. ... This article is about the goddess Athena. ... The name Cecrops means face with a tail and it is said that this mythical Greek king, born from the earth itself, had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. ... Erechtheus in Greek Mythology was the name of a king of Athens, and a secondary name for two other characters In Homers Iliad the name is applied to the earth-born son of Hephaestus later mostly called Erichthonius by later writers. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is an article about the Greek mythological figure; for an article on the French bicycle manufacturer, see Herse. ... Pandrosus (the all-dewy one), also spelled Pandrosos, is a figure in Greek mythology, and a daughter of Cecrops. ... Aglaulus is a figure in Greek mythology, daughter of Cecrops. ...


The temple itself was dedicated to Athena and Poseidon Erechtheus. Within the foundations lived the sacred snake of the temple, which represented the spirit of Cecrops and whose well-being was thought essential for the safety of the city. The snake was fed honey-cakes by Canephorae, the priestesses of Athena Polias, by custom the women of the ancient family of the Eteoboutadae. The snake's occasional refusal to eat the cakes was thought a disastrous omen. The name Cecrops means face with a tail and it is said that this mythical Greek king, born from the earth itself, had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. ... Canephorae (From the Greek for basket, and to carry), also Canephori or basket-bearers, is a title given of old to Athenian maidens of noble family, annually chosen to carry on their heads baskets with sacrificial implements and apparatus at the Panathenaic and other festivals. ... This article is about the goddess Athena. ... now. ...


The need to preserve multiple adjacent sacred precincts likely explains the complex design. The main structure consists of up to four compartments, the largest being the east cella, with an Ionic portico on its east end. Other current thinking[1] would have the entire interior at the lower level and the East porch used for access to the great altar of Athena Polias via a balcony and stair and also as a public viewing platform. A cella, in Ancient Greek and Roman temples was the central room that housed cult statues. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ...


On the north side, there is another large porch with columns, and on the south, the famous "porch of the maidens", with six draped female figures (caryatids) as supporting columns. One of the caryatids was removed by Lord Elgin in order to decorate his Scottish mansion, and was later sold to the British Museum (along with the pedimental and frieze sculpture taken from the Parthenon). Athenian legend had it that at night the remaining five Caryatids could be heard wailing for their lost sister. Nowadays the five original Caryatids are displayed in helium-filled glass cases in the Acropolis Museum and are replaced in situ by exact replicas. The porch was built to conceal the giant 15-ft beam needed to support the southwest corner over the Kekropion after the building was drastically reduced in size and budget following the onset of the Peloponnesian war. A caryatid (also spelt Karyatid), is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head. ... Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and 11th Earl of Kincardine (July 20, 1766 - November 14, 1841) was a British nobleman and diplomat, known for the removal of marble sculptures from the Parthenon in Athens -- popularly known as the Elgin Marbles. ... The British Museum in London is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... The Acropolis Museum in Athens is probably the most important museum in Greece. ... For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ...



The entire temple is on a slope, so the west and north sides are about 3 m (9 ft) lower than the south and east sides. It was built entirely of marble from Mount Pentelikon, with friezes of black limestone from Eleusis which bore sculptures executed in relief in white marble. It had elaborately carved doorways and windows, and its columns were ornately decorated (far more so than is visible today); they were painted, gilded and highlighted with gilt bronze and multi-colored inset glass beads. The building is known for early examples of egg-and-dart, and guilloche ornamental moldings.[2] Venus de Milo, front. ... Pentéli or Pendeli, (Greek: Πεντέλη, ancient forms: Pentele, Pentelikon or Pentelicus, and Vrilissos or Vrilittos (Greek: Βριλησσός, Βριληττός), Mendeli in medieval times) is a tall mountain and mountain range situated northeast of Athens and southwest of Marathon. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Eleusis (Game) The cardgame invented by Robert Abbott in 1962, and later popularized in 1977 by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American magazine. ... Egg-and-dart motif from Meyers Ornament Egg-and-dart is an ornamental device often carved in wood or stone quarter-round ovolo mouldings, consisting of an egg-shaped object alternating with an element shaped like an arrow, anchor or dart. ... A Guilloché or engine turning pattern is an ornamental pattern formed of two or more curved bands that interlace to repeat a circular design, most commonly seen on banknotes. ... Cavetto molding and resulting shadow pattern Ovolo molding and resulting shadow pattern Cyma molding and resulting shadow pattern Ogee molding and resulting shadow pattern Molding (USA) or moulding (AUS, UK) is a strip of material with various cross sections used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. ...


The intact Erechtheum was extensively described by the Roman geographer Pausanias (1.26.5 - 27.3), writing a century after it had been restored in the 1st century AD. The internal layout has since been obscured by the temple's later use as a church and possibly as a Turkish harem. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... In traditional Arab culture, the harîm حريم (cf. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References

  • Pausanias
  • Charles Weller (1913) Athens and Its Monuments, Macmillan
  • G. P. Stevens and J. M. Paton (1927) The Erechtheum
  • I. T. Hill (1953) The Ancient City of Athens
  1. ^ Lesk (2004) A Diachronic Examination of the Erechtheion and Its Reception - erechtheion.org
  2. ^ Lewis, Philippa & Gillian Darley (1986) Dictionary of Ornament, NY: Pantheon

Coordinates: 37°58′20″N, 23°43′35″E Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Erechtheum - LoveToKnow 1911 (716 words)
ERECHTHEUM, a temple (commonly called after Erechtheus, to whom a portion of it was dedicated) on the acropolis at Athens, unique in plan, and in its execution the most refined example of the Ionic order.
But there are some features which cannot be so explained, and which have led Professor W. DSrpfeld and others to believe that the plan, as we now have it, is a modification or abridgment of the original design, due to the same conservative influences as led to the curtailment of the plan of the Propylaea.
The contents of the Erechtheum are described by Pausanias.
ERECHTHEUM - Online Information article about ERECHTHEUM (1287 words)
Since 'goo the project of rebuilding the Erechtheum as far as possible with the original blocks has again been undertaken.
Stuart, Antiquities of Athens; Inwood, The Erechtheum; H.
Stevens, " The East Wall of the Erechtheum," in American Journ.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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