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Encyclopedia > Equestrianism
For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman)
A young rider at a horse show in Australia.
A young rider at a horse show in Australia.

Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving horses. This broad description includes both use of horses for practical, working purposes as well as recreational activities and competitive sports. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 703 KB) Horse Riding in Coca Cola Arena - 2005 Melbourne Show File links The following pages link to this file: Equestrianism ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 703 KB) Horse Riding in Coca Cola Arena - 2005 Melbourne Show File links The following pages link to this file: Equestrianism ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Horse racing is a very popular sporting event involving animals. ...

Contents

Overview of equestrian activities

Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch. They are also used in competitive sports including, but not limited to dressage, endurance riding, eventing, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, vaulting, polo, horse racing, driving, and rodeo. (See additional equestrian sports listed later in this article for more examples.) Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows, where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses (and other equids such as mules and donkeys) are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in almost every part of the world; many parks, ranches, and public stables offer both guided and independent riding. Horses are also used for therapeutic purposes, both in specialized paraequestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development. Horse training refers to a wide variety of practices that teach horses to perform certain behaviors when asked to do so by humans. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Competitors on an endurance ride Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long distance races. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... Tent pegging (sometimes spelled tentpegging or tent-pegging) is a cavalry sport of ancient origin, and one of only ten equestrian disciplines officially recognised by the International Equestrian Federation. ... A Dutch vaulting team Equestrian vaulting is most often described as gymnastics and dance on horseback, and like these disciplines, it is both an art and a highly competitive sport. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... Species - Donkey - Domestic Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Przewalskis Horse - Plains Zebra - Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... Trail riding is riding on trails as opposed to riding on roads or courses. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... Leland Stanfords horse stable, still in use Horse kept in stable A stable is a building in which livestock, usually horses, are kept. ... Therapeutic horseback riding, also known as equine-assisted activity, is for individuals with a range of physical, emotional, cognitive, and social special needs. ...


Horses are also driven in harness racing, at horse shows and in other types of exhibition, historical reenactment or ceremony, often pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is a type of roleplay in which participants attempt to recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ...


Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies (parades, funerals), police and volunteer mounted patrols, and for mounted search and rescue. Mounted police are police who patrol on horseback. ... Mounted search and rescue (MSAR), search and rescue responders on horseback, are primarily a search resource, but also can provide off-road logistics support and transportation. ...


History of horse use

See also: Horses in the Middle Ages

Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden approximately 4,500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests that horses were ridden long before they were driven. There is some evidence that about 6000 years ago, near the Dneiper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion that was buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit.[1] However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2,500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals. In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as light and heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation, trade and agriculture. There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Length 2,290 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge 1670 m³/s Area watershed 516,300 km² Origin Russia Mouth Black Sea Basin countries Russia, Belarus, Ukraine The Dnieper River (Russian: Днепр/Dnepr; Belarusian: Дняпро/Dnyapro; Ukrainian: Дніпро/Dnipro) is a river (2,290 km length) which flows... There are at several rivers named Don: Don River, Russia Don River, Toronto River Don, England River Don, Aberdeenshire This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For the movement of people or objects, see transport. ... This article is about economic exchange. ...


Horse racing

Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse (or horses) were the fastest, and thus horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds also race. Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ... Parimutuel betting (from the French language: pari mutuel, mutual betting) is a betting system in which all bets of a particular type are placed together in a pool; taxes and a house take are removed, and payoff odds are calculated by sharing the pool among all placed bets, rounded down... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Gamble redirects here. ... For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ...


Types of horse racing

Under saddle:

  • Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become very popular in the United States and in Europe. The Federation Equestre International (FEI) governs international races, and the American Endurance Ride Conference (AERC) organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an even start. Races begin at 20 miles (32 km) and peak at 100 miles (160 km). especially the Tevis Cup.
  • Ride and Tie (in North America, organized by Ride and Tie Association). Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: two humans and one horse. The humans alternately run and ride.

In harness: Thoroughbred horse racing in the United Kingdom is governed by the Horseracing Regulatory Authority (the HRA) which makes and enforces the rules, issues licences or permits to trainers and jockeys, and runs the races through their race course officials. ... Flat racing is a term commonly used in the United Kingdom to denote a form of horse-racing which is run over a predetermined distance and in which the horses are not required to jump over obstacles such as hurdles or fences as in National Hunt racing. ... The Jockey Club is responsible for the day-to-day regulation of United Kingdom horse-racing. ... A steeplechase race The steeplechase is a form of horse racing (primarily conducted in the United Kingdom, United States, and Ireland) and derives its name from early races in which orientation of the course was by reference to a church steeple, jumping fences and ditches and generally traversing the many... National Hunt racing is the name given to the sport of horse racing in the United Kingdom and Ireland where the horses are required to jump over obstacles called hurdles or fences (except in the case of a bumper). The core of the National Hunt season is over the winter... A palomino Quarter Horse shown at halter. ... Outside of the American Quarter Horse Associations Heritage Center and Museum. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... Akhal-Teke The Akhal-Teke, Ahalteke in the Turkmen language, horse breed (pronounced ) is a breed from Turkmenistan, where they are the national emblem. ... For other uses, see Appaloosa (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Breeding Stock Paint be merged into this article or section. ... Competitors on an endurance ride Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long distance races. ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... The Fédération équestre internationale (commonly known as the FEI, or in English as the International Federation for Equestrian Sports) is the international governing body of equestrian (horse) sports. ... Rider goes over Cougar Rock on the Tevis Trail The Western States Trail Ride, popularly called The Tevis Cup is a 100 mile endurance horse race. ...

  • Standardbred horses race in harness with a sulky or racing bike.
  • The United States Trotting Association organizes harness racing in the United States (the horses may trot or pace).
  • Harness racing is also found throughout Europe, New Zealand and Australia.

Standardbred harness racing horses are so called because in the early years of the Trotting Registry, the standardbred stud book established in the United States in 1879 by the National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders, only horses who could race a mile in a standard time or better, or whose... A sulky is a lightweight two-wheeled racing cart that is used in most forms of harness racing in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, including both trotting and pacing races. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ...

Olympic disciplines

Equestrian events were first included in the Olympic Games in 1900. By 1912, all three Olympic disciplines still seen today were part of the games. The following forms of competition are recognized worldwide and are a part of the equestrian events at the Olympics: Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ...

  • Dressage ("training" in French) involves the progressive training of the horse to a high level of impulsion, collection, and obedience. Competitive dressage has the goal of showing the horse carrying out, on request, the natural movements that it performs without thinking while running loose. One dressage master has defined it as "returning the freedom of the horse while carrying the rider."
  • Show jumping comprises a timed event judged on the ability of the horse and rider to jump over a series of obstacles, in a given order and with the fewest refusals or knockdowns of portions of the obstacles.
  • Eventing, also called combined training, horse trials, the three-day event, the Military, or the complete test, puts together the obedience of dressage with the athletic ability of show jumping, the fitness demands the cross-country jumping phase. In the last-named, the horses jump over fixed obstacles, such as logs, stone walls, banks, ditches, and water, trying to finish the course under the "optimum time." There was also the 'Steeple Chase' Phase, which is now excluded from most major competitions to bring them in line with the Olympic standard.

Additional events sanctioned by the FEI as international disciplines include combined driving, reining, equestrian vaulting, endurance riding and paralympic competition. While these events are recognized internationally and are all part of the FEI World Equestrian Games, none are yet part of the Summer Olympics, though some, such as vaulting and reining, are potentially on track to be added.[citation needed] An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Impulsion can only occur if the horse is coming properly up through his back, as seen here. ... Collection is when a horse carries more weight on his hindlegs than his front legs. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... A cross country competitor Cross country equestrian jumping is an endurance test, and is one of the three phases of the sport of eventing; it may also be a competition in its own right, known as hunter trials or simply cross-country - these tend to be lower level, local competitions. ... A bank is a type of cross-country obstacle found in the sport of eventing. ... Ditches are commonly seen on cross country courses at all levels of eventing, and may be up to 1110 at the advanced four-star level. ... Water is often seen on the cross-country course of an event. ... The Fédération Equestre Internationale (commonly known as the FEI, or informally in English as the International Equestrian Federation) is the international governing body of equestrian (horse) sports. ... Combined driving also known as Horse Driving Trials is an equestrian sport involving carriage driving. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ... A Dutch vaulting team Equestrian vaulting is most often described as gymnastics and dance on horseback, and like these disciplines, it is both an art and a highly competitive sport. ... Competitors on an endurance ride Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long distance races. ... Silver 2004 The Paralympic Games are an official equivalent of the Olympics for athletes with physical disabilities. ... The World Equestrian Games are the major international championships for equestrianism, considered by many horsemen to be more important than the Olympics, and administered by the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI). ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ...


Haute École

Main article: Classical dressage

The haute école (F. "high school"), an advanced component of Classical dressage, is a highly refined set of skills seldom used in competition but often seen in demonstration performances. Classical dressage evolved from cavalry movements trained for the battlefield, and has since developed into competitive dressage seen today. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Classical dressage evolved from cavalry movements trained for the battlefield, and has since developed into competitive dressage seen today. ...


Leading haute ecole demonstration teams include:

The Cadre Noir are an equestrian display team based in the city of Saumur in western France. ... Saumur is a small city and commune in the Maine-et-Loire département of France on the Loire River, with an approximate population of 30,000 (in 2001). ... A Lipizzan horse in the Winter Riding School The Spanish Riding School of Vienna, Austria, is a traditional riding school for Lipizzan horses. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art (in Spanish, Réal Escuela Andaluza del Arte Ecuestre) is an institution in Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, devoted to conserving the ancestral abilities of the Andalusian horse, maintaining the classical traditions of Spanish baroque horsemanship, preparing horses and riders for international dressage... “Jerez” redirects here. ...

Horse shows

Main article: Horse show

Horse shows are held throughout the world with a tremendous variety of possible events, equipment, attire and judging standards used. However, most forms of horse show competition can be broken into the following broad categories: A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ...

  • Equitation, sometimes called seat and hands or horsemanship, refers to events where the rider is judged on form, style and ability.
  • Pleasure, flat, or under saddle classes feature horses who are ridden on the flat (not jumped) and judged on manners, performance, movement, style and quality.
  • Halter, in-hand breeding, or conformation classes, where the horse is led by a handler on the ground and judged on conformation and suitability as a breeding animal.
  • Harness classes, where the horse is driven rather than ridden, but still judged on manners, performance and quality.
  • Jumping or Over Fences refers broadly to both show jumping and show hunter, where horses and riders must jump obstacles.

A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ... A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ...

"English" riding

Main article: English riding
See also: Hunt seat, Show hunter, Show jumping, Dressage, and Saddle seat

In addition to the classical Olympic events, the following forms of competition are seen, called "English riding" in the United States and Canada: English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... Hunt seat is terminology used in the United States and Canada to refers to a style of forward seat riding commonly found at American horse shows. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Saddle seat is a form of riding that is found in the United States, and to a lesser extent in Canada, Europe, Africa and Australia. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ...

  • Hunt seat or Hunter classes judge the movement and the form of horses suitable for work over fences. A typical show hunter division would include classes over fences as well as "Hunter under Saddle" or "flat" classes (sometimes called "hack" classes), in which the horse is judged on its performance, manners and movement without having to jump. Hunters have a long, flat-kneed trot, sometimes called "daisy cutter" movement, a phrase suggesting a good hunter could slice daisies in a field when it reaches its stride out. The over fences classes in show hunter competition are judged on the form of the horse, its manners and the smoothness of the course. A horse with good jumping form snaps its knees up and jumps with a good bascule. It should also be able to canter or gallop with control while having a stride long enough to make a proper number of strides over a given distance between fences.
  • Eventing, show jumping, and dressage, described under "Olympic disciplines," above are all "English" riding disciplines that sometimes are loosely classified within the "hunt seat" category.
  • Saddle seat, is a primarily American discipline, though has recently become somewhat popular in South Africa, was created to show to best advantage the animated movement of high-stepping and gaited breeds such as the American Saddlebred and the Tennessee Walker. Some Arabians and Morgans are also shown saddle seat in the United States. There are usually three basic divisions. Park divisions are for the horses with the highest action. Pleasure divisions still emphasis animated action, but to a lesser degree, with manners ranking over animation. Plantation or Country divisions have the least amount of animation (in some breeds, the horses are flat-shod) and the greatest emphasis on manners.

Hunt seat is terminology used in the United States and Canada to refers to a style of forward seat riding commonly found at American horse shows. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... The show hunter is a type of show horse that is judged on its movement, manners, and way of going. ... Tower Bridge, a double leaf bascule, opening A bascule bridge is a drawbridge with a counterweight that continuously balances the span, or leaf, throughout the entire upward swing in providing clearance for boat traffic. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Saddle seat is a form of riding that is found in the United States, and to a lesser extent in Canada, Europe, Africa and Australia. ... The American Saddlebred, formerly known as the American Saddle Horse, is a breed of horse that was developed in Kentucky by plantation owners. ... ... The Arabian horse is a breed of horse with a reputation for intelligence, high spirit, and outstanding stamina. ... The Morgan is one of the first horse breeds developed in the United States. ...

"Western" riding

Main article: Western riding
See also: Reining, Western pleasure, Rodeo, and Cutting (sport)

Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy on ranches in the American West. Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ... Western Pleasure is an equestrian show event that tests a the suitability of the horse for appropriate gait cadence and speed, along with suitable disposition traits. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... Cutting is an equestrian event in the western riding style where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a calf away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kē-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ...


Though the differences between English and Western riding appear dramatic, there are more similarities than most people think. Both styles require riders to have a solid seat, with the hips and shoulders balanced over the feet, with hands independent of the seat so as to avoid disturbing the balance of the horse and interfering with its performance.


The most noticeable feature of western style riding is in the saddle, which has a substantial tree that provides greater support to horse and rider when working long hours in the saddle. The western saddle features a prominent pommel topped by a horn (a knob used for dallying a lariat after roping an animal), a deep seat and a high cantle. The stirrups are wider and the saddle has rings and ties that allow objects to be attached to the saddle. A lasso is a loop of rope that is designed to be thrown around a target and tighten when pulled. ...


Western horses are asked to perform with a loose rein, controlled by one hand. The standard western bridle lacks a noseband and usually consists of a single set of reins attached to a curb bit that has somewhat longer and looser shanks than the curb of an English Weymouth bridle or a pelham bit. Two styles of Western reins developed: The long split reins of the Texas tradition, which are completely separated, or the closed-end "Romal" reins of the California tradition, which have a long single attachment on the ends that can be used as a quirt. Modern rodeo competitors in timed events sometimes use a closed rein without a romal. A noseband is the part of a horses bridle that encircles the nose. ... A curb bit is a type of bit used for riding that uses leverage. ... A bit shank, designed for western riding and decorated with silver for use at horse shows The bit shank is the side piece or cheekpiece of a curb bit, part of the bridle, used when riding on horses. ... A double bridle or Weymouth bridle is a piece of horse tack. ... Pelham bit, used with a bit converter so only one rein is used. ... The reins are the leather straps attached to the outer ends of a bit. ... A set of romal reins A Romal (pronounced ro-MAHL), is a type of long quirt attached to the end of a set of closed reins that are connected to the bridle of a horse. ... A quirt is a forked type of stock whip which usually has two thongs at the end (like the tails on some tawses). ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ...


Western riders wear a long-sleeved shirt, denim jeans, boots, and a wide-brimmed cowboy hat. Cowboy boots, which have pointed toes and higher heels than a traditional riding boot, are designed to prevent the rider's foot from slipping through the stirrup during a fall, preventing the rider from being dragged--most western saddles have no safety bars for the leathers or automatic stirrup release mechanism. A rider may wear protective leather leggings called chaps. Clean, well-fitting work clothing is the usual outfit seen in rodeo, cutting and reining competitions, especially for men, though sometimes both men and women wear brighter colors or finer fabrics for competition than for work. A cowboys hat, usually with a four to six-inch brim, acts as an umbrella in stormy weather, and a shade from the sun in hot weather. ... Ad for Tony Lama featuring custom boots made for President Harry S. Truman. ... Chaps are sturdy leather coverings for the legs. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... Cutting is an equestrian event in the western riding style where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a calf away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ...


Show events such as Western pleasure use much flashier equipment, unlike the English traditions where clothing and tack is quiet and unobtrusive. Saddles, bits and bridles are ornamented with substantial amounts of silver. The rider may add a jacket or vest, and women's clothing in particular features vivid colors and even, depending on current fads, rhinestones or sequins.[2] Western Pleasure is an equestrian show event that tests a the suitability of the horse for appropriate gait cadence and speed, along with suitable disposition traits. ...


Western horses are asked to have a brisk, ground-covering walk, but a slow, relaxed jog trot that allows the rider to sit the saddle and not post. The Western version of the canter is called a lope and while collected and balanced, is expected to be slow and relaxed. Working western horses seldom use a sustained hand gallop, but must be able to accelerate quickly to high speed when chasing cattle or competing in rodeo speed events, must be able to stop quickly from a dead run and "turn on a dime." The trot is a gait of the horse where the diagonal pairs of legs move forwards at the same time. ... Horse gaits are the different methods by which a horse, either naturally or through human training, moves itself. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ...


Rodeo

Main article: Rodeo

Rodeo events include the following forms of competition: For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ...


Timed events

  • Barrel racing and pole bending - the timed speed and agility events seen in rodeo as well as gymkhana or O-Mok-See competition. Both men and women compete in speed events at gymkhanas or O-Mok-Sees; however, at most professional, sanctioned rodeos, barrel racing is an exclusively women's sport. In a barrel race, horse and rider gallop around a cloverleaf pattern of barrels, making agile turns without knocking the barrels over. In pole bending, horse and rider run the length of a line of six upright poles, turn sharply and weave through the poles, turn again and weave back, then return to the start.
  • Steer wrestling - Also known as "Bulldogging," this is a rodeo event where the rider jumps off his horse onto a steer and 'wrestles' it to the ground by grabbing it by the horns. This is probably the single most physically dangerous event in rodeo for the cowboy, who runs a high risk of jumping off a running horse head first and missing the steer, or of having the thrown steer land on top of him, sometimes horns first.
  • Goat tying - usually an event for women or pre-teen girls and boys, a goat is staked out while a mounted rider runs to the goat, dismounts, grabs the goat, throws it to the ground and ties it in the same manner as a calf. This event was designed to teach smaller or younger riders the basics of calf roping without the more complex need to also lasso the animal.

// Barrel racing at the Calgary Stampede Barrel Racing is a form of rodeo event that demands some of the most athletic horses and dedicated riders. ... Pole Bending is an amateur rodeo event that features a horse and one mounted cowgirl, running a weaving or serpentine path around six poles arranged in a line. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... Gymkhana is a term used in the United Kingdom, east coast of the United States, and other English-speaking nations to describe an equestrian event consisting of timed games for riders on horses. ... Gymkhana is a term used in the United Kingdom, east coast of the United States, and other English-speaking nations to describe an equestrian event consisting of timed games for riders on horses. ... Steer wrestling, also known as bulldogging, is a rodeo event where a steer is released from a chute and a horse-mounted rider chases the steer, jumps off the horse next to the steer, and wrestles the steer to the ground by twisting its horns. ...

Roping

Roping includes a number of timed events that are based on the real-life tasks of a working cowboy, who often had to capture calves and adult cattle for branding, medical treatment and other purposes. A lasso or lariat is thrown over the head of a calf or the horns of adult cattle, and the animal is secured in a fashion dictated by its size and age. For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... A ranch worker brands a young steer using an electric branding iron while another makes an earmark. ... A lasso is a loop of rope that is designed to be thrown around a target and tighten when pulled. ... For the anatomical feature, see calf muscle. ...

  • Calf roping, also called "tie-down roping," is an event where a calf is roped around the neck by a lariat, the horse stops and sets back on the rope while the cowboy dismounts, runs to the calf, throws it to the ground and ties three feet together. (If the horse throws the calf, the cowboy must lose time waiting for the calf to get back to its feet so that the cowboy can do the work. The job of the horse is to hold the calf steady on the rope) This activity is still practiced on modern working ranches for branding, medical treatment, and so on.
  • Team roping, also called "heading and heeling," is the only rodeo event where men and women riders may compete together. Two people capture and restrain a full-grown steer. One horse and rider, the "header," lassos a running steer's horns, while the other horse and rider, the "heeler," lassos the steer's two hind legs. Once the animal is captured, the riders face each other and lightly pull the steer between them, so that it loses its balance, thus in the real world allowing restraint for treatment.
  • Breakaway roping - an easier form of calf roping where a very short lariat is used, tied lightly to the saddle horn with string and a flag. When the calf is roped, the horse stops, allowing the calf to run on, flagging the end of time when the string and flag breaks from the saddle. In the United States, this event is primarily for women of all ages and boys under 12, while in some nations where traditional calf roping is frowned upon, riders of both genders compete.

Calf roping is a rodeo event that features a calf and a mounted cowboy. ... A lasso is a loop of rope that is designed to be thrown around a target and tighten when pulled. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Team roping also known as heading and heeling is a rodeo event that features a steer (typically a Corriente) and two mounted cowboys. ... Breakaway roping is a rodeo event that features a calf and one mounted cowgirl. ...

"Rough Stock" competition

In spite of popular myth, most modern "broncs" are not in fact wild horses, but are more commonly spoiled riding horses or horses bred specifically as bucking stock.

  • Bronc riding - there are two divisions in rodeo, bareback bronc riding, where the rider is only allowed to hang onto a bucking horse with a surcingle, and saddle bronc riding, where the rider is allowed a specialized western saddle without a horn (for safety) and may hand onto a heavy lead rope attached to a halter on the horse.
  • Bull Riding - though technically not an equestrian event, as the cowboys ride full-grown bulls instead of horses, skills similar to bareback bronc riding are required.

This article or section should be merged with Saddle bronc Bareback bronc riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on an untamed equine or bronco, weighing between 800 and 1,500 pounds, which is held in a small pipe enclosure called a bucking chute. ... A surcingle is a leather, nylon, or neoprene strap that fastens around a horses girth area. ... This article or section should be merged with Bareback bronc Saddle bronc riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a saddle on an untamed equine or bronco, weighing between 800 and 1,500 pounds, which is held in a small pipe enclosure called a bucking chute. ...

Harness

A welsh pony in fine harness competition
A welsh pony in fine harness competition
Main article: Driving (horse)

Horses, mules and donkeys are driven in harness in many different ways. For working purposes, they can pull a plow or other farm equipment designed to be pulled by animals. In many parts of the world they still pull wagons for basic hauling and transportation. They may draw carriages at ceremonies, in parades or for tourist rides. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2436 × 1827 pixel, file size: 998 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Welsh Mountain Pony in a private driving class File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2436 × 1827 pixel, file size: 998 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A Welsh Mountain Pony in a private driving class File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... The term harness has been used for many centuries for part of the collection of equipment known as horse tack, essential in the domestic, military, and agrarian use of horses. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wagon (disambiguation). ... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century...


As noted in "horse racing" above, horses can race in harness, pulling a very lightweight cart known as a sulky. At the other end of the spectrum, some draft horses compete in horse pulling competitions, where single or teams of horses and their drivers vie to determine who can pull the most weight for a short distance. A sulky is a lightweight two-wheeled racing cart that is used in most forms of harness racing in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, including both trotting and pacing races. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ...


In horse show competition, the following general categories of competition are seen: A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ...

  • Combined driving, an internationally-recognized competition where horses perform an arena-based "dressage" class where precision and control are emphasized, a cross-country "marathon" section that emphasizes fitness and endurance, and a "stadium" or "cones" obstacle course.
  • Draft horse showing: Most draft horse performance competition is done in harness.
  • Pleasure driving: Horses and ponies are usually hitched to a light cart shown at a walk and two speeds of trot, with an emphasis on manners.
  • Fine harness: Also called "Formal driving," Horses are hitched to a light four-wheeled cart and shown in a manner that emphasizes flashy action and dramatic performance.
  • Roadster: A horse show competition where exhibitors wear racing silks and ride in a sulky in a style akin to harness racing, only without actually racing, but rather focusing on manners and performance.
  • Carriage driving, using somewhat larger two or four wheeled carriages, often restored antiques, judged on the turnout/neatness or suitability of horse and carriage.

Combined driving also known as Horse Driving Trials is an equestrian sport involving carriage driving. ... Percheron Ladies Cart Draft horse showing is a competitive sport in North America where exhibitors present their draft horse(s) to be judged in harness, pulling various types of carts and wagons. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... Colorful silks in the Santa Anita racetrack silks room Racing silks are the colorful shirts worn by horse-racing jockeys. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ... Catherine IIs carved, painted and gilded Coronation Coach (Hermitage Museum) George VI and Queen Elizabeth in a landau with footmen and an outrider, Canada 1939 The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs (elliptical springs in the 19th century... For other uses, see Antique (disambiguation). ...

Other equestrian activities

Girls and their horses preparing for a polo game
Girls and their horses preparing for a polo game

There are many other forms of equestrian activity and sports seen worldwide. There are both competitive events and pleasure riding disciplines available. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ...


Arena sports

  • Arena polo and Cowboy polo
  • Pato (Argentina's national sport)
  • Charreada, the highest form of Mexican horsemanship based on a mixture of Spanish and Native traditions.
  • Equestrian vaulting: In vaulting, a surcingle with two hoops at the top is attached around a horse's barrel. The horse also wears a bridle with side reins. The vaulter is longed on the horse, and performs gymnastic movements while the horse walks, trots, and canters.
  • Gymkhana, also known as O-Mok-See in the western United States.
  • Reining

For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Charrería is the Mexican style of traditional Spanish horsemanship that developed in Mexico under the hacienda system. ... A Dutch vaulting team Equestrian vaulting is most often described as gymnastics and dance on horseback, and like these disciplines, it is both an art and a highly competitive sport. ... A surcingle is a leather, nylon, or neoprene strap that fastens around a horses girth area. ... Parts of a Horse The anatomy of the horse comes with a large number of horse specific terms. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... Side reins are pieces of equipment used when longeing a horse, running from the bridles bit to the saddle or surcingle. ... Longeing or lungeing is a technique for training horses. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, gracefulness, and kinesthetic awareness, and includes such skills as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... Gymkhana is a term used in the United Kingdom, east coast of the United States, and other English-speaking nations to describe an equestrian event consisting of timed games for riders on horses. ... Reining is a Western horseback riding competition. ...

Horse sports that use cattle

Bullfighting, Edouard Manet, 1865–1866. ... Rejoneador (lancer) is the name given to a bullfighter who fights the bull on horseback. ... Campdrafting is an unique Australian Western riding Exhibition sport involving horse and riders working cattle. ... Natonal champions of 2006 In Chile the Rodeo is the second sport but practiced, after soccer. ... Cutting is an equestrian event in the western riding style where a horse and rider are judged on their ability to separate a calf away from a cattle herd and keep it away for a short period of time. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Defined area sports

Game of Buzkashi in Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan Buzkashi, Kok-boru or Oglak Tartis (Persian: بزکشی buzkashī: goat grabbing) (Uzbek, Tatar, Turkmen: kökbörü, kök blue + börü wolf, Kazakh: көкпар, Kyrgyz: улак) is a traditional Central Asian team sport played on horseback. ... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a high net. ... Joust redirects here. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is a type of roleplay in which participants attempt to recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ... An actress playing the role of Mary Queen of Scots in 2003. ... Arms of the Society for Creative Anachronism. ... Demonstration of the game Balloon. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mallet (disambiguation). ... Look up goal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polocrosse it is a team sport that is played all over the world. ... Tent pegging (sometimes spelled tentpegging or tent-pegging) is a cavalry sport of ancient origin, and one of only ten equestrian disciplines officially recognised by the International Equestrian Federation. ...

Cross-country sports

  • Competitive Mounted Orienteering‎, a form of orienteering on horseback (but unrelated to orienteering) - consists of three stages: following a precise route marked on a map, negotiation of obstacles, and control of paces.
  • Le Trec, which comprises three phases - trail riding, with jumping and correct basic flatwork. Le Trec, which is very popular in Europe, tests the partnership's ability to cope with an all-day ride across varied terrain, route finding, negotiating natural obstacles and hazards, while considering the welfare of the horse, respecting the countryside and enjoying all it has to offer.
  • Competitive trail riding, a pace race held across terrain similar to endurance riding, but shorter in length (25 - 35 miles (56 km), depending on class). Being a form of pace race, the objective is not to finish in the least time. Instead, as in other forms of judged trail riding, each competitor is graded on everything including physical condition, campsite, and horse management. Horsemanship also is considered, including how the rider handles the trail and how horse is handled and presented to the judge and vet throughout the ride. The horse is graded on performance, manners, etc. "Pulse and respiration" stops check the horse's recovery ability. The judges also set up obstacles along the trail and the horse and rider are graded on how well they perform as a team. The whole point is the partnership between the horse and rider.
  • Cross Country Jumping, a jumping course that contains logs, and natural obstacles mostly. The common clothes worn are usually brighter colors and less conservative.
  • Endurance riding, a competition usually of 50 to 100 miles (160 km) or more, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness, and verify that the horse is fit to continue. The first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner. Additional awards are usually given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10.
  • Fox hunting
  • Hacking or pleasure riding
  • Hunter Pacing is a sport where a horse and rider team travel a trail at speeds based the ideal conditions for the horse, with competitors seeking to ride closest to that perfect time. Hunter paces are usually held in a series. Hunter paces are usually a few miles long and covered mostly at a canter or gallop. The horsemanship and management skills of the rider are also considered in the scoring, and periodic stops are required for veterinarians to check the vital signs and overall soundness of the horses.
  • Ride and Tie is a form of endurance riding in which teams of 3 (two humans and one horse) alternate running and riding.
  • Steeplechase
  • Trail Riding, pleasure riding any breed horse, any style across the land.

Competitive Mounted Orienteering (CMO) is an equestrian sport requiring horsemanship, map reading ability, and compass skills. ... The international orienteering symbol. ... Competitive trail riding is an equestrian sport where riders cover a marked trail for a distance that is usually between 25 and 35 miles per day. ... A competitive pace race is a timed race in which the objective is not to finish in the least time, but to finish within the prescribed time and in the best physical condition. ... Competitors on an endurance ride Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long distance races. ... A competitive pace race is a timed race in which the objective is not to finish in the least time, but to finish within the prescribed time and in the best physical condition. ... A Judged trail ride is a type of trail riding popular in the western United States where horses and riders are asked to travel a natural trail for a set distance (usually 10 to 15 miles) with occasional stops for the horse and rider team to negotiate an obstacle, usually... Cross Country Jumping Cross country jumping is a thrilling discipline in the equine world. ... Competitors on an endurance ride Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long distance races. ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... For more information on how to hack visit www. ... A hunterpace is a form of competition involving horses and riders. ... Competitors on an endurance ride Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long distance races. ... A steeplechase race The steeplechase is a form of horse racing (primarily conducted in the United Kingdom, United States, and Ireland) and derives its name from early races in which orientation of the course was by reference to a church steeple, jumping fences and ditches and generally traversing the many... Trail riding is riding on trails as opposed to riding on roads or courses. ...

Criticism of horses in sport

See also: Horse racing and Rodeo

Most horse owners are interested in the well being and welfare of horses. Some are allied with various animal welfare organizations that try to end genuine abuse of horses. Almost all competitive events have well-established rules and regulations to prevent abuse of animals and to encourage ethical behavior. Most high-intensity sports like show jumping, endurance riding, eventing, rodeo, and horse racing are closely monitored by veterinarians to prevent and treat injuries. On the other hand, there are genuine abuses of horses that do occur. Some people, often motivated by profit or a desire to win at all costs, may inflict pain, overwork, injure, neglect, starve, or drug horses in ways that harm the animal's physical health and mental well-being. Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ...


Organized groups dedicated to protecting all animals, such as the Humane Society of the United States, and animal rights groups such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, target some horse sports with claims of animal cruelty. Horse racing and rodeo are most commonly targeted both because of their visibility to the non-horse-oriented public and because these are sports where it is sometimes difficult for people who do not know much about horses to differentiate between pushing equines to perform to their peak and actual abuse. HSUS logo The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) is a Washington, D.C-based animal welfare advocacy group. ... A man holds a monkey with a limb missing by a rope around her neck, a scene epitomizing the idea of animal ownership. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... Cruelty to animals refers to treatment which causes unacceptable suffering to animals. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... For other uses, see Rodeo (disambiguation). ...


One problem is a disagreement about terms like abuse. While some individuals consider even fairly drastic discipline of horses as non-abusive, others consider abuse to be anything done against the will of the animal in question. Some people consider poor living conditions abusive, others think riding itself is abusive. There is no consensus on the issue. Further, the perspective of the individuals holding various viewpoints is sometimes quite different. For example, horse professionals claim they know better what is best for horses than people who live horseless lives, easily influenced by propaganda. On the other hand, other individuals claim that many horse professionals are biased because of motivation for personal gain.


However, many people take a middle ground, primarily concerned that certain sports or training techniques may unnecessarily cause pain or injuries to horse athletes, just as they do for human athletes. Some people who advocate use of horses in equestrian activities point out that horses in the wild have a shorter average life expectancy and are injured more often and more severely than those used in sport. Most public laws and statutes carefully describe criminally abusive practices that incur legal penalties in very specific terms.


Some behaviors and activities are widely condemned as abusive by people within the horse industry, even if not illegal as a matter of public law. Use of many performance-enhancing drugs is prohibited in most competitions, and organizations that sanction various events spend a great deal of money testing horses for illegal drugs. Some specific training or showing practices are so widely condemned that they have been made illegal at the national level and violations can incur criminal penalties. The most well-known is soring, a practice of applying a caustic ointment just above the hooves of a Tennessee Walking Horse to make it pick up its feet higher. However, in spite of a federal law in the United States prohibiting this practice and routine inspections of horse shows by inspectors from the United States Department of Agriculture, the practice is still widespread and difficult to eliminate.[3] ... USDA redirects here. ...


Some events themselves are also considered so abusive that they are banned in many countries. Among these are horse-tripping, a sport where riders chase and rope a loose-running horse by its front legs, throwing it to the ground.


References

  1. ^ Chamberlin, J. Edward Horse: How the Horse has Shaped Civilization New York:BlueBridge 2006 ISBN 0-9742405-9-1
  2. ^ Hobby Horse clothing company, educational articles on current trends in western show clothing
  3. ^ EQUUS Special Report: Why Soring Persists

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Classical dressage evolved from cavalry movements trained for the battlefield, and has since developed into competitive dressage seen today. ... A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ... The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States, including dressage, driving, endurance riding, eventing, hunt seat equitation, hunter, jumper, paralympic, reining, roadster, saddleseat equitation, vaulting, and western riding. ... This article is about the international equestrian organization. ... Horse training refers to a wide variety of practices that teach horses to perform certain behaviors when asked to do so by humans. ... Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... A rider with a modern GPS style ASTM/SEI approved safety helmet. ...

External links

The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States, including dressage, driving, endurance riding, eventing, hunt seat equitation, hunter, jumper, paralympic, reining, roadster, saddleseat equitation, vaulting, and western riding. ... The Equestrian Federation of Australia, or EFA, is the national governing body for equestrian sports in that country. ... The Equestrian Federation of Ireland, or EFI, is the National Governing Body for all equestrian sport in Ireland. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Grass is a natural source of nutrition for a horse Equine nutrition refers to the feeding of horses, ponies, mules, donkeys and other equids. ... Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... Laura knows far more about horses than Sarah ever will, ever. ... Horse breeding is the process of using selective breeding to produce additional individuals of a given phenotype, that is, continuing a breed. ... See Equine conformation ... Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colours and distinctive markings. ... Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... a horse carries a bit in its mouth, held on by a bridle. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Horse in harness with horse collar A Horse harness is a type of horse tack that allows a horse or other equid to be hitched to pull various horse-drawn vehicles such as a carriage, wagon, plow or sleigh. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ... Horse training refers to a wide variety of practices that teach horses to perform certain behaviors when asked to do so by humans. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ... Reconstruction, left forefoot skeleton (third digit emphasized yellow) and longitudinal section of molars of selected prehistoric horses The evolution of the horse involves the gradual development of the modern horse from the fox-sized, forest-dwelling Hyracotherium. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... // Light or saddle horse breeds Heavy or draft horse breeds This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... A zebra/donkey hybrid A zebroid is a cross between a zebra and any other equid: essentially, a zebra hybrid. ... Binomial name A zeedonk (also spelled zedonk) (also known as zebrass, zebronkey, zonkey, zebadonk, zenkey, zebrinny, or deebra) is a cross between a zebra and a donkey. ... A zony is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a pony mare. ... It has been suggested that Zebrula be merged into this article or section. ... This Tree of Life article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Quagga (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Equus hemionus hemippus Geoffroy, 1855 The Syrian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus hemippus) was a wild ass found in the mountains and desert/steppe of Syria. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
equestrianism - Columbia Encyclopedia article about equestrianism (524 words)
Equestrian events have been held in the Olympic games since 1912.
Equestrian at the 2004 Summer Olympics - Individual dressage
Equestrian at the 2004 Summer Olympics - Individual jumping
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