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Encyclopedia > Epistle to the Romans
New Testament

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The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. Often referred to simply as Romans, it is one of the seven currently undisputed letters of Paul. It is even counted among the four letters accepted as authentic (known in German scholarship as Hauptbriefe) by F. C. Baur and the Tübingen School of historical criticism of texts in the 19th century. John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Mark (anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Epistle to the Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Philippians redirects here. ... The Epistle to the Colossians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the First Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, also known as the Second Letter to the Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... This article or section should be merged with Second Epistle to Timothy The First Epistle to Timothy is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the three so-called pastoral epistles (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and the Epistle to Titus). ... This article or section should be merged with First Epistle to Timothy The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Pastoral Epistles are often considered together, as each throws light upon the others. ... The Epistle to Philemon is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... The Epistle of James is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Second Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament of the Bible. ... The First Epistle of John is a book of the Bible New Testament, the fourth of the catholic or general epistles. ... The Second Epistle of John (normally just called 2nd John or 2 John) is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... The New Testament Third Epistle of John (often referred to as 3 John) is the 64th book of the Bible. ... The brief Epistle of Jude is a book in the Christian New Testament canon. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Bible is the collection of sacred writings or books of Judaism and Christianity. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Ferdinand Christian Baur (June 21, 1792 - 1860), was a German theologian and leader of the Tübingen school of theology. ... Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ...


In the words of N.T. Wright, the Book of Romans is "neither a systematic theology nor a summary of Paul's lifework, but it is by common consent his masterpiece. It dwarfs most of his other writings, an Alpine peak towering over hills and villages. Not all onlookers have viewed it in the same light or from the same angle, and their snapshots and paintings of it are sometimes remarkably unalike. Not all climbers have taken the same route up its sheer sides, and there is frequent disagreement on the best approach. What nobody doubts is that we are here dealing with a work of massive substance, presenting a formidable intellectual challenge while offering a breathtaking theological and spiritual vision".[1] Nicholas Thomas Tom Wright (b. ...

Contents

History

This book may have grown out of two events. The first was the expulsion of many Jews from Rome because of Christian disturbances around AD 49.[2] Claudius died around the year AD 54, and his successor, Emperor Nero, allowed the Jews back into Rome. This epistle may have been partially Paul's thoughts about this exile of the Jews, and their consequent return.[3] Gentile Romans now had a reason to hate Jews (see also Antisemitism), with an easy theological rationalization that Jews were no longer God's people[4] The Roman church would have to accept that the gospel was for the "Jew first and also to the Greek" (see Romans 1:16). Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ...


It was probably written at Corinth or possibly in nearby Cenchrea, transcribed by Tertius (16:22). Phoebe (16:1) of Cenchrea, the Aegean port of Corinth, conveyed it to Rome, and Gaius of Corinth entertained the Apostle Paul at the time of its composition (16:23; 1 Cor 1:14); Erastus was chamberlain of the city, that is, of Corinth (2 Tim 4:20). Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... “Apostle” redirects here. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... (Redirected from 1 Corinthians) See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... This article or section should be merged with First Epistle to Timothy The Second Epistle to Timothy is a book of the canonic New Testament, one of the three so-called pastoral epistles (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and the Epistle to Titus). ...


The precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the epistle, but it was obviously written when the collection for Jerusalem had been assembled and Paul was about to "go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints", that is, at the close of his second visit to Greece, during the winter preceding his last visit to that city (Rom 15:25; cf. Acts 19:21; 20:2, 3, 16; 1 Cor 16:1–4) early in 58. The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Events The Ficus Ruminales begins to die (see Rumina) Start of Yongping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ...


Christianity was most likely planted in Rome by some of those who had been at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:10). At this time, the Jews made up a substantial number in Rome, and their synagogues, frequented by many, enabled the Gentiles to become acquainted with the story of Jesus of Nazareth. Consequently, a church composed of both Jews and Gentiles was formed at Rome. According to Irenaeus, one of the earliest Church Fathers, the church at Rome was founded directly by the apostles Peter and Paul. In his book, Against Heresies (c. 180), Irenaeus observes that "we [Christians] do put to confusion all those who, in whatever manner, whether by an evil self-pleasing, by vainglory, or by blindness and perverse opinion, assemble in unauthorized meetings; [we do this, I say,] by indicating that tradition derived from the apostles, of the very great, the very ancient, and universally known Church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also [by pointing out] the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops".[5] Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Pentecost (Greek: [], pentekostē [hēmera], the fiftieth day) is the fiftieth day after Easter Sunday, which corresponds to the tenth day after Ascension Thursday. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... (Redirected from Against Heresies) Case Closed on 12 January 2005 Please do not edit this page directly if you are not a participant in this case. ...


Many of the brethren went out to meet Paul on his approach to Rome. There is evidence that Christians were then in Rome in considerable numbers and probably had more than one place of meeting (Rom 16:14, 15).


Purposes of writing

The main purpose of the Book of Romans is given by Paul in Romans 1:1, where he reveals that he is set apart by God for the purpose of preaching the Gospel.[6] He wishes to impart to the Roman readers a gift of encouragement and assurance in all that God has freely given them (see Romans 1:11-12; 1 Corinthians 2:12).


The purposes of the apostle in writing are also articulated in the second half of chapter 15:

  1. Paul asks for prayers for his upcoming journey to Jerusalem; he hopes that the offering collected from the Gentile churches will be accepted there.
  2. Paul is planning to travel to Rome from Jerusalem and spend some time there before moving on to Spain; he hopes the Roman church will support his mission to Spain.
  3. Since Paul has never been to Rome, he writes the letter to outline his gospel so that his teaching will not be confused by that of "false teachers".
  4. Paul is aware that there is some conflict between Gentile and Jewish Christians in the Roman church, and he writes to address those concerns (chs. thirteen and the first half of fourteen). While the Roman church was presumably founded by Jewish Christians, the exile of Jews from Rome in AD 49 by Claudius resulted in Gentile Christians taking leadership positions.

Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Jewish Christians (sometimes called also Hebrew Christians or Christian Jews, but see below for differences) is a term which can have two meanings, a historical one and a contemporary one. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ...

Content

The main theme of the letter is the salvation offered through the Gospel of Jesus Christ (1:16 – 17). Paul argues that all humanity is guilty and accountable to God for sin and that it is only through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ that humanity can attain salvation. Therefore, God is both just and the one who justifies. In response to God's free, sovereign and graceful action of salvation, humanity can be justified by faith. Paul uses the example of Abraham to demonstrate that it is by faith not works that mankind can be seen as righteous before God. Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ...


Assurance of salvation

In chapters five through eight, Paul argues that believers can be assured of their hope in salvation, having been freed from the bondage of sin. Paul teaches that, through faith (3:28; 4:3), the faithful have been joined with Jesus (5:1) and freed from sin (6:1–2, 18). Believers should celebrate in the assurance of salvation (12:12). This promise is open to everyone since everyone has sinned (3:23) save the one who paid for all of them (3:24). Assurance has been defined by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) as Independent Professional Services that improve information quality or its context. Such services are very broad and could include assessments of internet security and quality of health facilities. ... Spes or Hope; engraving by Sebald Beham, German c1540 Hope is a belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in ones life. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ... This article concerns critical reconstructions of the Historical Jesus. ...


In chapters nine through eleven, Paul addresses the faithfulness of God to Israel, where he says that God has been faithful to His promise. Paul hopes that all of Israel will come to realize the truth (9:1–5) since he himself was also an Israelite (11:1) and had in the past been a persecutor of Christ. In Romans 9–11 Paul, talks about how the nation of Israel has been cast away, and the conditions under which Israel will be God's chosen nation again: when the Body of Christ (believers in Christ's payment for sin) stops being faithful (11:19–22). This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Body of Christ is a term used by Christians to describe believers in Christ. ...


The gospel transforms believers

In Romans 7:1, Paul says that humans are under the law while we live: "Know ye not . . . that the law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth?" However, Jesus' death on the cross makes believers dead to the law (7:4, "Wherefore, my brethren, ye are also become dead to the law by the body of Christ").


From chapter 12 through the first part of chapter 15, Paul outlines how the gospel transforms believers and the behaviour that results from such a transformation. He goes on to describe how believers should live: not under the law, but under the grace of God. If believers live in obedience to God and to rightfully delegated authority, (12:9–21; 13:1–10) study the scriptures, (and share them with others) and love everybody, believers are not going to need to sin. As Paul says in Romans 13:10, "love (ἀγάπη) worketh no ill to his neighbor: therefore love is the fulfilling of law". Paul of Tarsus (b. ... There are a number of different Greek words for love, as the Greek language distinguishes how the word is used. ...


It is important to note that Paul is not telling believers that love is all that matters: without first accepting Christ's gift (8:1: "There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus" and 5:1: "being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ"). Everyone is still under the bondage of sin (5:12–17: "and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned") and cannot experience that true love except through Christ. Paul of Tarsus (b. ... This article concerns critical reconstructions of the Historical Jesus. ...


Concluding verses

The concluding verses contain a description of his travel plans and personal greetings salutations. One-third of the twenty-one Christians identified in the greetings are women, some of whom played an important role in the early church at Rome.


General characterization

Paul sometimes uses a style of writing common in his time called a "diatribe". He appears to be responding to a "heckler", and the letter is structured as a series of arguments. The letter is addressed to the church at Rome, which consisted of both Gentile and Jewish Christians. In the flow of the letter, Paul shifts his arguments, sometimes addressing the Jewish members of the church, sometimes the Gentile membership and sometimes the church as a whole.


The primary messages conveyed by the book of Romans are thus:


1. Foreskin does not have to be removed from the male body, see also Circumcision in the Bible. The foreskin or prepuce (a technically broader term that also includes the clitoral hood, the homologous structure in women) is a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers the glans penis and protects the urinary meatus when the penis is not erect. ... Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as Genesis 17, and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions. ...


2. Previously forbidden "foods" may be eaten. e.g. Pork, or shellfish may be consumed.


3. Those who are not descendant (genetically) from Abraham now have a place in "Heaven," although they are "next in line" after the Jewish peoples, see also New Covenant. Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ...


Protestant treatment of the text

Martin Luther described the Book of Romans as the "most important piece in the New Testament. It is purest Gospel. It is well worth a Christian's while not only to memorize it word for word but also to occupy himself with it daily, as though it were the daily bread of the soul".[7] Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


The Romans Road refers to a set of scriptures from the book of Romans that Christian evangelists use to present a clear and simple case for personal salvation for each person. The Epistle to the Romans is one of the epistles, or letters, included in the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ...


The "Book of Romans" has been at the forefront of several major movements in Protestantism. Martin Luther's lectures on Romans in 15: 15–16 probably coincided with the development of his criticism of Roman Catholicism which led to the 95 Theses of 1517. In 1738, while reading Luther's Preface to the Epistle to the Romans, John Wesley famously felt his heart "strangely warmed", a conversion experience which is often seen as the beginning of Methodism. In 1919 Karl Barth's commentary on Romans, The Epistle to the Romans, was the publication which is widely seen as the beginning of neo-orthodoxy. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The 95 Theses. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... For the Methodist school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine) Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Karl Barth. ... The Epistle to the Romans is a commentary by Karl Barth on the New Testament Epistle to the Romans. ... Neo-orthodoxy is an approach to theology that was developed in the aftermath of the First World War (1914-1918). ...


Arguments against the Protestant treatment of the text

It is often the starting point of those who argue against the Protestant understanding of Romans, specifically in regards to the doctrine of sola fide, to point out that the same apostle who wrote Romans is also quoted in Philippians as saying "Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling" (Phil 2:12).[8] Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ...


Catholic treatment of the text

Catholics accept the necessity of faith for salvation but point to Romans 2:5–11 for the necessity of living a virtuous life as well:[9]

Who [God] will render to every man according to his deeds: To them who by patient continuance in well-doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life: But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile; But glory, honour, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile: For there is no respect of persons with God.

Arguments against the Catholic treatment of the text

Many Christians (and non-Christians) who oppose the Catholic interpretation of the text argue that the faith of those who do good works would itself be suspect. However, to argue their claim that sincere profession of Christ takes precedence over good works in God's eyes, they hold up Romans 4:2–5 (emphasis added):

"For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory; but not before God. For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness. Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted unto him for righteousness".

They also point out that in Romans 2, Paul says that God will reward those who follow the law (as opposed to antinomianism) and then goes on to say that no one follows the law perfectly (see also Sermon on the Mount: Interpretation). Romans 2:21–25: Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ...

Thou therefore which teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? thou that preachest a man should not steal, dost thou steal? Thou that sayest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege? Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God? For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, as it is written. For circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law: but if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.

A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Circumcision, when practiced as a rite, has its foundations in the Bible, in the Abrahamic covenant, such as Genesis 17, and is therefore practiced by Jews and Muslims and some Christians, those who constitute the Abrahamic religions. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Leander E. Keck and others, eds., The New Interpreter's Bible: A Commentary in Twelve Volumes (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2002) 395
  2. ^ Acts 18:2; Suetonius' Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius XXV.4
  3. ^ See N.T. Wright, The New Testament and the People of God (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1992) 354-355, where he quotes Suetonius in his Life of Claudius: "[b]ecause the Jews at Rome caused continuous disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus (Christians), he expelled them from the City"
  4. ^ . Leander E. Keck, The New Interpreter's Bible, 407
  5. ^ Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Book III,3,2
  6. ^ For a discussion of the current scholarly viewpoints on the purpose of Romans, along with a bibliography, see Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, s.v. "Romans, Letter to the"
  7. ^ Martin Luther's Preface to the Letter of St. Paul to the Romans cf. Luther's comments in his treatise on The Adoration of the Sacrament (1523) in which he refers to the words of institution of the Eucharist as being "the sum and substance of the whole gospel". Luther's Works, American Edition, St. Louis and Philadelphia: Concordia Publishing House and Fortress (Muhlenberg) Press, vol. 36 (Word and Sacrament), p.277. See also The Sacrament of Unity in a Divided Christendom: Lutheran Church--Canada, n.5.
  8. ^ http://catholic.com/thisrock/2003/0303sbs.asp
  9. ^ For an authoritative discussion of the Catholic viewpoint, see Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v. "Epistle to the Romans"

The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... The words of institution are the words of Jesus Christ as recorded in the New Testament used in some forms of Christian liturgy to consecrate the Eucharist. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...

External links

Online translations of the Epistle to the Romans

Other

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...

Preceded by
Acts
Books of the Bible Succeeded by
1 Corinthians

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Epistle to the Romans (1014 words)
The Epistle to the Romans is the longest of Saint Paul's letters and is therefore placed first among the letters in the New Testament of the Bible.
Romans is a particularly rich and complex epistle; its teachings on justification, the Jews, and attitudes toward civil government have been debated from the Reformation to the present.
His epistle was a "word in season." Himself deeply impressed with a sense of the value of the doctrines of salvation, he opens up in a clear and connected form the whole system of the gospel in its relation both to Jew and Gentile.
Epistle to the Romans (7352 words)
The Epistle to the Galatians is a polemical work, and is composed in a polemical spirit with the object of averting an imminent evil; the Epistle to the Romans is written in a time of quiet peace, and directed to a Church with which the author desires to enter into closer relations.
In the Epistle to the Galatians Paul had already defended his teaching against the attacks of the extreme Jewish Christians; in contrast with the Epistle to the Galatians, this to the Romans was not evoked by the excitement of a polemical warfare.
The faith described in the Epistle to the Romans, as elsewhere in St. Paul's writings and in the New Testament in general, is furthermore a trusting faith, e.
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