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Encyclopedia > Equalization
The equaliser section from the Audient ASP8024 Mixing console. The upper section has high and low shelving EQ, the lower section has fully parametric EQ.
The equaliser section from the Audient ASP8024 Mixing console. The upper section has high and low shelving EQ, the lower section has fully parametric EQ.

In audio processing, equalization (or equalisation, EQ) is the process of changing the frequency envelope of a sound. In passing through any channel, temporal/frequency spreading of a signal occurs. Etymologically, it means to correct, or make equal, the frequency response of a signal. The term "equalizer" is often incorrectly applied as a general term for audio filters. DJ mixing equipment and hi-fi audio components often include so called graphic equalizers/equalizers or simply equalizer/equalizer. These are in fact general all-purpose filters, which can be arranged to produce the effect of low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop filters. Only when these filters are arranged so as to reverse the effects of the internal circuitry on sound output, are they operating as equalizers. Parametric EQ was introduced by George Massenburg in 1972 in his AES paper. Equalization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to state or provincial governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue or in the cost of providing services. ... In computing, equalization is a type of bandwidth management that makes adjustments to the flow of data along a computer network. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x1944, 238 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Equalization ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x1944, 238 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Equalization ... Audio signal processing, sometimes referred to as audio processing, is the processing of a representation of auditory signals, or sound. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... Channel, in communications (sometimes called communications channel), refers to the medium used to convey information from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Frequency response is the measure of any systems response to frequency, but is usually used in connection with electronic amplifiers and similar systems, particularly in relation to audio signals. ... An audio filter is a type of filter used for processing sound signals. ... For other meanings of DJ, see DJ (disambiguation). ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... “Sound recorder” redirects here. ... A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low frequencies but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. ... A high-pass filter is a filter that passes high frequencies well, but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency. ... The frequency axis of this symbolic diagram would be logarithmically scaled. ... A generic band-stop filter, showing both positive and negative angular frequencies In signal processing, a band-stop filter or band-rejection filter is a filter that passes most frequencies unaltered, but attenuates those in a range to very low levels. ... Parametric equalizer (or parametric EQ) is an electronic multi-band variable equalizer device used in sound recording and live sound reproduction with Public Address systems (PA systems). Parametric equalization devices allow audio engineers to control the parameters of the internal band-pass filter sections (amplitude, center frequency and bandwidth). ... George Y. Massenburg (b. ... Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from amongst engineers, scientists, manufacturers and other organisations and individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry. ...

Contents

Overview

Two examples of the frequency response of a peaking EQ
Two examples of the frequency response of a peaking EQ
Two examples of the frequency response of a shelving EQ
Two examples of the frequency response of a shelving EQ

There are many kinds of EQ. Each has a different pattern of attenuation or boost. A peaking equalizer raises or lowers a range of frequencies around a central point in a bell shape. A peaking equalizer with controls to adjust the level (Gain), bandwidth (Q) and center frequency is called a parametric equalizer. If there is no control for the bandwidth (it is fixed by the designer) then it is called a quasi-parametric or semi-parametric equalizer. Image File history File links Peaking-eq. ... Image File history File links Peaking-eq. ... Image File history File links Shelving-eq. ... Image File history File links Shelving-eq. ... In electronics, gain is usually taken as the mean ratio of the signal output of a system to the signal input of the system. ... Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The frequency axis of this symbolic diagram would be logarithmically scaled. ...


A pass filter attenuates either high or low frequencies while allowing other frequencies to pass unfiltered. A high-pass filter modifies a signal only by taking out low frequencies; a low-pass filter only modifies the audio signal by taking out high frequencies. A pass filter is described by its cut-off point and slope. The cut-off point is the frequency where high or low-frequencies will be removed. The slope, given in decibels per octave, describes a ratio of how the filter attenuates frequencies past the cut-off point (eg. 12 dB per octave). A band-pass filter is simply a combination of one high-pass filter and one low-pass filter which together allow only a band of frequencies to pass, attenuating both high and low frequencies past certain cut-off points. A high-pass filter is a filter that passes high frequencies well, but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency. ... A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low frequencies but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. ... The frequency axis of this symbolic diagram would be logarithmically scaled. ...


Shelving-type equalizers increase or attenuate the level of a wide range of frequencies by a fixed amount. A low shelf will affect low frequencies up to a certain point and then above that point will have little effect. A high shelf affects the level of high frequencies, while below a certain point, the low frequencies are unaffected.


One common type of equalizer is the graphic equalizer, which consists of a bank of sliders for boosting and cutting different bands (or frequencies ranges) of sound. Normally, these bands are tight enough to give at least 3 dB or 6 dB maximum effect for neighboring bands, and cover the range from around 20 Hz to 20 kHz (which is approximately the range of human hearing). A simple equalizer might have bands at 20 Hz, 200 Hz, 2 kHz and 20 kHz, and might be referred to as a 4-band equalizer. A typical equalizer for live sound reinforcement might have as many as 24 or 31 bands. A typical 31-band equalizer is also called a 1/3-octave equalizer because the center frequencies of sliders are spaced one third of an octave apart. Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... A live sound reproduction system has two main forms: A sound reinforcement system enhances the volume of the initial sound and will be designed so that as much as possible the listener will not realise that an artificial system is being used to make it easier for them to hear...

31-band Behringer equalizer with feedback detection.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x532, 1060 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x532, 1060 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH (Behringer) is a German audio equipment manufacturer, founded in its present form in 1989. ...

Uses

In Multitrack recording and sound reinforcement systems, individual channels have equalization for aesthetic reasons, while the combined mix of sound is processed through equalization for practical reasons. Any acoustic space will cause some sound frequencies to be louder than others. This is due to standing waves produced by the size of the room and the materials in it. Equalization is used to compensate for the discrepancies of a room's acoustics. Ideally, a sound system would produce a flat frequency response. The frequency response of a room is examined with a Spectrum analyzer and usually a graphic equalizer, with matching frequency bands, is used to compensate for the room acoustics. This is standard practice for sound recording studios, live sound reinforcement systems and some High fidelity sound systems. The Tascam 85 16B analogue tape recorder can record 16 tracks of audio on 1 inch (2. ... A sound reinforcement system is a functional arrangement of electronic components that is designed to reinforce a live sound source. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A standing wave, also known as a stationary wave, is a wave that remains in a constant position. ... Acoustics is the branch of physics concerned with the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... A spectrum analyzer is a device used to examine the spectral composition of some electrical, acoustic, or optical waveform. ... A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. ... A sound reinforcement system is a functional arrangement of electronic components that is designed to reinforce a live sound source. ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ...


One of the most direct uses of equalization is at a live event, where microphones and speakers operate simultaneously. An equalizer is used to ensure that there are no frequency bands where there is a round trip gain of greater than 1, as these are heard as audible feedback. Those frequencies are cut at the equalizer to prevent this. For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... Audio feedback (also known as the Larsen effect after the Danish scientist, Søren Larsen, who first discovered its principles) is a special kind of feedback which occurs when a sound loop exists between an audio input (for example, a microphone or guitar pickup) and an audio output (for example...


All audio records have had equalization applied to the sound waveform before the consumers' record was made because of the limitations of equipment for recording and manufacturing the record. One scheme was used prior to 1940. Some 100 formulae were used until 1955, when the RIAA standard formula was implemented. The low frequencies are reduced before the sound is imprinted onto a record, and they are boosted to their original level on playback. A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... The RIAA equalization curve for playback of vinyl records. ...


Early telephone systems used equalization to correct for the reduced level of high frequencies in long cables. For example, a particular microphone might be more sensitive to low frequency sounds than to high frequency sounds, so an equalizer would be used to increase the volume of the higher frequencies (boost), and reduce the volume of the low frequency sounds (cut). Modern systems have less trouble in the voice frequency range, but DSL circuits operating in the MHz range on those same wires may suffer severe attenuation distortion which is dealt with by automatic equalization or by abandoning the worst frequencies. Picturephone circuits also had equalizers. For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... “Microphones” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... DSL redirects here. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A videophone is a telephone which is capable of both audio and video duplex transmission. ...


Telephone companies use equalization to reduce bleed-through or crosstalk between adjacent telephone wires. This occurs due to inductance, Capacitance or Electrical conductance coupling. The higher frequencies are more likely to transfer to adjacent wires. The bandpass that the phone company allows through is 400 through 3,400 Hz. Any frequencies above or below this are filtered out. These frequencies are acceptable for voice speech to be transmitted clearly. In telecommunication, the term crosstalk (XT) has the following meanings: 1. ... An electric current i flowing around a circuit produces a magnetic field and hence a magnetic flux Φ through the circuit. ... Capacitance is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. ... Electrical conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistance. ... The frequency axis of this symbolic diagram would be logarithmically scaled. ...


The individual channels of a mixing board and the sound of electric instruments are equalized for aesthetic reasons. Some Guitar Effects units, in particular, the wah-wah pedal is based on equalization. Equalization is used to manipulate the timbre of musical instruments and sounds. Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... It has been suggested that Effects pedal be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the effect pedal, also known as a Wah. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ...


See also

Look up equalisation, equalization in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... An equalization (EQ) filter is a filter, usually adjustable, chiefly meant to compensate for the unequal frequency response of some other signal processing circuit or system. ... Parametric equalizer (or parametric EQ) is an electronic multi-band variable equalizer device used in sound recording and live sound reproduction with Public Address systems (PA systems). Parametric equalization devices allow audio engineers to control the parameters of the internal band-pass filter sections (amplitude, center frequency and bandwidth). ... Blind equalization is a digital signal processing problem in which the channel impulse response and the transmitted signal are inferred from the received signal. ... Television signal splitter consisting of a hi-pass filter (left) and a low-pass filter (right). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Equalization. ... The frequency axis of this symbolic diagram would be logarithmically scaled. ... A high-pass filter is a filter that passes high frequencies well, but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency. ... A low-pass filter is a filter that passes low frequencies but attenuates (or reduces) frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. ... In audio processing, equalization (EQ) is the process of modifying the frequency envelope of a sound. ...

External links

  • EQ frequencies
  • Uk Sound And Lighting Community
  • Blue Room Technical Forums
  • Equalisation for Guitar Multi-Effects
  • Calculator: bandwidth per octave N to quality factor Q and back
  • Wavebyte GFX Equalizer
  • EQ Condensed Overview
  • Parametric Equalizer Example

  Results from FactBites:
 
equal. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. (545 words)
Objections to the more equal construction rest on the assumption that the mathematical notion of equality is appropriate to the description of a world where the equality of two quantities is often an approximate matter, and where statements of equality are always relative to an implicit standard of tolerance.
When someone says The two boards are of equal length, we assume that the equality is reckoned to some order of approximation determined by the context; if we did not, we would be required always to use nearly equal when speaking of the dimensions of physical objects.
What is more, we often speak of the equality of things that cannot be measured quantitatively, as when we say The college draft was introduced in an effort to make the teams in the National Football League as equal as possible, or The candidates for the job should all be given equal consideration.
CLHS: Function EQUAL (364 words)
equal is true of two objects if they are symbols that are eq, if they are numbers that are eql, or if they are characters that are eql.
For conses, equal is defined recursively as the two cars being equal and the two cdrs being equal.
Object equality is not a concept for which there is a uniquely determined correct algorithm.
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