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Encyclopedia > Erasmus
Desiderius Erasmus in 1523
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Desiderius Erasmus in 1523

Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. Erasmus was the most important humanist who wrote in a "pure" Latin style. He was influential on Martin Luther who admired him and desired his friendship. He remained, however, a faithful Roman Catholic and harshly criticised what he considered Luther's excesses. He prepared new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament. Erasmus wrote The Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, and On Civility in Children. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x1145, 122 KB) The Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x1145, 122 KB) The Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Humanism is a broad category of active ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on our ability to determine what is right using the qualities innate to humanity, particularly rationality. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Hans Holbeins witty marginal drawing of Folly (1515), in the first edition, a copy owned by Erasmus himself (Kupferstichkabinett, Basle) The Praise of Folly (Latin title: Moriae Encomium, sometimes translated as In Praise of Folly, Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in 1509 by Erasmus of...

Contents


Biography

Erasmus was born with the name Gerrit Gerritszoon (Dutch for Gerhard Gerhardson), probably in Rotterdam, although recent discoveries suggest he was actually born in Gouda, the Netherlands. Although much associated with this city, he lived there for only four years, never to return. Information on his family and early life comes mainly from vague references in his writings. He was almost certainly illegitimate. His father later became a priest named Roger Gerard. Little is known of his mother other than the fact that her name was Margaret and she was the daughter of a physician. Despite being illegitimate, Erasmus was cared for by his parents until their early deaths from the plague in 1483, and then given the best education available to a young man of his day in a series of monastic or semi-monastic schools. In 1487 Erasmus became deeply attached to a young man, Servatius Rogerus, whom he called "half my soul", writing "I have wooed you both unhappily and relentlessly".[1] For other places named Rotterdam, see Rotterdam (disambiguation) Rotterdam ( (help· info)), located in the province of Zuid Holland, is the second largest municipality in the Netherlands (after Amsterdam), yet depending on the calculation methods the agglomeration in which Rotterdam is situated vies with the Amsterdam agglomeration for first spot in... Goudas 15th Century Town Hall Flag of Gouda Gouda (population 71,797 in 2004) is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ...


In 1492, he was admitted to the priesthood and took monastic vows at about the age of twenty-five, but he never seems to have worked as a priest, and monasticism was one of the chief objects of his attack in his lifelong assault upon the evils of the Church. Soon after his ordination, he got his chance to leave the monastery when offered the post of secretary to the Bishop of Cambray, Henry of Bergen, on account of his great skill in Latin and his reputation as a man of letters. 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ...


In 1495, with the bishop's consent and stipend, he went on to study at the University of Paris, then the chief seat of scholastic learning, but already under the influence of the revived classical culture of Italy. The chief centers of his activity were Paris, Leuven (Louvain), England, and Basel; yet he never belonged firmly in any one of these places. His time in England was fruitful in the making of lifelong friendships with the leaders of English thought in the stirring days of King Henry VIII: John Colet, Thomas More, John Fisher, Thomas Linacre, and William Grocyn. At the University of Cambridge he was Lady Margaret's Professor of Divinity, and had the option of spending the rest of his life as an English professor. He stayed at Queens' College, Cambridge and may have been an alumnus. 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: Université de Paris) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganized as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... // Location Leuven (help· info) is the capital of the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... Location within Switzerland Basel (English traditionally: Basle , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as of 2003). ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... John Colet (1467? - September 10, 1519) was an English churchman and educational pioneer. ... Portrait of Sir Thomas More, by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527). ... John Fishers portrait For John Arbuthnot Fisher, British admiral, see Jackie Fisher. ... Thomas Linacre (or Lynaker) (c. ... William Grocyn (1446?-1519) was an English scholar, a friend of Erasmus. ... The University of Cambridge, located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Lady Margarets Professor of Divinity is the oldest professorship or chair in the University of Cambridge. ... A professor (Latin: one who publicly professes to be an expert) (or prof for short) is a senior teacher, lecturer and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... Full name The Queens College of Saint Margaret and Saint Bernard, commonly called Queens College, in the University of Cambridge Motto Floreat Domus May this House Flourish Named after - Previous names - Established 1448 Sister College Pembroke College President Lord Eatwell Location Silver Street Undergraduates 490 Graduates 270 Homepage Boatclub... An alumn (with a silent n), alum, alumnus, or alumna is a former student of a college, university, or school. ...


Erasmus preferred to live the life of an independent scholar, and made a conscious effort to avoid any actions or formal ties that might inhibit his freedom of intellect and literary expression. Throughout his life, he was offered many positions of honour and profit throughout the academic world but declined them all, preferring the uncertain but sufficient rewards of independent literary activity. From 1506 to 1509 he was in Italy. He spent part of the time at the publishing house of Aldus Manutius at Venice, but apart from this he had a less active association with Italian scholars than might have been expected. 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aldine Press was the printing office started by Aldus Manutius in 1494 in Venice, from which were issued the celebrated Aldine editions of the classics of that time. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ...


His residence at Leuven exposed Erasmus to much petty criticism, from those hostile to the principles of literary and religious progress to which he was devoting his life. He represented this lack of sympathy as persecution, and sought refuge in Basel, where under the shelter of Swiss hospitality he could express himself freely and where he was surrounded by devoted friends. Here he was associated for many years with the great publisher Froben, and to him came the multitude of his admirers from all quarters of Europe. // Location Leuven (help· info) is the capital of the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. ... Location within Switzerland Basel (English traditionally: Basle , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as of 2003). ... Johann Froben (latin: Johannes Frobenius; * approx. ...


Erasmus's literary productivity began comparatively late in his life. Only when he had mastered Latin did he begin to express himself on major contemporary themes in literature and religion. His revolt against the forms of church life did not result from doubts about the truth of the traditional doctrine, nor from any hostility to the organization of the Church itself. Rather, he felt called upon to use his learning in a purification of the doctrine and in a liberalizing of the institutions of Christianity. As a scholar, he tried to free the methods of scholarship from the rigidity and formalism of medieval traditions; but he was not satisfied with this. He saw himself as a preacher of righteousness. It was this lifelong conviction that guided Erasmus as he regenerated Europe through sound criticism applied frankly and without fear to the Catholic Church. This conviction gives unity and consistency to a life which might otherwise seem full of contradictions. Erasmus held himself aloof from all entangling obligations; yet he was in a singularly true sense the center of the literary movement of his time. He corresponded with more than five hundred men of the highest importance in the world of politics and of thought, and his advice on all kinds of subjects was eagerly sought, if not always followed. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Literature is literally acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has generally come to identify a collection of texts, which in Western culture are mainly prose, both fiction and non-fiction... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus, the Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ...


While in England Erasmus began the systematic examination of manuscripts of the New Testament to prepare for a new edition and Latin translation. This edition was published by Froben of Basel in 1516 and was the basis of most of the scientific study of the Bible during the Reformation period (see Bible Text, II., 2, § 1). He published a critical edition of the Greek New Testament in 1516 - Novum Instrumentum omne, diligenter ab Erasmo Rot. Recognitum et Emendatum. This edition included a Latin translation and annotations. It used recently rediscovered additional manuscripts. In the second edition the more familiar term Testamentum was used instead of Instrumentum. This edition was used by the translators of the King James Version of the Bible. The text later became known as the Textus Receptus. Erasmus published three other editions - in 1522, 1527 and 1535. Erasmus dedicated his work to Pope Leo X as a patron of learning, and he regarded this work as his chief service to the cause of Christianity. Immediately afterwards he began the publication of his Paraphrases of the New Testament, a popular presentation of the contents of the several books. These, like all of his writings, were published in Latin, but were quickly translated into other languages, with his encouragement. See New Covenant for the concept translated as New Testament in the KJV. The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, and, in recent times, also New Covenant, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Textual criticism is a branch of philology that examines the extant manuscript copies of an ancient or medieval literary work to produce a text that is as close as possible to the original. ... See New Covenant for the concept translated as New Testament in the KJV. The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, and, in recent times, also New Covenant, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Textus Receptus (Latin: received text) is the name given to the first Greek language text of the New Testament to be printed with movable type. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475, Florence – 1 December 1521, Rome), Pope from 1513 to his death, is known primarily for his failure to stem the Protestant Reformation, which began during his reign when Martin Luther (1483–1546) first accused the Roman Catholic Church of...


Martin Luther's movement began in the year following the publication of the New Testament, and tested Erasmus's character. The issue between European society and the Roman Church had become so clear that few could escape the summons to join the debate. Erasmus, at the height of his literary fame, was inevitably called upon to take sides, but partisanship was foreign to his nature and his habits. In all his criticism of clerical follies and abuses he had always protested that he was not attacking church institutions themselves and had no enmity toward churchmen. The world had laughed at his satire, but few had interfered with his activities. He believed that his work so far had commended itself to the best minds and also to the dominant powers in the religious world. Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which exposes the follies of its subject (for example, individuals, organizations, or states) to ridicule, often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ...


Erasmus was in sympathy with the main points in the Lutheran criticism of the Church. For Martin Luther personally he had the greatest respect, and Luther always spoke with admiration of Erasmus's superior learning. Luther hoped for his cooperation in a work which seemed only the natural outcome of his own. In their early correspondence Luther expressed boundless admiration for all Erasmus had done in the cause of a sound and reasonable Christianity, and urged him to join the Lutheran party. Erasmus declined to commit himself, arguing that to do so would endanger his position as a leader in the movement for pure scholarship which he regarded as his purpose in life. Only as an independent scholar could he hope to influence the reform of religion. When Erasmus hesitated to support him, it seemed to the straightforward Luther an avoidance of responsibility due either to cowardice or lack of purpose. Erasmus, however, dreaded any change in doctrine and believed that there was room within existing formulas for the kind of reform he valued most. Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Cowardice is a vice that is conventionally viewed as the corruption of prudence. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ...


Twice in the course of the great discussion he allowed himself to enter the field of doctrinal controversy, a field foreign to both his nature and his previous practice. One of the topics he dealt with was the freedom of the will, a crucial point. In his De libero arbitrio diatribe sive collatio (1524), he lampoons the Lutheran view on free will. He lays down both sides of the argument impartially. The "Diatribe" did not encourage any definite action; this was its merit to the Erasmians and its fault in the eyes of the Lutherans. In response Luther wrote his De Servo Arbitrio (On the Bondage of the Will) (1525), which viciously attacks the "Diatribe" and Erasmus himself, going so far as to claim that Erasmus was not a Christian. Free will is the philosophical doctrine that holds that our choices are ultimately up to ourselves. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ... On the Bondage of the Will, also known as Bound Will or by its Latin name De Servo Arbitrio was Martin Luthers answer to Erasmus De Libero Arbit or On Free Will. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ...


As the popular response to Luther gathered momentum, the social disorders which Erasmus predicted would result from Lutheran antinomianism began to appear. The Peasants' War, the Anabaptist disturbances in Germany and in the Low Countries, iconoclasm and radicalism everywhere, seemed to confirm all his gloomy predictions. If these were the outcomes of reform, he was thankful he had kept out of it. Yet he was being ever more bitterly accused of having started the whole "tragedy." In Switzerland he was especially exposed to criticism through his association with men there who were more than suspected of extreme rationalistic doctrines. Expanding insurgenceis The Peasants War (in German, der Deutsche Bauernkrieg) was a popular revolt in Europe, specifically in the Holy Roman Empire between 1524-1525 and consisted, like the preceding Bundschuh movement and the Hussite Wars, of a mass of economic as well as religious revolts by peasants, townsfolk and... Anabaptists (Greek ana+baptizo re-baptizers, German: Wiedertäufer) were Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) has been used since the late 18th century as a label in political science for those favoring or trying to produce thoroughgoing or extreme political reforms which can include changes to the social order to a greater or lesser extent. ...


When the city of Basel was definitely and officially "reformed" in 1529, Erasmus gave up his residence there and settled in the imperial town of Freiburg im Breisgau. Location within Switzerland Basel (English traditionally: Basle , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as of 2003). ... This article is about Freiburg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

Erasmus by Holbein
Erasmus by Holbein

The test question was the doctrine of the sacraments, and the crux of this question was the observance of the Eucharist. in 1530 Erasmus published a new edition of the orthodox treatise of Algerus against the heretic Berengar of Tours in the 11th century. He added a dedication, affirming his belief in the reality of the Body of Christ after consecration in the Eucharist. The anti-sacramentarians, headed by Œcolampadius of Basel, were, as Erasmus says, quoting him as holding views similar to their own in order to try to claim him for their schismatic movement. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2679, 341 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Erasmus von Rotterdam am Schreibpult Technique: de: Tempera auf Holz Dimensions: de: 43 × 33 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland und Großbritanien Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2679, 341 KB) Description: Title: de: Porträt des Erasmus von Rotterdam am Schreibpult Technique: de: Tempera auf Holz Dimensions: de: 43 × 33 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland und Großbritanien Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de... Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy mystery. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament, to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Berengar of Tours (c. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Johannes Oecolampadius or Oekolampad (1482 - November 24, 1531) was a German religious reformer, whose real name was Hussgen or Heussgen (changed to Hausschein and then into the Greek equivalent). ... Location within Switzerland Basel (English traditionally: Basle , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as of 2003). ...


Writings

Erasmus wrote both on ecclesiatic subjects and those of general human interest. He seems to have regarded the latter as trifling, a leisure activity.


His more serious writings begin early with the Enchiridion Militis Christiani, the "Handbook of the Christian Soldier" (1503). In this short work, Erasmus outlines the views of the normal Christian life, which he was to spend the rest of his days in elaborating. The chief evil of the day, he says, is formalism, going through the motions of tradition without understanding their basis in the teachings of Christ. Forms can teachthe soul how to worship God or they may hide or quench the spirit. In his examination of the dangers of formalism, Erasmus discusses monasticism, saint-worship, war, the spirit of class and the foibles of "society", but the Enchiridion is more like a sermon than a satire. 1503 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which exposes the follies of its subject (for example, individuals, organizations, or states) to ridicule, often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ...


Erasmus' best-known work was The Praise of Folly, (Latin: Moriae Encomium) a satirical attack on the traditions of the Catholic Church and popular superstitions, written in 1509 and published in 1511 and dedicated to his friend Sir Thomas More. Hans Holbeins witty marginal drawing of Folly (1515), in the first edition, a copy owned by Erasmus himself (Kupferstichkabinett, Basle) The Praise of Folly (Latin title: Moriae Encomium, sometimes translated as In Praise of Folly, Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in 1509 by Erasmus of... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Portrait of Sir Thomas More, by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527). ...


The Institutio Principis Christiani (Basel, 1516), was written as advice to the young king Charles of Spain, later Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Erasmus applies the general principles of honour and sincerity to the special functions of the Prince, whom he represents throughout as the servant of the people. The Education of a Christian Prince was published in 1516, 26 years before Machiavelli’s The Prince. A comparison between the two is worth noting. Machiavelli stated that, to maintain control by political force, it is safer for a prince to be feared than loved. Erasmus, on the other hand, preferred for the prince to be loved, and suggested that the prince needed a well-rounded education in order to govern justly and benevolently and avoid becoming a source of oppression. The Education of a Christian Prince is a Renaissance how-to book for princes, advising them on how to be a good Christian prince. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ...


In 1516, Erasmus anonymously published a satiric dialogue, Julius Exclusus, in which Pope Julius II is turned away from the gates of Heaven by St. Peter. Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ...


As a result of his reformatory activities, Erasmus found himself at odds with both the great parties. His last years were embittered by controversies with men toward whom he was sympathetic. Notable among these was Ulrich von Hutten, a brilliant, but erratic genius, who had thrown himself into the Lutheran cause and had declared that Erasmus, if he had a spark of honesty, would do the same. In his reply, Spongia adversus aspergines Hutteni (1523), Erasmus displays his skill in semantics. He accuses Hutten of having misinterpreted his utterances about reform and reiterates his determination never to break with the Church. Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1523) was an outspoken critic of the Roman Catholic Church and adherent of the Lutheran Reformation. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... In the main, semantics (from the Greek and in greek letters σημαντικός or in latin letters semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ...


The most important work of this last period is the Ecclesiastes or "Gospel Preacher" (Basel, 1535), in which he comments on the function of preaching. His little tract of 1533, "Preparation for Death", in which the emphasis throughout is on the importance of a good life as the essential condition of a happy death. Location within Switzerland Basel (English traditionally: Basle , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the conurbation stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area as of 2003). ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ...


References:


Gauss, C. (1999). Introduction to The Prince. New York, NY: Signet. First published in 1949, p. 11.


Jardine, L. (1997). Introduction to Erasmus: The Education of a Christian prince. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


Legacy

The extraordinary popularity of his books, however, has been shown in the number of editions and translations that have appeared since the 16th century, and in the undiminished interest excited by his elusive but fascinating personality. Ten columns of the catalogue of the British Library are taken up with the bare enumeration of the works and their subsequent reprints. The greatest names of the classical and patristic world are among those translated, edited or annotated by Erasmus, including as Saint Ambrose, Aristotle, Saint Augustine, Saint Basil, Saint John Chrysostom, Cicero, and Saint Jerome. Saint Ambrose, mosaic in church St. ... Aristotle (Ancient Greek: Aristotelēs 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... St. ... Basil (ca. ... Saint John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Marcus Tullius Cicero (standard English pronunciation ; Classical Latin pronunciation ) (January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin orator and prose stylist. ... , by Albrecht Dürer Saint Jerome (ca. ...


Today in his home town of Rotterdam, the University has been named in his honour. Erasmus University Rotterdam is a university in the Netherlands, located in Rotterdam. ...


However, Erasmus' reputation and interpretations of his work have varied greatly over time. Following his death there was an initial outflow of support and admiration, primarily by his supporters, but also throughout Europe. Moderate Catholics saw in him a leading figure in attempts to reform Church, while Protestants recognized his initial support for Luther's ideas and the groundwork he laid for the future Reformation. By the 1560s, however, there is a marked change in reception.


The Catholic Counter-Reformation movement often condemned Erasmus as being worse than Luther himself, and as having "laid the egg that hatched the Reformation." Their critique of him was formulated principally for his not being strong enough in his criticism of Luther, for not seeing the dangers of a vernacular Bible, and for dabbling in dangerous scriptural criticism that weakened the church's arguments against Arianism and other doctrines. All of his works were placed on the prohibited Index of books for Paul IV, and some of his works continued to be banned or viewed with caution in the later Index of Pius IV. The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Pope Paul IV Paul IV, né Gianni Carafa (June 28, 1476 - August 18, 1559) was Pope from May 23, 1555. ... Pius IV, né Giovanni Angelo Medici (March 31, 1499 - December 9, 1565), pope from 1559 to 1565, was born of humble parentage in Milan. ...


Protestant views of Erasmus fluctuate largely depending on region and period, with continuous support in his native Netherlands and in cities of the Upper Rhine area. However, following his death and in the late 16th century Reformation supporters see Erasmus' critiques of Luther and lifelong support for the universal Catholic Church as damning. His reception was particularly cold in the Reformed Protestant groups.


By the coming of the Age of Enlightenment, however, Erasmus was increasingly returning to become a more widely respected cultural symbol and hailed as an important figure by increasingly broad groups. The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ...


Reference:


Mansfield, Bruce E. Phoenix of His Age: Interpretations of Erasmus C. 1550-1750.


Representations of Erasmus

Holbein's studies of Erasmus' hands, in silverpoint and chalks, ca. 1523. (Louvre)
Holbein's studies of Erasmus' hands, in silverpoint and chalks, ca. 1523. (Louvre)

Other works: Download high resolution version (750x987, 95 KB)Studies of Erasmus hands, by Hans Holbein the Younger, ca 1523 silverpoint and chalks. ... Download high resolution version (750x987, 95 KB)Studies of Erasmus hands, by Hans Holbein the Younger, ca 1523 silverpoint and chalks. ... I.M. Peis Louvre Pyramid: the entrance to the galleries lies below the glass pyramid The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre, pronounced in French) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ...

The portraitist Hans Holbein the Younger made a profile half-length portrait in 1523, and Albrecht Dürer made an engraving of Erasmus in 1526. 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The creator, Erasmus Apophthegmatum opus is one of the greatest works of the Dutch humanist Erasmus. ... Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus created Adagia, an annotated collection of Greek and Latin adages. ... Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Self-Portrait, 1493, Oil on Canvas Albrecht Dürer (May 21, 1471 - April 6, 1528) was a German painter, wood carver, engraver, and mathematician of Hungarian ancestry. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ...


Notes

  1. ^  Stevens, Forrest Tyler. Erasmus's "Tigress": The Language of Friendship, Pleasure, and the Renaissance Letter. Queering The Renaissance. Duke University Press 1994.

Critical bibliography

  • Botley, Paul. Latin Translation in the Renaissance: The Theory and Practice of Leonardo Bruni, Giannozzo Manetti and Desiderius Erasmus. London: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Chantraine, Georges. « Philosophie erasmienne et théologie lutérienne. » “Mystère” et “Philosphie du Christ” selon Erasme. Brussels : Duculot, 1971, 374-6.
  • Dockery, David S., “The Foundation of Reformation Hermeneutics: A Fresh Look at Erasmus,” Premise 2, no. 9 (October 19, 1995): 6-ff. - An appreciative look at Erasmus' contribution to biblical hermeneutics (interpretation methods) from an Evangelical Christian perspective.
  • Hoffmann, Manfred. Rhetoric and Theology: The Hermeneutic of Erasmus. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994.
  • Huizinga, Johan. Erasmus and the Age of Reformation. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1957. - Huizinga's text was translated from Dutch and first published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1924. It is considered one of the foundational Erasmus biographies of the 20th century.
  • Jardine, Lisa. Erasmus, Man of Letters : The Construction of Charisma in Print. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1993. - Argues that Erasmus was extremely careful and skillful in creating, manipulating, and managing his own image.
  • Mansfield, Bruce E. Phoenix of His Age : Interpretations of Erasmus C. 1550-1750. Erasmus Studies; 4. Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1979. - Traces the reception and interpretations of Erasmus after his death.
  • Payne, John B. Erasmus: His Theology of the Sacraments. Richmond: John Knox Press, 1970. - This work gives great attention to Erasmus' own writings, and analizes the different aspects of his theology in light of his Catholic and Humanist influences. Payne did extensive work on UTP's Collected Works of Erasmus editions.
  • Phillips, Margaret Mann. Erasmus and the Northern Renaissance. Teach Yourself History Library. London,: Hodder & Stoughton, 1949. - An important classic on the topic.
  • Rabil, Albert. Erasmus and the New Testament: The Mind of a Christian Humanist. San Antonio: Trinity University Press, 1972.
  • Tracy, James D. Erasmus: The Growth of a Mind. Travaux D'humanisme Et Renaissance, 126. Genève: Droz, 1972. - One of the standard biographies.

Leonardo Bruni Leonardo Bruni (1374 – 1444) was a leading humanist, historian and a chancellor of Florence. ... Giannozzo Manetti (1396-1459) was a Florentine politician and diplomat, and also a significant humanist scholar of the early Italian Renaissance. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the theory of interpretation and understanding of a text through empirical means. ... The term evangelical has several distinct meanings: In its original sense, it means belonging or related to the Gospel (Greek: euangelion - good news) of the New Testament. ...

See also

Rodolphus Agricola (February 17, 1444 – October 27, 1485), was a Dutch scholar and humanist. ... Christian humanism, is a philosophical union of Christian and humanist principles, and like much humanism often refers to a commonality among all humanity as its basic ethos. ... The Erasmus Prize is an annual prize awarded by the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation, a Dutch non-profit organization, to individuals or institutions that have made notable contributions to European culture, society, or social science. ... One of the best sources for the world of European Humanism in the early 16th century is the letters of Erasmus. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Erasmus
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Wikisource has the original Latin text of Praise of Folly. Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Abraham Lincoln Aristotle Ayn Rand Adolf Hitler Al Gore A Modest Proposal Articles of Confederation Arthur Schopenhauer Albert Einstein Amhrán na bhFiann Arthur Conan Doyle Ada programming language Antarctic Treaty System Andrew Jackson Andrew Johnson Adam Smith Bill Clinton Bible... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of primary source texts, along with translations of source-texts into any language and other supporting materials. ...

eBooks

Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Erasmus. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (374 words)
Erasmus, his given name, and Lat., Desiderius=beloved; both are regarded as the equivalent of Dutch Gerard, Erasmus’ father’s name], 1466?–1536, Dutch humanist, b.
Erasmus combined vast learning with a fine style, a keen and sometimes sharp humor, moderation, and tolerance.
Erasmus was finally brought into open conflict with Luther and attacked his position on predestination in On the Freedom of the Will.
EUROPA - Education and Training - Lifelong Learning Programme - Erasmus (265 words)
ERASMUS seeks to enhance the quality and reinforce the European dimension of higher education by encouraging transnational cooperation between universities, boosting European mobility and improving the transparency and full academic recognition of studies and qualifications throughout the Union.
ERASMUS consists of many different activities; student and teacher exchanges, joint development of study programmes (Curriculum Development), international intensive programmes, thematic networks between departments and faculties across Europe, language courses (EILC), European credit transfer system (ECTS).
ERASMUS action is targeted at higher education institutions and their students and staff in all 27 Member States of the European Union, the three countries of the European Economic Area (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway), and Turkey.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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