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Encyclopedia > Epirus (region)

Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος Ēpeiros (Doric Greek: Ἅπειρος Apeiros), Albanian: Epir or Epiri) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. It is divided between Greece, which possesses around 80% of the region, and southern Albania whose area is equivalent to the northern part of classical Epirus (see Northern Epirus). The Greek portion is called the periphery of Epirus in Greece. Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípeiros; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is a province or periphery in northwestern Greece, bounded by West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, by the province of Sterea Ellada (Central Greece) to the south, the Ionian Sea and the Ionian Islands to the west and... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The flag of the Provisional Government of Northern Epirus in 1914. ... Epirus (Greek: Ήπειρος, Ípiros), is a province or periphery in northwestern Greece. ...

Map of ancient Epirus
Map of ancient Epirus

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x731, 282 KB) Summary Map of the ancient region of Epirus Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x731, 282 KB) Summary Map of the ancient region of Epirus Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus...

Etymology of the name

The Greek name Epirus signifies "mainland" or "continent", to distinguish it from the Ionian islands off the Epirote coast. It was originally applied to the whole coast south to the Gulf of Patras. The name is thought to go back to Proto-Greek ἅπειρος/apeiros, from an Indo-European root apero- meaning 'coast'.[1] Gulf of Patras from space, March 1994 The Gulf of Patras (Greek: Πατραϊκός Κόλπος Patraikós Kólpos) is a branch of the Ionian Sea. ... The Proto-Greek language is the common ancestor of the Greek dialects, including the Mycenean language, the classical Greek dialects Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and North-Western Greek, and ultimately the Koine and Modern Greek. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ...


Boundaries and definitions

The historical region of Epirus is generally regarded as extending from the Bay of Vlorë in Albania to the Gulf of Arta or Ambracian Gulf in Greece. Its eastern boundary is defined by the Pindus Mountains that form the spine of mainland Greece and separate Epirus from Macedonia and Thessaly. To the west, Epirus faces the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea. The island of Corfu is situated off the coast but is not generally regarded as part of the province (politically it is part of the Ionian Islands province of Greece). Vlorë(Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora, (locally) Vlonë or Vlona, Italian: , Greek: , Turkish: ) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ... The Ambracian Gulf, as seen from the Space Shuttle in November 1994. ... The Pindus (Greek: Πίνδος, Albanian: Pino) mountains are a range located in central Greece, roughly 160 km (100 miles) long, with a maximum elevation of 2636 m (8650 ft), along the border of Thessaly and Epirus. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ionioi Nisoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι; Ancient Greek: Ionioi Nesoi, Ιόνιοι Νήσοι) are a group of islands in Greece. ...


Geography and ecology

NASA satellite image of Epirus
NASA satellite image of Epirus

Epirus is a rugged and mountainous region. It is largely made up of mountainous limestone ridges, part of the Dinaric Alps, that in places reach 2,650 m. In the east, the Pindus Mountains that form the spine of mainland Greece separate Epirus from Macedonia and Thessaly. Most of Epirus lies on the windward side of the Pindus. The winds from the Ionian Sea offer the region more rainfall than any other part of Greece. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 469 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 469 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... -1... Mt Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the heaviest karstified range of the dinarids View of the central part of the Dinaric Alps (north=down) Valbona pass, northern Albania. ... The Pindus (Greek: Πίνδος, Albanian: Pino) mountains are a range located in central Greece, roughly 160 km (100 miles) long, with a maximum elevation of 2636 m (8650 ft), along the border of Thessaly and Epirus. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ...


The climate of Epirus is mainly alpine. The vegetation is made up mainly of coniferous species. The animal life is especially rich in this area and features, among other species, bears, wolves, foxes, deer and lynxes. For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... “Fawn” redirects here. ... Type species Felis lynx Linnaeus, 1758 The overall range of Lynx species. ...


History

Early settlement

Epirus has been occupied since Neolithic times, when hunters and shepherds inhabited the region and constructed large tumuli to bury their leaders. The tumuli had many similar characteristics to those later used by the Myceneans, suggesting a possible ancestral link between Epirus and the Mycenean civilisation. Certainly, Mycenean remains have been found at two ancient religious sites in the region, the Necromanteion (Oracle of the Dead) on the Acheron river, and the Oracle of Zeus at Dodona. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Alternate meanings of barrow: see Barrow-in-Furness for the town of Barrow in Cumbria, England; also Barrow, Alaska in the U.S.; also River Barrow in Ireland. ... The Mycenean Period covers the latter part of the Bronze Age on the Greek mainland. ... Location In Mesopotamo. ... The Acheron is located in the Epirus region of northwest Greece. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... Theatre of Pyrrhus in Dodona. ...


The Dorians invaded Greece via Epirus and Macedonia at the end of the 2nd millennium BC (circa 1100 BC-1000 BC), though the reasons for their migration are obscure. The region's original inhabitants were driven southward into the Greek mainland by the invasion and by the early 1st millennium BC three principal clusters of Greek-speaking tribes had emerged in Epirus. These were the Chaones of northwestern Epirus, the Molossians in the centre and the Thesprotians in the middle. This article or section should include material from Dorian invasion The Dorians were one of the ancient Hellenic (Greek) races. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... (Redirected from 1100 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... The Chaonians (Χάονες, Χαόνων, in Greek), were an ancient tribe of Chaonia, which covered the northwestern portion of Epirus. ... For the micronation of Molossia, see Republic of Molossia Map of Chaonia, Molossis & Thesprotia The Molossians (Molossoi) were an ancient Greek[1] tribe that settled Epirus during Mycenaean times. ... Map of Chaonia, Molossis & Thesprotia The Thesprotians (Gk. ...


Epirus and ancient Greece

Remains of the sanctuary of Zeus Dodonaios in Dodona
Remains of the sanctuary of Zeus Dodonaios in Dodona

Unlike most other Greeks of the time, who lived in or around city-states such as Athens or Sparta, the Epirotes lived in small villages. Their region lay on the edge of the Greek world and was far from peaceful; for many centuries, it remained a frontier area contested with the Illyrian peoples of the Adriatic coast and interior. However, Epirus had a far greater religious significance than might have been expected given its geographical remoteness, due to the presence of the shrine and oracle at Dodona - regarded as second only to the more famous oracle at Delphi. Image File history File links Dodona_Zeus_temenos. ... Image File history File links Dodona_Zeus_temenos. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Sparta (Doric: Spártā, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ... Inhabitants of Epirus. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Delphi (Greek Δελφοί, [ðe̞lˈfi]) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ...


The Epirotes seem to have initially been regarded with some disdain by the Greeks of the south. The 5th century BC historian Thucydides describes them as "barbarians"[citation needed] and the only Epirotes regarded as truly Greek were the Aeacidae, who claimed to be descended from Neoptolemus, son of Achilles. In opposite, other ancient Greek and Roman writers such as Apollodorus[2], Strabo[3], Dionysius of Halicarnassus[4], Frontinus[5], Pausanias[6], Ptolemy[7], Cassius Dio[8] and Eutropius[9], describe them as Greeks. Plutarch mentions an interesting cultural element of the Epirotes regarding Achilles. In his biography of king Pyrrhus, he claims that Achilles "had a divine status in Epirus and in the local dialect he was called Aspetos"[10]. The Aeacidae established the Molossian dynasty, who built a state in Epirus from about 370 BC onwards, expanding their power at the expense of rival tribes. The Molossians allied themselves with the increasingly powerful kingdom of Macedon and in 359 BC the Molossian princess Olympias, niece of Arybbas of Epirus, married King Philip II of Macedon. She was to become the mother of Alexander the Great. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Aeacidae refers to the descendants of Aeacus, most notably Peleus, son of Aeacus, and Achilles, grandson of Aeacus. ... Neoptolemus killing Priam In Greek mythology, Neoptolemus, also Neoptólemos or Pyrrhus, was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamea. ... The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre) In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus) (Ancient Greek: ) was a hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homers Iliad, which takes for its theme, not the War... Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Eutropius was a pagan Roman historian of the later 4th century, writing in Latin, whose brief remarks about himself let us know that he had served under Emperor Julian the Apostate (ruled 361 - 363) and his history covers the reigns of Valentinian and Valens (died 378). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC - 370s BC - 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 375 BC 374 BC 373 BC 372 BC 371 BC - 370 BC - 369 BC 368 BC 367... Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordering the kingdom of Epirus on the west and the region of Thrace to the east[1... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 364 BC 363 BC 362 BC 361 BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356... Olympias (Greek: Ολυμπιάς) (c. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ...


On the death of Arybbas, Alexander of Epirus succeeded to the throne and the title King of Epirus. Aeacides of Epirus, who succeeded Alexander, espoused the cause of Olympias against Cassander, but was dethroned in 313 BC. His son Pyrrhus came to throne in 295 BC, and for six years fought against the Romans in southern Italy and Sicily. His campaigns gave Epirus a new, but brief, importance and a lasting contribution to the language with the concept of a "Pyrrhic victory". Alexander I of Epirus (362 BC ca. ... Aeacides (in Greek Aιακιδης; died 313 BC), the son of Arybbas, king of Epirus, succeeded to the throne on the death of his cousin Alexander, who was slain in Italy. ...  Kingdom of Cassander Other diadochi  Kingdom of Seleucus  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Ptolemy  Epirus Other  Carthage  Rome  Greek colonies Cassander (in Greek, Κάσσανδρος — Kassandros, ca. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC 312 BC 311 BC 310... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC 296 BC 295 BC 294 BC 293 BC 292... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ...


In the 3rd century BC Epirus remained a substantial power, unified under the auspices of the Epirote League as a federal state with its own parliament (or synedrion). However, it was faced with the growing threat of the expansionist Roman Republic, which fought a series of wars with Macedonia. The League remained neutral in the first two Macedonian Wars but split in the Third Macedonian War (171 BC-168 BC), with the Molossians siding with the Macedonians and the Chaones and Thesproti siding with Rome. The outcome was disastrous for Epirus; Molossia fell to Rome in 167 BC, 150,000 of its inhabitants were enslaved and the region was so thoroughly plundered that it took 500 years for central Epirus to recover fully. The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... The Third Macedonian War (171 BC - 168 BC) was a war fought between Rome and King Perseus of Macedon. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 176 BC 175 BC 174 BC 173 BC 172 BC - 171 BC - 170 BC 169 BC 168... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 173 BC 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC - 168 BC - 167 BC 166 BC 165... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC 168 BC - 167 BC - 166 BC 165 BC 164...


Roman and Byzantine rule

The Roman invasion permanently ended the political independence of the Epirotes. In 146 BC Epirus became part of the province of Roman Macedonia, receiving the name Epirus vetus, to distinguish it from Epirus nova to the east. Its coastal regions grew wealthy from the Roman coastal trade routes, and the construction of the Via Egnatia provided a further boost to prosperity. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 151 BC 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC - 146 BC - 145 BC 144 BC... Macedonia province within the Roman Empire, c. ... Epirus vetus was a province in the Roman Empire. ... Ancient Via Egnatia route Via Egnatia (Greek: Εγνατία Οδός) was a road constructed by the Romans around 146 BC. It was named after Gnaeus Egnatius, proconsul of Macedonia, who ordered its construction. ...


Epirus became the westernmost province of the Eastern Roman Empire (subsequently the Greek-speaking Byzantine Empire), ruled from Constantinople when the empire was divided in two in 395 AD. When Constantinople fell to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Michael Angelos Komnenos Ducas seized Aetolia and Epirus to establish an independent Despotate of Epirus. The rulers of the Despotate controlled a substantial area corresponding to a large swathe of northwestern Greece, much of modern Albania and parts of the modern Republic of Macedonia. It has been suggested that Eastern Roman Empire be merged into this article or section. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Michael I Angelus Comnenus Ducas was the founder and first ruler of the Despotate of Epirus from 1205 until his death in 1215. ... The ancient Region of Aetolia, Greece Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


In 1318 Epirus was overrun by Serbs in one of a series of uprisings. Following an Albanian uprising in 1359 , in which the Despot Nicephorus II was killed, the Byzantines re-established a measure of control of the despotate by making it a vassal state. However, in 1430 the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad II annexed Epirus. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Emperor Nicephoros Phocas Nicephorus II Phocas was one of the most brilliant generals in the history of Byzantium who rose to become a mediocre emperor from 963 until his assassination in 969. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Murad II Murad II (1404 – February 3, 1451) (Arabic: مراد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ...


Epirus under the Ottomans

Ali Pasha

Ottoman rule proved particularly damaging in Epirus; the region was subjected to deforestation and excessive cultivation, which damaged the soil and drove many Epirotes to emigrate to escape the region's pervasive poverty. Nonetheless, the Ottomans did not enjoy total control of Epirus. In 1443 George Kastrioti Skenderbeg revolted against the Ottoman Empire and conquered Northern Epirus, but on his death it fell to Venice. The Ottomans expelled the Venetians from almost the whole area in the late 15th century. Image File history File links Ali_pasha_Hundred_Greatest_Men. ... Image File history File links Ali_pasha_Hundred_Greatest_Men. ... Inhabitants of Epirus. ... Scanderbeg sculpture Gjergj Kastrioti (Italian: Giorgio Castriota) (1405–January 17, 1468), better known as Skanderbeg or Skenderbej, was an Albanian leader who resisted the expanding Ottoman Empire for 25 years and is today considered a national hero of Albania. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


In the 18th century, as the power of the Ottomans declined, Epirus became a virtually independent region under the despotic rule of Ali Pasha, an Albanian brigand who became the provincial governor of Ioannina in 1788 . At the height of his power, he controlled much of western Greece, the Peloponnese and Albania. Ali Pasha's campaigns to subjugate the confederation of the Souli settlements is a well known incident of his rule. His forces met fierce resistance by the Souliote warriors of the mountainous area. After numerous failed attempts to defeat the Souliotes, his troops succeeded in conquering the area in 1803 . When the Greek War of Independence broke out, Ali tried to make himself an independent ruler, but he was deposed and murdered by Ottoman agents in 1822. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Engraving of Ali Pasha Ali Pashë Tepelena, commonly known as Ali Pasha, (1741 – January 24, 1822) was the military ruler (pasha) of a large area of the Ottoman Empires European territories. ... The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The Souliotes (or Souliots, Suliots; Greek: Σουλιώτες) were the inhabitants of Souli, a historic mountain settlement 73 km southeast of Igoumenitsa in Thesprotia and its surrounding areas in the mountains of Mourgana in Epirus in northwestern Greece. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom Kingdom of France Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha Reşid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


When Greece became independent, Epirus remained under Ottoman rule. However, the inhabitants of the region contributed greatly to the Greek War of Independence. Two of the founding members of the Filiki Eteria (secret patriotic society), Nikolaos Skoufas and Athanasios Tsakalov, came from the Arta area and the city of Ioannina respectively. Greece's first constitutional prime minister (1844-1847), Ioannis Kolettis, was a native of the Aromanian town of Syrrako in Epirus. Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom Kingdom of France Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha Reşid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... The Filiki Eteria (spelt also Philikí Etaireía), meaning Friendly Society in Greek, was a secret organisation working in the early 19th century, whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and to establish an independent Greek state. ... Nikolaos Skoufas (Νικόλαο Σκουφά) (1779-31. ... Arta (Greek: Άρτα, Albanian: Artë)is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... Ioannina (Greek: Ιωάννινα, often Γιάννενα /yanena/ or Γιάννινα /yanina/; anglicized to Yanina, see also: other names of Ioannina) is a city of Epirus, north-western Greece, with a metropolitan population of approximately 100,000. ... Ioannis Kolettis (1773-1847) - Athens, National Historical Museum Ioannis Kolettis (1773-1847) was a Greek politician who played a significant role in Greek affairs from the Greek War of Independence. ... Aromanians (also called: Arumanians or Macedo-Romanians; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ...


20th century Epirus

The Treaty of Berlin of 1881 gave Greece parts of southern Epirus, but it was not until the Balkan Wars of 1912-13 that the rest of southern Epirus joined Greece. Northern Epirus was awarded to Albania by an international boundary commission. This outcome was unpopular among both Greeks and Albanians, as settlements of the two people existed on both sides of the border. Among Greeks, northern Epirus was regarded as terra irredenta. The name Treaty of Berlin is attached to four treaties: Treaty of Berlin, 1878 Treaty of Berlin, 1899 Treaty of Berlin, 1921 Treaty of Berlin, 1926 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...


When World War I broke out in 1914 , Albania collapsed. Under a March 1915 agreement among the Allies, Italy seized northern Albania and Greece set up an autonomous Greek state of North Epirus in the southern part of the country. Although short-lived, the state of North Epirus managed to leave behind a number of historical records of its existence, including its own postage stamps; see Postage stamps and postal history of Epirus. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... From 1912 to 1916, the northern part of the Greek section of Epirus was run by a provisional government, which ran its own postal service and issued postage stamps for a period during 1914. ...


Although the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 awarded the area to Greece after World War I, political developments such as the Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War and, crucially, Italian, Austrian and German lobbying in favour of Albania meant that Greece, although backed by Russia, could not claim northern Epirus. The area was finally ceded to Albania in 1924. The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, İsmet İnönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Italy occupied Albania in 1939 and in 1940 invaded Greece. The Italians were, however, driven back into Albania and Greece again took control of northern Epirus. The conflict, known as the Greco-Italian War, marked one of the first tactical victories of the Allies in World War II. Mussolini himself supervised the massive counter-attack of his divisions in spring 1941 , only to be decisively defeated again by the poorly equipped, but determined, Greeks. Nazi Germany intervened in April 1941 to avert an embarrassing Italian defeat. The German military performed rapid military maneuvers through Yugoslavia and forced the encircled Greek forces to surrender. Combatants Italy Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 50,874 wounded, 25,067 missing, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


The whole of Epirus was then placed under Italian occupation until 1943 , when the Germans took over following the Italian surrender to the Allies. The highlands of Epirus became the major theatre of guerrilla inter-fighting between the communist National People's Liberation Army (ELAS) and the republican National Republican Greek League (EDES). Following the German withdrawal from Greece in 1944 , the mountains of Epirus became the scene of some of the fiercest fighting of the Greek Civil War. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... The National Republican Greek League (Greek: , Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos, abbreviated EDES) was a World War II Greek resistance movement. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Greek: ) was fought between 1946 and...


It was during this time that Cham Albanians were forced out of Greek Epirus; members of the Cham community had collaborated with the Axis forces during the occupation of Greece, and when the Cham bands declined EDES' request to help them against ELAS, the former, with British support, attacked Cham villages killing 5,000 civilians and forcing about 35,000 to flee.[11] Cham Albanians (In Albanian: Çamë, in Greek: Τσάμηδες Tsámidhes) are a group of ethnic Albanians originally residing close to the river Thyamis (Θύαμις in Greek, Çam in Albanian). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The current President of the Hellenic Republic, Karolos Papoulias, is a native of Ioannina, Epirus. The flag of the President of Greece This is a list of presidents of Greece. ... Karolos Papoulias Karolos Papoulias (Greek: Κάρολος Παπούλιας) is the President of the Hellenic Republic, former minister and member of the Hellenic parliament. ...


References

  1. ^ Babiniotis, Lexiko tis Neas Ellinikis Glossas, Athens 1998.
  2. ^ Apollodorus, TheLibrary, 3.7.6-3.7.7 at Theoi Project [1]
  3. ^ Strabo, Geography, Book VII, 7, 5-8 at LacusCurtius[2]
  4. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus,Roman Antiquities, Book XX, 10 (19.11) at LacusCurtius[3]
  5. ^ Frontinus, Stratagems, Book II, V. On ambushes, 10, 19 at LacusCurtius [4]
  6. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.11.7-1.12.2 (Jones translation) at Theoi Project [5]
  7. ^ Ptolemy, The Geography, Epirus: "Greece starts at Oricus and the most ancient part of Greece is Epirus."
  8. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book IX, 40, 3-4 at LacusCurtius[6]
  9. ^ Eutropius, Abridgment of Roman History’’(Historiae Romanae Breviarium) Book 2, ‘’XI, XIII’’’ at Tertullian [7]
  10. ^ Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 1, 3-4.
  11. ^ M. Vickers, "The Cham Issue - Albanian National & Property Claims in Greece", (2002); M. Mazower (ed.), After the War Was Over; Reconstructing the Family, Nation, State in Greece, 1943-1960, (2000), p. 25

See also

This article covers the Greek civilization. ... This article briefly outlines each period in the history of Albania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... Theatre of Pyrrhus in Dodona. ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... For the micronation of Molossia, see Republic of Molossia Map of Chaonia, Molossis & Thesprotia The Molossians (Molossoi) were an ancient Greek[1] tribe that settled Epirus during Mycenaean times. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the medieval Greek successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... The Souliotes (or Souliots, Suliots; Greek: Σουλιώτες) were the inhabitants of Souli, a historic mountain settlement 73 km southeast of Igoumenitsa in Thesprotia and its surrounding areas in the mountains of Mourgana in Epirus in northwestern Greece. ... Combatants Italy Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 50,874 wounded, 25,067 missing, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ... Cham Albanians (In Albanian: Çamë, in Greek: Τσάμηδες Tsámidhes) are a group of ethnic Albanians originally residing close to the river Thyamis (Θύαμις in Greek, Çam in Albanian). ... The flag of the Provisional Government of Northern Epirus in 1914. ... Epirus (Greek: Ήπειρος, Ípiros), is a periphery in northwestern Greece. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...

Bibliography

Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond (born November 15 1907; died March 24 2001) was a British scholar of ancient Greece of great accomplishment and an operative for the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) in occupied Greece during World War II. Hammond studied classics at Fettes College and Gonville and Caius...

External links

  • Ancient Epirus
  • Etymology of the 70 most famous ancient Epirotan names
  • Articles about Epirus History

 
 

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