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Encyclopedia > Equal Rights Amendment

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution intended to guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex. Amendments can be approved according to the process in Article V of the Constitution. The final deadline for approving the ERA passed in either 1979 or 1982—depending upon one's view of a controversial extension of the ratification time constraint. In the intervening years, public discussion on the ERA has been greatly reduced, though the proposal has been reintroduced in every Congress since 1982. In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ... In library and information science, historiography and some other areas of scholarship, a secondary source is a document or recording that relates or discusses information originally presented elsewhere. ... Amend redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Equal Rights can be: One of several groups called the Equal Rights Party. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


In the current 110th Congress, the "Equal Rights Amendment" has been offered in the Senate as S.J. Res. 10 by Democrat Sen. Edward Kennedy, MA, lead sponsor, and in the House of Representatives as H.J. Res. 40 with Democrat Representative Carolyn Maloney, NY, as lead sponsor. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Carolyn Bosher Maloney (b. ... This article is about the state. ...

Contents

Text of the ERA

The text of the Equal Rights Amendment, as proposed to the state legislatures in 1972 by the 92nd Congress, with a seven-year deadline for ratification, and as published in Volume 86, United States Statutes At Large (pages 1523–1524), reads as follows:[1] Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ninety-Second United States Congresss convened on 21 January 1971, and adjourned on 18 October 1972. ...

Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification.

History of the ERA

History in Congress

Although the 1920 ratification of the 19th Amendment had guaranteed American women's right to vote, Alice Paul, a suffragist leader, argued that this right alone would not end remaining vestiges of legal discrimination based upon sex. In 1923, Paul drafted the Equal Rights Amendment and presented it as the "Lucretia Mott Amendment" at the celebration of the 75th anniversary of the 1848 Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives Amendment XIX (the Nineteenth Amendment) allowed women the right to vote under official constitutional protection. ... Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Alice Stokes Paul (January 11, 1885 – July 9, 1977) was an American suffragist leader. ... Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom and United States, particularly in the years prior to World War I. The name was the Womens Social and Political Union (founded in 1903). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lucretia Coffin Mott (January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was an American Quaker minister, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of womens rights. ... An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn, meaning (re)turning yearly; known in English since c. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Declaration of Sentiments is a document signed in 1848 by sixty-eight women and thirty-two men, delegates to the first womens rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York, now known to historians as the 1848 Womens Rights Convention. ...


The National Women's Party took the ERA to Congress in the 1920s, where Sen. Charles Curtis and Rep. Daniel R. Anthony, Jr.—both Republicans and both from Kansas—introduced it for the first time as Senate Joint Resolution No. 21 on December 10, 1923, and as House Joint Resolution No. 75 on December 13, 1923, respectively. Though the ERA was introduced in every session of Congress between 1923 and 1970, it almost never reached the floor of either the Senate or the House for a vote—instead, it was usually "bottled up" in committee. Exceptions occurred in 1946, when it was defeated in the Senate by a vote of 38 to 35, and in 1950, when it was passed by the Senate in a modified form unacceptable to its supporters. The ERA was strongly opposed by the American Federation of Labor and other labor unions as well as by Eleanor Roosevelt and most New Dealers, who contended that women needed government help and should not be forced into the workplace to compete with men. National Womans Party - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Daniel Read Anthony, Jr. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... A Congressional committee in the parlance of the United States Congress and politics of the United States is a legislative sub-organization that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress, making necessary and proper laws). ... The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt known as Eleanor (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was an American political leader who used her influence as an active First Lady from 1933 to 1945 to promote the New Deal policies of her husband, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as taking a prominent... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ...


Representative Martha W. Griffiths of Michigan, however, achieved success on Capitol Hill with her House Joint Resolution No. 208, which was adopted by the House on October 12, 1971, with a vote of 354 yeas, 24 nays and 51 not voting (117 Congressional Record 35815). Griffiths' joint resolution was then adopted by the Senate on March 22, 1972, with a vote of 84 yeas, 8 nays and 7 not voting (118 Congressional Record 9598). And with that, the ERA was finally presented by the 92nd Congress to the state legislatures for ratification, as Article V of the Constitution prescribes, with a seven-year deadline for ratification by the required three-quarters of the legislatures (38 legislatures). Martha W. Griffiths was an American Democratic politician. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The national debate on the ERA has largely subsided, in part because of expanded interpretations of existing statutes and constitutional provisions which have afforded more equal legal treatment of men and women. In Congress, supporters of the ERA have re-introduced the amendment in Congress [1] every term since 1982 without success.


On March 27, 2007, new resolutions were introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate as H.J. Res. 40 and S.J. Res. 10, respectively. They contain the traditional ERA language, but this time with no deadline attached. The congressional sponsors referred to the new resolutions by the name "Women's Equality Amendment," but this title does not appear in the resolutions, and some groups backing the proposals continue to refer to them as the "Equal Right Amendment."[2][3]


Mixed reception in state legislature

The initial pace of state legislative ratifications was rapid during 1972 and 1973, but then slowed considerably with only three ratifications during 1974, just one in 1975, none at all in 1976, and only one in 1977. The 92nd Congress, in proposing the ERA, had set a seven-year time limit for the Amendment's ratification, and by the end of that deadline on March 22, 1979, a total of 35 of the required 38 states had ratified it. However, five of these 35 states withdrew their ratifications before the deadline arrived. In 1981, the only court to consider the issue ruled that these rescissions were valid. (Idaho v. Freeman, 1981, 459 U.S. 809) Thus, in the view of many (but not all) legal scholars, the 1972 ERA died in 1978, with only 30 of the necessary 38 state ratifications. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      In the United States of America, a state legislature is a generic term referring to the... Deadline can refer to several things: A deadline is a point in time at which something must be completed. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


However, in 1978, Congress passed a controversial bill, by majority votes (not two-thirds votes), that purported to extend the ratification deadline for 39 months. During this disputed "extension," no new states ratified or rescinded. The only federal court to even consider the issue ruled that this ex post facto extension was unconstitutional. (Idaho v. Freeman, 1981, 459 U.S. 809)


The National Organization for Women attempted to appeal the U.S. district court holdings (in Idaho v. Freeman) that the rescissions were valid and the time extension was unconstitutional, but in 1982 the U.S. Supreme Court declared the entire matter moot, on grounds that the 1972 ERA was dead with or without the rescissions and with or without the purported deadline extension.

Red denotes states that ratified the Equal Rights Amendment, orange denotes states that ratified but later rescinded their ratifications, green denotes states which failed to ratify it despite the approval of at least one chamber of their legislatures.

As previously noted, five of the 35 states which ratified the ERA rescinded their ratifications before the original 1979 deadline. (Technically, in South Dakota, one of the five, the legislature passed a measure that said its assent would last only until March 22, 1979.) Image File history File links Equal_Rights_Amendment_Map. ... Image File history File links Equal_Rights_Amendment_Map. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Here are details on the five rescissions:

  1. Idaho which ratified the ERA on March 24, 1972, by approving Senate Joint Resolution No. 133, and which then adopted House Concurrent Resolution No. 10 on February 8, 1977, to rescind that ratification.
  2. Kentucky which ratified the ERA on June 26, 1972, by approving House (Joint) Resolution No. 2, and which then adopted House (Joint) Resolution No. 20 on March 17, 1978, to rescind that ratification; there is some speculation about Kentucky's rescission in that the rescinding resolution was vetoed by the Lieutenant Governor who was acting as Governor in the Governor's absence. However, the U.S. Constitution provides no role for a governor (nor for the President of the United States) in the constitutional amendment process.
  3. Nebraska which ratified the ERA on March 29, 1972, by approving the erroneously-worded Legislative Resolution No. 83 and then approving the correctly-worded Legislative Resolution No. 86; Nebraska lawmakers then adopted Legislative Resolution No. 9 on March 15, 1973, to rescind only the aforementioned Legislative Resolution No. 83—this could mean that Nebraska remains officially in the "ratified" column.
  4. Tennessee which ratified the ERA on April 4, 1972, by approving House Joint Resolution No. 371, and which then adopted Senate Joint Resolution No. 29 on April 23, 1974, to rescind that ratification.
  5. South Dakota, where lawmakers ratified the ERA on February 5, 1973, by approving Senate Joint Resolution No. 1; then South Dakota legislators adopted Senate Joint Resolution No. 2 on March 1, 1979, stipulating that the ERA's opportunity for ratification—by any state of the Union—would expire on March 22, 1979; furthermore, Senate Joint Resolution No. 2 made clear that South Dakota's own ratification of the ERA would only be valid up until March 22, 1979, and that any activities transpiring after that date would be considered by South Dakota to be null and void.

Some law professors believe that a state legislature cannot rescind its prior ratification of a proposed Federal constitutional amendment. However, the U.S. District Court for Idaho held, in Idaho v. Freeman, that the rescissions — all of which occurred before the original 1978 ratification deadline — were valid. And, according to research by Prof. Jules B. Gerard, professor of law at Washington University, of the 35 legislatures that passed ratification resolutions, 24 explicitly referred to the 1978 deadline. (Letter to House Judiciary Committee, June 14, 1978) Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


At various times, in eight of the 15 non-ratifying states, at least one chamber of the legislature approved the ERA, those eight states being:

  1. Florida whose House of Representatives voted to ratify the ERA on March 24, 1972, with a tally of 91 to 4; a second time on April 10, 1975, with a tally of 62 to 58; a third time on May 17, 1979, with a tally of 66 to 53; and a fourth time on June 21, 1982, with a tally of 60 to 58.
  2. Illinois whose Senate voted to ratify the ERA in May of 1972, with a tally of 30 to 21; and whose House of Representatives voted to ratify the ERA on May 1, 1975, with a tally of 113 to 62; and again on May 21, 2003, with a tally of 76 to 41. At various times, votes were conducted in both chambers of the Illinois General Assembly on the question of ratifying the ERA and while most members voted in favor of ratification, the result would often be less than the three-fifths supermajority vote—a requirement that existed in Illinois when those votes were cast.
  3. Louisiana whose Senate voted to ratify the ERA on June 7, 1972, with a tally of 25 to 13.
  4. Missouri whose House of Representatives voted to ratify the ERA on February 7, 1975, with a tally of 82 to 75.
  5. Nevada whose Assembly voted to ratify the ERA on February 17, 1975, with a tally of 27 to 13; and whose Senate voted to ratify the ERA on February 8, 1977, with a tally of 11 to 10.
  6. North Carolina whose House of Representatives voted to ratify the ERA on February 9, 1977, with a tally of 61 to 55.
  7. Oklahoma whose Senate voted to ratify the ERA on March 23, 1972, by a voice vote.
  8. South Carolina whose House of Representatives voted to ratify the ERA on March 22, 1972, with a tally of 83 to zero.

This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A voice vote in a legislative body refers to a vote taken on a topic where the participants respond to a question with yea (yes), nay (no), or present (abstain). ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Extension of ratification deadline

In 1978—as the 1979 deadline approached—the 95th Congress adopted House Joint Resolution No. 638, by Representative Elizabeth Holtzman of New York, which purported to extend the ERA's ratification deadline to June 30, 1982 (Volume 92, United States Statutes At Large, page 3799). It should be noted that House Joint Resolution No. 638 received fewer than a two-thirds vote in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. For that reason, it was deemed necessary by ERA supporters that House Joint Resolution No. 638 be transmitted to then-President Jimmy Carter for signature as a safety precaution. Carter did sign the joint resolution, although questioning—on procedural grounds—the propriety of his doing so. Ninety-fifth United States Congress Links and spelling have to be verified. ... Elizabeth Holtzman (born August 11, 1941) is an American Democratic politician. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


No additional states ratified the ERA during that extra period of slightly more than three years. On June 18, 1980, a resolution in the Illinois House of Representatives resulted in a vote of 102-71 in favor. However, Illinois required a 3/5ths majority on constitutional amendments, and the measure failed by only five votes. In fact, the only occurrence favorable to the ERA between the original deadline of March 22, 1979, and the revised June 30, 1982, expiration date was—as noted earlier—its approval by the Florida House of Representatives on June 21, 1982. In the final week before the deadline, that ratifying resolution was defeated in the Florida Senate by a vote of 16 yeas and 22 nays. Even if Florida had become the 36th state to ratify the ERA, the amendment would still have been two states short of the required 38 (or seven states short, if rescissions are valid). is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


On December 23, 1981, a United States District Court ruled, in the case of State of Idaho, et al. v. Freeman, et al. (529 F. Supp. 1107; judgment stayed January 25, 1982), that the ERA's deadline extension was unconstitutional and, further, that a state legislature may indeed rescind a prior ratification of a proposed amendment to the Federal Constitution.[4] The case ultimately was appealed to the United States Supreme Court. The Office of the Solicitor General of the United States argued that the required number of states (38) had not ratified whether or not the deadline extension was valid and whether or not the rescissions were valid, and that "the Amendment has failed of adoption no matter what the resolution of the legal issues presented here."[5] The Supreme Court agreed and ordered the case dismissed as moot on October 4, 1982.[6] The Supreme Court thereby recognized that the 1972 ERA had failed to win ratification, but the Court did not issue a ruling on the merits of the either the deadline extension issue or the rescission issue in this case. is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... The Solicitor General is a cabinet position in several countries, dealing with legal affairs. ... This article is about the law term moot. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Shift in political attitudes

The political tide changed direction in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. At the 1980 Republican National Convention in Detroit, Michigan, the Republican Party platform was amended to qualify its support for the ERA. One of the most prominent opponents to the ERA was Phyllis Schlafly, a conservative Republican. According to its critics, the ERA would have granted more power to Congress and to the Federal courts, a stance unpopular at a time when public opposition to expanded Federal government authority—and Federal judicial activism in particular—was growing. Opponents, and even most supporters of the ERA, agree that if freshly re-proposed by Congress, the ERA would have to start from scratch and would need to gain state ratifications all over again—the state approvals achieved during the 1970s being non-transferable. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Phyllis Schlafly (born on August 15, 1924, in St. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the federal government of the United States. ... Judicial activism is a term used by political commentators to describe a tendency by judges to consider outcomes, attitudinal preferences, and other public policy issues in interpreting applicable existing law. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Criticism of the ERA

Opponents of the ERA argue that its passage would have far-reaching implications, obliterating traditional distinctions between the sexes. Women, ERA opponents claim, would be required to register for the Selective Service System (the draft) just as men currently do, and would have to serve in combat just as men must. Opponents go on to assert that the ERA would also remove laws that specially protect women, such as labor laws in heavy industry. The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military conscription. ... “Fights” redirects here. ... This article is about law in society. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Especially since the early 1980s, the potential impact of the ERA on abortion-related laws has become a major factor in the ERA debate. On November 15, 1983, the majority (Democratic) leadership of the U.S. House of Representatives attempted to again pass the ERA (to begin the entire ratification process over again), under a procedure that did not allow consideration of any amendments. The ERA fell short of the required two-thirds vote (278-147) when 14 co-sponsors voted against it, many of them insisting on the need for an "abortion-neutral" amendment proposed by Congressman F. James Sensenbrenner, which read, "Nothing in this Article [the ERA] shall be construed to grant, secure, or deny any right relating to abortion or the funding thereof." Neither house of Congress has voted on any ERA since that day. is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ...


The ERA-abortion issue was further fueled by the use of ERAs in state constitutions in lawsuits attacking anti-abortion policies in some states. ERA-based efforts to invalidate restrictions on tax-funded abortions succeeded in Connecticut and, especially, in New Mexico. On November 25, 1998, the New Mexico Supreme Court ruled 5-0 that the state ERA -- very similar to the proposed federal ERA -- prohibited the state from restricting abortion differently from "medically necessary procedures" sought by men, and the court ordered the state to pay for abortions under the state's Medicaid program.[7] In its ruling, the court adopted the construction of the ERA urged in the case by the National Abortion and Reproductive Rights Action League, Planned Parenthood, the ACLU, the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, and the NOW Legal Defense and Education Fund. The doctrine that the ERA language invalidates limitations on tax-funded abortion was also supported in briefs filed by the state Women's Bar Association, Public Health Association, and League of Women Voters. This ruling is now often cited by pro-life (anti-abortion) groups in debates over ERAs in Congress and various legislatures.[8] Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ...


Other critics have argued that the courts could rule that the ERA would mandate the recognition of same-sex marriage. They point to various court decisions, including a Hawaii Supreme Court decision in 1993, a Baltimore, Maryland circuit court decision in January 2006, the Massachusetts ruling for same-sex marriage in 2003, and to a decision by a California trial court in March 2005, all of which used state bans on sex discrimination as partial justification for the rulings. Same-sex marriage is marriage between individuals who are of the same legal or biological sex. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Critics also maintain that the ERA would require the integration of single-sex schools, sports teams or even restrooms—they point to a decision by a court in the State of Washington which ordered a fraternal civic organization to admit women, based upon the ERA within its state constitution. Finally, some opponents of the ERA contend that the amendment simply is not necessary, and that other provisions of the Constitution—and various rulings by the U.S. Supreme Court and lower federal courts—provide sufficient support for equal rights for both genders. Students in Rome, Italy. ... A sport consists of a normal physical activity or skill carried out under a publicly agreed set of rules, and with a recreational purpose: for competition, for self-enjoyment, to attain excellence, for the development of skill, or some combination of these. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Some supporters of the ERA characterize some of the opponents' arguments as "scare tactics," or as overstating the changes designed that the ERA would impose in specific areas of the law. For instance, ERA advocates argue that the assertion that the ERA would require women to register for the draft ignores the fact that, under Article I of the Constitution, Congress has always had the power to draft women. Opponents respond that the status quo, in which Congress may draft women—but has chosen not to—is different from requiring that any draft apply equally to men and women.


"Sex Bias in the U.S. Code"

The report, entitled Sex Bias in the U.S. Code, co-authored by Ruth Bader Ginsburg (and sixteen other individuals under the supervision of a government attorney), before Ginsburg became a federal judge, and published in 1977 by the United States Commission on Civil Rights, sought to show how the proposed ERA (for which Ginsburg was a strong advocate) would change Federal laws to make them gender-neutral and to "eliminate sex-discriminatory provisions." Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (born March 15, 1933, Brooklyn, New York) is an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. ... The Commission on Civil Rights (USCCR) is an independent agency of the United States government. ...


Three-state strategy

Some ERA supporters argue that the earlier 35 state ratifications are still valid and therefore only three more would amend the ERA to the Constitution, without Congress resubmitting it to state lawmakers. This idea is called the "three-state strategy".


The three-state strategy was publicly unveiled at a press conference held in Washington, D.C., in December, 1993. According to an Associated Press report, "a coalition of women's groups," operating under the name "ERA Summit," planned "to ask Congress to nullify 1982 deadline for ratification."[9] Early the following year, Congressman Robert E. Andrews (D-NJ) introduced a resolution in the U.S. House of Representatives to require that "when the legislatures of an additional 3 States ratify the Equal Rights Amendment, the House of Representatives shall take any legislative action necessary to verify the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment as a part of the Constitution."[10] No action was taken on the resolution, which has also been introduced in subsequent congresses.


An article published in the William and Mary Journal of Women and the Law in 1997[11] explains a legal rationale for the "three-state strategy." It argues that:

  1. The 35 ratifications from state legislatures during the 1970s remain valid;
  2. Rescissions of prior ratifications are not constitutional;
  3. The 1978 extension of the ERA's deadline demonstrates that Congress can amend previously established deadlines; and
  4. The 27th Amendment's 203 year ratification period set a standard of "sufficiently contemporaneous"—a term used during the U.S. Supreme Court's 1921 ruling in Dillon v. Gloss—giving Congress the power to set time limits on constitutional amendments. (Dillon v. Gloss was later modified by Coleman v. Miller, which is also a basis for the Three State Strategy.)

The article further reasons that because the Constitution gives Congress the power to propose amendments to the Constitution—and indeed the power to alter aspects of the ratification process itself—that if and when three additional states ratify the ERA, Congress has the power to deem the Amendment properly ratified and duly added to the Constitution. Page 1 of the certification of Amendment XXVII in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendments certification Page 3 of the amendments certification Amendment XXVII (the Twenty-seventh Amendment) is the most recent amendment to be incorporated into the United States Constitution, having been ratified in 1992... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... In 1921, the United States Supreme Court ruled, in the case of [256 U.S. 368 (1921)], that if the United States Congress—when proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States—desires to place a deadline on that particular constitutional amendments ratification, that Congress may indeed... Coleman v. ...


Opponents of the three-state strategy point out that the 1789 resolution proposing what is known today as the 27th Amendment ("Madison Amendment"), dealing with congressional pay raises, did not contain a deadline for ratification. Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1996, the Library of Congress' Congressional Research Service issued a report that said, "There is no precedent for Congress promulgating an amendment based on state ratifications adopted after a ratification deadline has expired. However, proponents of this course cite as possible precedent the ratification activity of the states regarding the 27th Amendment (the congressional pay, or the 'Madison Amendment') ... proponents of the ERA might wish to adopt a strategy of urging its ratification by state legislatures because their actions might prompt this or a future Congress to proclaim the amendment had been ratified." CRS stressed that it "takes no position on any of the issues."[12] Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress. ...


Several state legislatures have considered the three-state strategy, but none have passed a resolution:

  • The first state legislature to consider a ratification resolution based on the "three-state" theory was Virginia, in 1994. The resolution was not approved.[13]
  • The Illinois House of Representatives on May 21, 2003, adopted a resolution ratifying the ERA—proposed in 1972. However, the Illinois Senate did not ratify the ERA and resolution died at the end of 2004.
  • On April 5, 2005, the Arkansas Senate voted 16 yeas, 15 nays and 4 "not voting" on a resolution to approve the ERA. Under the Arkansas Senate parliamentary rules, this type of resolution requires a majority vote—that is, at least 18 votes for the amendment.
  • During 2007, ERA ratification resolutions were introduced in Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri, and Mississippi. The Arkansas resolution (HJR 1002) failed in a committee of the state House, after 20 legislators (including two members of the committee) withdrew their co-sponsorships of the resolution. Pro-life groups claim the change was due in part to their intervention.[14] On May 15, 2007, the Committee on Civil Law and Procedure of the Louisiana House defeated a similar ERA ratification resolution (HCR 4), on a vote of 5 to 4.[15]

is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Alternatives to the ERA

Federal

Despite the ERA's failure at ratification, many of its goals have otherwise been achieved through judicial interpretations of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. The successes of feminism in altering both the culture and politics of the United States since the 1970s, together with the significant inclusion of women in many fields once traditionally dominated by men, have dampened much of the political momentum that once propelled the ERA. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Congressman John Bingham of Ohio was the principal framer of the Equal Protection Clause. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ...


State

Since 1879, a total of twenty-one states have added equal rights amendments to their state constitutions, and unlike the Federal Government, states must comply with the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. All of these state-level amendments, like the proposed Federal ERA, prohibit discrimination based on sex. Thirteen of the state-level amendments also prohibit discrimination based on race, national origin, or creed—and three of them even go so far as to prohibit discrimination on account of a physical handicap. Those twenty-one states are: Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44° 21′ N to 49° N  - Longitude 104° 2′ W to 116° 3′ W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Largest metro area Greater Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...


NOW

In 1995, the National Organization For Women proposed the Constitutional Equality Amendment [2]. The Amendment, which has not be introduced into any session of Congress, reads; Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an American feminist group, founded in 1966, which claims a membership of 500,000 members (which is disputed)[1] [2] and 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. ...


Section 1. Women and men shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place and entity subject to its jurisdiction; through this article, the subordination of women to men is abolished;


Section 2. All persons shall have equal rights and privileges without discrimination on account of sex, race, sexual orientation, marital status, ethnicity, national origin, color or indigence;


Section 3. This article prohibits pregnancy discrimination and guarantees the absolute right of a woman to make her own reproductive decisions including the termination of pregnancy;


Section 4. This article prohibits discrimination based upon characteristics unique to or stereotypes about any class protected under this article. This article also prohibits discrimination through the use of any facially neutral criteria which have a disparate impact based on membership in a class protected under this article.


Section 5. This article does not preclude any law, program or activity that would remedy the effects of discrimination and that is closely related to achieving such remedial purposes;


Section 6. This article shall be interpreted under the highest standard of judicial review;


Section 7. The United States and the several states shall guarantee the implementation and enforcement of this article.


References

  1. ^ Constitutional Amendments Not Ratified. United States House of Representatives. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  2. ^ Eilperin, Juliet (March 28, 2007). New Drive Afoot to Pass Equal Rights Amendment. Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  3. ^ Women's Equality Amendment resolution
  4. ^ Idaho v. Freeman, U.S. District Court for the District of Idaho, Civ. No. 79-1097, 529 F. Supp. 1107, December 23, 1981
  5. ^ Memorandum of Lawrence G. Wallace, Acting Solicitor General, Department of Justice, July 1982.
  6. ^ Order from Office of the Clerk, Supreme Court of the United States, October 3, 1982.
  7. ^ New Mexico Right to Choose/NARAL v. Johnson,  1999-NMSC-005 (Supreme Court of the State of New Mexico 1998-11-25)
  8. ^ Letter from National Right to Life to members of Congress, opposing ERA without "abortion-neutral amendment," March 28, 2007.
  9. ^ "New strategy adopted to revive ERA," by Kim I. Mills, Associated Press, as it appeared in the Sacramento (Ca.) Bee, December 12, 1993.
  10. ^ Text of H. Res. 432, 103rd Congress, 2nd Session, May 23, 1994.
  11. ^ Allison Held, Sheryl L. Herndon, and Danielle M. Stager; The Equal Rights Amendment: Why the ERA Remains Legally Viable and Properly Before the States, William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law (Vol. 3, Issue 1, Spring 1997), 113-136. Article and Summary
  12. ^ "Memorandum: Equal Rights Amendment: Ratification Issues", by David C. Huckabee. Specialist in American National Government, Government Division, The Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service. March 18, 1996. Document can be found here: Image:ERAratificationissuesCRS1996.pdf
  13. ^ "Night of the Living Dead Amendment," by George F. Will, Washington Post, February 13, 1994.
  14. ^ "Effort to revive federal E.R.A. suffers stunning setback, as Arkansas House committee votes down ratification resolution," National Right to Life Committee, February 7, 2007
  15. ^ "Committee rejects plea to ratify ERA," by Mark Ballard, Baton Rouge Advocate, May 16, 2007

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links ERAratificationissuesCRS1996. ...

Further reading

  • Bradley, Martha S., Pedestals and Podiums: Utah Women, Religious Authority, and Equal Rights, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, UT, 2005, ISBN 1-56085-189-9
  • Donald T. Critchlow. Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade Princeton University Press, 2005. 422 pp. ISBN 0-691-07002-4.
  • Jane J. Mansbridge. Why We Lost the ERA University Of Chicago Press 1986. ISBN 0-226-50358-5
  • Genevieve G. McBride, "'Forward' Women: Winning the Wisconsin Campaign for the Country's First ERA, 1921), in Peter Watson Boone, ed., The Quest for Social Justice III (Milwaukee, Wis.: UW-Milwaukee, 2005) ISBN 1-879281-26-0
  • Nicholson, Zoe Ann, The Hungry Heart - A Woman's Fast for Justice, Lune Soleil Press, Newport Beach, CA, ISBN 0-9723928-3-1
  • Lee, Rex E., "A Lawyer Looks at the Equal Rights Amendment", Brigham Young University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-8425-1883-5

See also

The United States Constitution has been amended on 18 occasions—with a total of 27 individual successful amendments—since the Constitution was completed in 1787. ... The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights. This is a complete list of all ratified and unratified amendments to the United States Constitution which have received the approval of the Congress. ... This is an incomplete list of proposed amendments to the United States Constitution, in reverse chronological order. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Opened for signature 18 December 1979 in New York City Entered into force 3 September 1981 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 185[1] The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW... Womens Right to Know refers to the idea that a pregnant woman seeking an abortion should be educated as to the possible negative consequences of such a procedure. ... The Committee on Womens Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) is a committee of the European Parliament. ... Equal pay for women is an issue involving pay inequality between men and women. ... This is a history of feminism and the role of women throughout the history of the United States. ... Feminist Studies refers to: Feminist Studies is an interdisciplinary undergraduate program investigating the significance of gender in all areas of human life. ... The History of Feminism is the history of Feminist movements. ... This is a list of topics related to the issue of feminism, womens rights and womens liberation: All-women band Christian Feminism Coeducation Eco-feminism Erotophobia Female superiority (or male inferiority) Feminazi Feminist censorship Feminist history Feminist history in the United States Nineteenth Amendment to the United States... This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, listed by feminist ideology. ... Founding OWL - The Voice of Midlife and Older Women was founded in 1980 (as the Older Women’s League) after a White House mini-conference on aging in Des Moines, Iowa. ...

External links

pro-ERA organizations

Organizations opposed to ERA (or opposed without certain revisions)


  Results from FactBites:
 
Equal Rights Amendment - definition of Equal Rights Amendment in Encyclopedia (905 words)
Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
In 1923, Paul drafted the Equal Rights Amendment and presented it as the "Lucretia Mott Amendment" at the celebration of the 75th anniversary of the 1848 Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments.
Alice Paul, the author of the original ERA in 1923, was an opponent of this trend, and characterized abortion as "the ultimate exploitation of women".
Equal Rights Amendment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2558 words)
Illinois whose Senate voted to ratify the ERA in May of 1972, with a tally of 30 to 21; and whose House of Representatives voted to ratify the ERA on May 1, 1975, with a tally of 113 to 62; and again on May 21, 2003, with a tally of 76 to 41.
Missouri whose House of Representatives voted to ratify the ERA on February 7, 1975, with a tally of 82 to 75.
Nevada whose Assembly voted to ratify the ERA on February 17, 1975, with a tally of 27 to 13; and whose Senate voted to ratify the ERA on February 8, 1977, with a tally of 11 to 10.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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