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Encyclopedia > Epinephrine
(R)-(−)-L-Epinephrine or (R)-(−)-L-adrenaline
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(R)-4-(1-hydroxy-
2-(methylamino)ethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
Identifiers
CAS number 51-43-4
ATC code A01AD01 B02BC09 C01CA24 R01AA14 R03AA01 S01EA01
PubChem 838
DrugBank APRD00450
Chemical data
Formula C9H13NO3 
Mol. mass 183.204 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Nil (oral)
Metabolism adrenergic synapse (MAO and COMT)
Half life 2 minutes
Excretion n/a
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

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Legal status

Prescription Only (S4)(AU) POM(UK) -only(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, abbreviated SUSDP, is a document used in the regulation of drugs and poisons in Australia. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... Zoloft, an antidepressant and antianxiety medication A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... Zoloft, an antidepressant and antianxiety medication A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Routes IV, IM, endotracheal

Epinephrine (also called adrenaline; see Terminology) is a hormone and neurotransmitter. It is a catecholamine, a sympathomimetic monoamine derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. The Latin roots ad-+renes and the Greek roots epi-+nephros both literally mean "on/to the kidney" (referring to the adrenal gland, which sits atop the kidneys and secretes epinephrine). Epinephrine is sometimes shortened to epi or to EP in medical jargon. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Diagram of an endotracheal tube (10) that has been inserted into the airway of a patient. ... Look up adrenaline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs whose properties mimic those of a stimulated sympathetic nervous system. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Phenyl alanine is an α-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ...

Contents

History

In May 1886, William Bates reported the discovery of a substance produced by the adrenal gland in the New York Medical Journal. Epinephrine was isolated and identified in 1895 by Napoleon Cybulski, a Polish physiologist. The discovery was repeated in 1897 by John Jacob Abel.[1] William Horatio Bates (1860-1931) was a physician who developed what is now known as the Bates method of eye exercises. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Napoleon Cybulski - (1854 - 1919) - Polish physiologist, discoverer of adrenaline, one of pioneers of endocrinology, and electroencephalography. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John Jacob Abel (1857 - 1938) was a significant U.S. biochemist and pharmacologist. ...


Jokichi Takamine, a Japanese chemist, independently discovered the same hormone in 1900.[2][3]In 1901 he isolated and purified the hormone adrenaline from cow glands. Jokichi Takamine (高峰 譲吉 Takamine Jōkichi, December 22, 1854 – July 22, 1922) was a Japanese chemist. ...


It was first artificially synthesized in 1904 by Friedrich Stolz. Friedrich Stolz was the first to artificially synthesize epinephrine in 1904. ...


Triggers

Adrenaline ampule, 1 mg (Suprarenin®)
Adrenaline ampule, 1 mg (Suprarenin®)

Epinephrine is a "fight or flight" hormone, and plays a central role in the short-term stress reaction. It is released from the adrenal glands when danger threatens or in an emergency. Such triggers may be threatening, exciting, or environmental stressor conditions such as high noise levels or bright light (see Fight-or-flight response). Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... A stressor is something that either speeds up a reaction rate or keeps the reaction rate the same. ... Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... This cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels and sufficient to trigger headaches and other health effects Over-illumination is the presence of lighting intensity (illuminance) beyond that required for a specified activity. ... The fight-or-flight response, also called hyperarousal or the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1915[1][2]. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, priming the animal for fighting or fleeing. ...


An example of noise-induced trigger of epinephrine release is tinnitus. The fight-or-flight response caused by tinnitus is a contributor to physical stress seen in tinnitus-patients,[4] exacerbating the case. Tinnitus (pronounced or ,[1] from the Latin word for ringing[2]) is the perception of sound in the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound(s). ...


Actions in the body

When secreted into the bloodstream, it rapidly prepares the body for action in emergency situations. The hormone boosts the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles, while suppressing other non-emergency bodily processes (digestion in particular). General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ...


It increases heart rate and stroke volume, dilates the pupils, and constricts arterioles in the skin and gut while dilating arterioles in skeletal muscles. It elevates the blood sugar level by increasing catalysis of glycogen to glucose in the liver, and at the same time begins the breakdown of lipids in fat cells. Like some other stress hormones, epinephrine has a suppressive effect on the immune system.[5] Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood ejected from a ventricle with each beat of the heart. ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ... An arteriole is a blood vessel that extends and branchs out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... An arteriole is a blood vessel that extends and branchs out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... Structure of a skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ... Catalyst redirects here. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Some common lipids. ... Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


Although epinephrine does not have any psychoactive effects, stress or arousal also releases norepinephrine in the brain. Norepinephrine has similar actions in the body, but is also psychoactive. Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ...


The type of action in various cell types depends on their expression of adrenergic receptors.


Adrenergic receptors

β-adrenergic receptors
β-adrenergic receptors
Further reading: adrenergic receptor

Epinephrine's actions are mediated through adrenergic receptors: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (837x481, 71 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Adenylate cyclase Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Epinephrine Adrenergic receptor ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (837x481, 71 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Adenylate cyclase Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Epinephrine Adrenergic receptor ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ...

  • It binds to α1 receptors of liver cells, which activate inositol-phospholipid signaling pathway, signaling the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase (inactivating and activating them, respectively), leading to breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) so as to release glucose to the bloodstream.
  • Epinephrine also activates β-adrenergic receptors of the liver and muscle cells, thereby activating the adenylate cyclase signaling pathway, which will in turn increase glycogenolysis.

β2 receptors are found primarily in skeletal muscle blood vessels where they trigger vasodilation. However, α-adrenergic receptors are found in most smooth muscles and splanchnic vessels, and epinephrine triggers vasoconstriction in those vessels. For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Common lipid signaling molecules: lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) platelet activating factor (PAF) anandamide or arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds and activates a receptor. ... Epinephrine binds its receptor, that associates with an heterotrimeric G protein. ... Glycogen Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ...


Therapeutic use

Epinephrine is used as a drug to treat cardiac arrest and other cardiac dysrhythmias resulting in diminished or absent cardiac output; its action is to increase peripheral resistance via α1-adrenoceptor vasoconstriction, so that blood is shunted to the body's core, and the β1-adrenoceptor response which is increased cardiac rate and output (the speed and pronouncement of heart beats). This beneficial action comes with a significant negative consequence—increased cardiac irritability—which may lead to additional complications immediately following an otherwise successful resuscitation. Alternatives to this treatment include vasopressin, a powerful antidiuretic which also increases peripheral vascular resistance leading to blood shunting via vasoconstriction, but without the attendant increase in myocardial irritability.[5] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is a group of conditions in which the muscle contraction of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... Cardiac output (CO) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a ventricle in a minute. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...


Because of its suppressive effect on the immune system, epinephrine is used to treat anaphylaxis and sepsis. Allergy patients undergoing immunotherapy may receive an epinephrine rinse before the allergen extract is administered, thus reducing the immune response to the administered allergen. It is also used as a bronchodilator for asthma if specific beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists are unavailable or ineffective. Adverse reactions to epinephrine include palpitations, tachycardia, anxiety, headache, tremor, hypertension, and acute pulmonary edema.[6] Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... The term immunotherapy incorporates an array of strategies of treatment based upon the concept of modulating the immune system to achieve a prophylactic and/or therapeutic goal. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... Beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of drugs used to treat asthma and other pulmonary disease states. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ...


Because of various expression of α1 or β2-receptors, depending on the patient, administration of epinephrine may raise or lower blood pressure, depending whether or not the net increase or decrease in peripheral resistance can balance the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of epinephrine on the heart, effects which respectively increase the contractility and rate of the heart. Inotropic: Affecting the force of muscle contraction. ... Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time) are those that change the heart rate. ... Myocardial Contractility: is a term used in to describe the performance of cardiac muscle. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ...


Biosynthesis

Epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine in a synthetic pathway shared by all catecholamines.
Epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine in a synthetic pathway shared by all catecholamines.

Epinephrine is synthesized from norepinephrine in a synthetic pathway shared by all catecholamines, including L-dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Image File history File links Catecholamines_biosynthesis. ... Image File history File links Catecholamines_biosynthesis. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... // Therapeutic use L-DOPA is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinsons disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrierwhere its precursor can. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ...


Epinephrine is synthesized via methylation of the primary distal amine of norepinephrine by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in the cytosol of adrenergic neurons and cells of the adrenal medulla (so-called chromaffin cells). PNMT is only found in the cytosol of cells of adrenal medullary cells. PNMT uses S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) as a cofactor to donate the methyl group to norepinephrine, creating epinephrine. Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is an enzyme found in the adrenal medulla which converts Norepinephrine (Noradrenalin) to Epinephrine (Adrenalin). ... The cytosol (cf. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit atop the kidneys. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chromophil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into S-Adenosyl methionine. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ...


For norepinephrine to be acted upon by PNMT in the cytosol, it must first be shipped out of granules of the chromaffin cells. This may occur via the catecholamine-H+ exchanger VMAT1. VMAT1 is also responsible for transporting newly synthesized epinephrine from the cytosol back into chromaffin granules in preparation for release. Epinephrine Norepinephrine Adrenal gland. ... The vesicular monoamine transporter is a transport protein located within the presynaptic cell. ...


Regulation

Epinephrine synthesis is solely under the control of the central nervous system (CNS). Several levels of regulation dominate epinephrine synthesis. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the synthesis of epinephrine precursors by enhancing the activity of enzymes involved in catecholamine synthesis. The specific enzymes are tyrosine hydroxylase in the synthesis of dopa and enzyme dopamine-β-hydroxylase in the synthesis of norepinephrine. Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtrÉ’pɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn, əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtroÊŠpɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... tyrosine is the precursor of catecholamines epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine Synthesis Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine containing catechol and amine groups. ... Tyrosine Hydroxylase is the enzyme responsible for catalysing the conversion of L-tyrosine, an amino acid, to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), a precursor to Dopamine in the process the body uses to synthesise adrenaline (epinephrin). ... Levodopa (INN) or L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) is an intermediate in dopamine biosynthesis. ... Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) is an enzyme that converts dopamine to norepinephrine: DBH is a 290 kDa copper-containing oxygenase consisting of four identical subunits, and its activity requires ascorbate as a cofactor. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ...


ACTH also stimulates the adrenal cortex to release cortisol, which increases the expression of PNMT in chromaffin cells, enhancing epinephrine synthesis. This is most often done in response to stress. Cortical part of the adrenal gland (on the pointer). ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ...


The sympathetic nervous system, acting via splanchnic nerves to the adrenal medulla, stimulates the release of epinephrine. Acetylcholine released by preganglionic sympathetic fibers of these nerves acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, causing cell depolarization and an influx of calcium through voltage-gated calcium channels. Calcium triggers the exocytosis of chromaffin granules and thus the release of epinephrine (and norepinephrine) into the bloodstream. The splanchnic nerves, which are part of the autonomic nervous system, enervate the pelvic and genital organs, regulating the emptying of the urinary bladder and the rectum as well as sexual functions like erection and orgasm. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ion channels in cells plasma membranes. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Epinephrine (as with norepinephrine) does exert negative feedback to down-regulate its own synthesis at the presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptor. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the number of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein in response to external variable. ...


A pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland (or, rarely, the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system), which results in the uncontrolled secretion of catecholamines, usually epinephrine. A phaeochromocytoma (pheochromocytoma in the US) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands originating in the chromaffin cells, which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine in the US). ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ...


In liver cells, epinephrine binds to the β-Adrenergic receptor which changes conformation and helps Gs, a G protein, exchange GDP to GTP. This trimeric G protein dissociates to Gs alpha and Gs beta/gamma subunits. Gs alpha binds to adenyl cyclase thus converting ATP into Cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP binds to the regulatory subunit of Protein Kinase A: Protein kinase A phosphorylates Phosphorylase Kinase. Meanwhile, Gs beta/gamma binds to the calcium channel and allows calcium ions to enter the cytoplasm. Calcium ions bind to calmodulin proteins, a protein present in all eukaryotic cells, which then binds to Phosphorylase Kinase and finishes its activation. Phosphorylase Kinase phosphorylates Phosphorylase which then phosphorylates glycogen and converts it to glucose-6-phosphate.


Terminology

Although widely referred to as adrenaline outside of the US, and the lay public worldwide, the USAN and INN for this chemical is epinephrine because adrenaline bore too much similarity to the Parke, Davis & Co trademark adrenalin (without the "e") which was registered in the US. The BAN and EP term for this chemical is adrenaline, and is indeed now one of the few differences between the INN and BAN systems of names. In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... A United States Adopted Name (USAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as defined in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). ... An International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as designated by the World Health Organization. ... Parke-Davis was a pharmaceutical company which was previously a subsidiary of Warner-Lambert prior to Warner-Lamberts acquisition by Pfizer in 2000. ... A British Approved Name (BAN) is the official non-proprietary or generic name given to a pharmaceutical substance, as defined in the British Pharmacopoeia (BP). ... The European Pharmacopoeia is a listing of a wide range of active substances and excipients used to prepare pharmaceutical products in Europe. ...


Amongst US health professionals, the term epinephrine is used over adrenaline. However, it should be noted that universally, pharmaceuticals that mimic the effects of epinephrine are called adrenergics, and receptors for epinephrine are called adrenoceptors.


The terms can also be spelled epinephrin and adrenalin (without the "e"), but the latter can cause confusion as described above.


Isomers

Natural epinephrine is the (R)-(−)-L-epinephrine stereoisomer. Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ...


Autoinjectors

Epinephrine is now also used in EpiPens and Twinjects. EpiPens are long narrow autoinjectors that administer epinephrine, Twinjects are similar but contain two doses of epinephrine. It is also used in medicines and usually the Epinephrine is extracted from adrenal glands of hogs, cattle, and sheep. A 0. ... Twinject is the registered trademark of the first epinephrine autoinjector that contains two doses. ... A 0. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Twinject is the registered trademark of the first epinephrine autoinjector that contains two doses. ...


Though both EpiPen and Twinject are trademark names, common usage of the terms are drifting toward the generic context of any epinephrine autoinjector. A genericized trademark, generic trade mark, generic descriptor, or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name which has become the colloquial or generic description for a particular class of product or service. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


See also

Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... Adrenaline Rush redirects here. ... Adrenochrome, chemical formula C9H9NO3, is an oxidation product of adrenaline. ... Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) (EC 2. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Aronson JK (2000). "Where name and image meet" - the argument for "adrenaline". British Medical Journal 320, 506-9.
  2. ^ Yamashima T (2003). "Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922), the samurai chemist, and his work on adrenalin". J Med Biogr 11 (2): 95-102. PMID 12717538.
  3. ^ Bennett M (1999). "One hundred years of adrenaline: the discovery of autoreceptors". Clin Auton Res 9 (3): 145-59. PMID 10454061.
  4. ^ Personality of the tinnitus patient. House PR. 1: Ciba Found Symp. 1981;85:193-203
  5. ^ a b Epinephrine - Online Medical Dictionary
  6. ^ About.com - "The Definition of Epinephrine"

General references

  • Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approach. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. 
  • Voet D. and J. (2004). Biochemistry, 3rd ed. USA: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-19350-x. 
Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... 2C-B, or 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxybenzeneethanamine) is a class of phenethylamine, a lesser-known psychedelic drug of the 2C family, an entactogen. ... 2C-C is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-D is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-E (2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine) is a psychedelic drug and phenethylamine of the 2C family. ... 2C-I is a psychedelic drug and phenethylamine that was developed and popularized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-N is a psychedelic entheogen first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-T-2 is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family. ... 2C-T-21 is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family. ... 2C-T-4 or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(i)-propylthiophenethylamine is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family. ... 2C-T-7 is a psychedelic phenethylamine and is sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-T-8 is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family. ... 3C-E is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine class of compounds. ... 4-FMP, also known by its full chemical name 4-fluoroamphetamine, or 4-Fluoro-alpha-Methyl-Phenethylamine, is a central nervous system stimulant. ... Bupropion (INN; also amfebutamone,[1] brand names Wellbutrin, Zyban, Budeprion and Buproban) is an atypical antidepressant, which acts as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and dopamine reuptake inhibitor,[2] and a nicotinic antagonist. ... Cathine (β-hydroxyamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat). ... Cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat). ... Clenbuterol is a drug prescribed to sufferers of breathing disorders as a decongestant and bronchodilator. ... 4-desoxymescaline, or DESOXY, is a psychedelic phenethylamine and analogue with four times the potency of mescaline. ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Diethylcathinone, more commonly called Diethylpropion in the medical field (Tenuate®) is a sympathomimetic stimulant drug marketed as an appetite suppressant. ... Dimethylcathinone is a phenethylamine that is synthesized from dichloromethane, bromopropiophenone, and dimethylamine. ... DOC (or 4-Chloro-2,5-DMA) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine family. ... DOB (Brolamfetamine, Dr. Bob, Bob or Bromo-DMA) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and a substituted amphetamine of the phenethylamine class of compounds, which can be used as an entheogen. ... DOI or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine family. ... DOM (or STP, allegedly standing for Serenity, Tranquillity and Peace) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine class of compounds, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... bk-MBDB is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Koeppe, Ludwig and Zeile and mentioned in their 1967 paper. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Bromo-DragonFLY, also known as ABDF, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug somewhat related to the phenethylamine family. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Escaline is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine class of compounds. ... Fenfluramine is a drug that was part of the Fen-Phen anti-obesity medication (the other drug being phentermine). ... Levalbuterol (Xopenex®) is the R-enantiomer of the short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist albuterol. ... Levmetamfetamine (other names: l-desoxyephedrine, l-methamphetamine, levo-methamphetamine) is the l- stereoisomer of methamphetamine, a sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor which may be used in over-the-counter nasal decongestants. ... Also known as EDEN or methyl-j MBDB is an uncommon hallucinogenic phenethylamine, which is closely chemically related to MDMA. It was first synthesized by David E. Nichols, a leading Pharmacologist and Chemist. ... 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA or Tenamfetamine), is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and empathogen/entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Methylone is a designer drug that is an analogue of MDMA (Ecstasy). ... MDEA (also MDE), which stands for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and empathogen-entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Vitamin R redirects here. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Phentermine is an appetite suppressant of the amphetamine and phenethylamine class. ... Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. Salbutamol sulphate is usually given by the inhaled route for direct effect on bronchial smooth muscle. ... In organic chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, para-tyramine, p-tyramine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ... Venlafaxine (Effexor) is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class first introduced by Wyeth in 1993. ... Major endocrine glands. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or protirelin, is a tripeptide hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by the anterior pituitary. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1 also called LHRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF or GHRF), is a 44-amino acid peptide hormone produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... Oxytocin (Greek: quick birth) is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. ... The anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis, from Greek adeno, gland; hypo, under; physis, growth; hence, glandular undergrowth) comprises the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ... The Alpha subunit of glycoprotein hormones is a peptide formed by gene found on chromosome 6. ... Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone primarily associated with lactation. ... Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor polypeptide with 241 amino acid residues. ... Pronunciation (IPA): /əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtrÉ’pɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn, əˈdrinoÊŠËŒkÉ”rtɪkoʊˈtroÊŠpɪk ˈhÉ”rmoÊŠn/ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. ... Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is a peptide hormone produced by cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. ... For other uses, see Endorphin (disambiguation). ... Lipotropin is a pituitary hormone It comes in two forms: gamma lipotropin (γ-LPH) beta lipotropin (β-LPH) It is derived from proopiomelanocortin. ... It has been suggested that HTPA be merged into this article or section. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism)]. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, testosterone and estrogen. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis for short) is part of the endocrine system responsible in part for the regulation of metabolism. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular (also known as C) cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Endocrine system ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (also HPTA) is a way of referring to the combined effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a dimeric glycoprotein that inhibits the development of the Müllerian ducts in a male embryo. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... Estradiol (17β-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... Inhibin is a peptide that is an inhibitor of FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Activin is a peptide that enhances FSH synthesis and secretion and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... Melatonin, 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, is a hormone found in all living creatures from algae[1] to humans, at levels that vary in a diurnal cycle. ... The placenta is a sack of fat present in placental vertebrates, such as some mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryo soon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast (part of the placenta). ... Human placental lactogen (HPL), also called human chorionic somatomammotropin, is a polypeptide placental hormone. ... Estriol. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Not to be confused with rennin, the active enzyme in rennet. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ... Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or atriopeptin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the homeostatic control of body water and sodium. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Ghrelin is a hormone produced by P/D1 cells lining the acer of the human stomach that stimulate appetite. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the secretin family of hormones. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... Motilin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the small intestine that increases gastrointestinal motility and stimulates the production of pepsin. ... VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. ... Grays Fig. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... Adiponectin (also referred to as Acrp30, apM1) is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. ... Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. ... Thymopoietin is a protein involved in the induction of CD90 in the thymus. ... Front view of a skeleton of an adult human Back view of a skeleton of an adult human The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. ... Osteocalcin is a protein found in bone and dentin; that plays a role in mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are polypeptides with high sequence similarity to insulin. ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a polypeptide protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is a protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ... Nerve growth factor (NGF), is a small secreted protein which induces the differentiation and survival of particular target neurons (nerve cells). ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is exactly as it states; a neurotrophic factor usually derived in the brain. ... Neurotrophin-3, or NT-3 is a neurotrophic factor, in the NGF (Nerve Growth Factor)-family of neurotrophins. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Dopaminergic means related to the neurotransmitter dopamine. A synapse is dopaminergic if it uses dopamine as its neurotransmitter. ... Etilefrine is a cardiac stimulant. ... Isoproterenol hydrochloride (Medihaler-Iso®) is a beta adrenergic receptor agonist medication, used as an inhaled aerosol to treat asthma. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Norfenefrine is a cardiac stimulant. ... Phenylephrine or Neo-Synephrine is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil and to increase blood pressure. ... Dobutamine is a beta-1 adrenergic agonist. ... Synephrine Synephrine is a dietary supplement aimed at encouraging fat loss. ... Metaraminol (INN, trade name Aramine®) is a potent sympathomimetic amine used in the prevention and treatment of hypotension, particularly as a complication of anesthesia. ... Methoxamine is an adrenergic agonist. ... Mephentermine is a cardiac stimulant. ... Dimetofrine (or dimethophrine) is a cardiac stimulant. ... Prenalterol is a cardiac stimulant. ... Dopexamine is a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist. ... Gepefrine is a cardiac stimulant. ... Ibopamine is a sympathomimetic used in ophthalmology. ... Midodrine is an alpha-sympathomimetic drug. ... Octopamine is a biogenic amine which is closely related to noradrenaline, and has a similar action to dopamine. ... Fenoldopam is a synthetic compound that acts as a dopamine D1 receptor agonist. ... Cafedrine is a cardiac stimulant. ... Arbutamine is a cardiac stimulant. ... Theodrenaline (or noradrenaline theophylline) is a cardiac stimulant. ... A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). ... A PDE3 inhibitor is a drug which inhibits the action of the PDE3 phosphodiesterase enzyme. ... Amrinone (INN) or inamrinone, trade name Inocor®, is a pyridine phosphodiesterase inhibitor. ... Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor. ... Enoximone (INN, trade name Perfan®) is an imidazole phosphodiesterase inhibitor. ... Bucladesine is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. ... Angiotensinamide is a cardiac stimulant. ... Xamoterol is a cardiac stimulant. ... Levosimendan (INN) (IPA: ) is a calcium sensitiser used in the management of acutely decompensated congestive heart failure. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterized by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. Salbutamol sulphate is usually given by the inhaled route for direct effect on bronchial smooth muscle. ... Levosalbutamol (INN) or levalbuterol (USAN), trade name Xopenex, is the R-enantiomer of the short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist albuterol (salbutamol). ... Fenoterol is an asthma medication designed to open up the airways to the lungs. ... The drug Terbutaline (trade names Brethine, Bricanyl, or Brethaire) is a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, used as a fast-acting bronchodilator and off-label to delay premature labour as a tocolytic. ... Long acting beta-adrenoceptor agonists include formoterol, salmeterol and are usually prescribed for moderate to severe persistent asthma patients or patients with COPD. They are designed to replace the shorter acting B2-agonists such as salbutamol, as they have a duration of action of approximately 12 hours in comparison with... Bambuterol (INN, marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade names Bambec® and Oxeol®) is a long acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma. ... Clenbuterol is a drug prescribed to sufferers of breathing disorders as a decongestant and bronchodilator. ... Formoterol belongs to the family of prescription-only medicines known as beta 2-agonists. ... Salmeterol is a long-acting beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist drug that is currently prescribed for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. It is currently available in both dry-powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). ... Isoproterenol hydrochloride (Medihaler-Iso®) is a beta adrenergic receptor agonist medication, used as an inhaled aerosol to treat asthma. ... Orciprenaline (INN, also known as metaproterenol) is a bronchodilator used in the treatment of asthma. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Beclometasone dipropionate (INN, Beclomethasone dipropionate (BAN) is a corticosteroid drug. ... Budesonide is a glucocorticoid steroid for the treatment of asthma, non-infectious rhinitis (including hay fever and other allergies), and for treatment and prevention of nasal polyposis. ... Ciclesonide is a glucocorticoid used to treat obstructive airway diseases. ... Fluticasone proprionate is a glucocorticoid often prescribed as treatment for asthma and allergic rhinitis. ... Mometasone furoate (also referred to as Mometasone) is a moderately potent glucocorticoid steroid used in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders (such as eczema and psoriasis), allergic rhinitis (such as hayfever), and asthma for patients unresponsive to less potent corticosteroids. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Ipratropium (as ipratropium bromide, trade name Atrovent) is an anticholinergic drug administered by inhalation for the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. ... Tiotropium (IPA: ) is a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ... Mast cell stabilizers are medications used to prevent or control certain allergic disorders. ... Cromoglicate (INN) (also referred to as cromolyn (USAN) or cromoglycate (former BAN)) is traditionally described as a mast cell stabilizer, and is commonly marketed as the sodium salt sodium cromoglicate. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Aminophylline is a drug combination that contains theophylline and ethylenediamine in 2:1 ratio. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... A leukotriene antagonist is a hormone antagonist acting upon leukotrienes. ... Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. ... Pranlukast is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonist. ... Zafirlukast is an oral leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) for the maintenance treatment of asthma. ... Unopened Symbicort Turbuhaler (left) and opened (middle and right) Budesonide/formoterol is a combination formulation containing budesonide and formoterol used in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the EU. It is marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Symbicort. ... The combination preparation fluticasone/salmeterol is a formulation containing fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate used in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ... The combination preparation ipratropium/salbutamol is a formulation containing ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulfate (albuterol sulfate) used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Advanced cardiac life support or (ACLS) refers to a set of clinical interventions for the urgent treatment of cardiac arrest and other life threatening medical emergencies, as well as the knowledge and skills to deploy those interventions. ... Advanced Life Support (ALS) is a treatment consensus for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest and related medical problems, as agreed in Europe by the European Resuscitation Council, most recently in 2005. ... Advanced Trauma Life Support is a training program in acute management of trauma cases, developed in 1976 by the American College of Surgeons. ... Basic life support (BLS) is a specific level of prehospital medical care provided by trained responders, including emergency medical technicians, in the absence of advanced medical care. ... CPR redirects here. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) is a system of Advanced Life Support applied to infants and children. ... A trauma center is a hospital equipped to perform as a casualty receiving station for the emergency medical services by providing the best possible medical care for traumatic injuries 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. ... Level I trauma center provides the highest level of Surgical care to trauma patients. ... In the United States a Level II trauma center provides Emergency medicine to trauma patients who do not need the services of a Level I trauma center. ... A Level III trauma center provides Emergency medicine to trauma patients who do not need the services of a Level I or a Level II trauma center. ... A Level IV trauma center provides the stabilization and treatment of severely injured patients in remote areas where no alternative care is available. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... A disposable BVM Resuscitator A bag valve mask (also known as a BVM or Ambu bag) is a hand-held device used to provide ventilation to a patient who is not breathing or who is breathing inadequately. ... A chest tube or chest drain is a flexible plastic tube that is inserted through the side of the chest into the pleural space. ... Typical view of defibrillation in progress, with the operator at the head, but clear of contact with the patient Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. ... An automated external defibrillator, open and ready for pads to be attached An Automated External Defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,[1] and is able to treat them by application... ICD An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), also known as an automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD), is a small battery powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. ... “QRS” redirects here. ... Intraosseous infusion is the process of injection directly into the marrow of the bone. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognised symbol for emergency medical services A paramedic is a medical professional, usually a member of the emergency medical service, who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital environment, provides emergency treatment and, when appropriate, transports a patient to definitive care... An emergency physician is a physician who works at an emergency department to care for acutely ill patients. ... For other uses, see Basics. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Amiodarone belongs to a class of drugs called Vaughan-Williams Class III antiarrhythmic agent. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... In emergency medicine the golden hour is the first sixty minutes after the occurrence of multi-system trauma. ... The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident & emergency (A&E) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and... An Emergency medical service (abbreviated to initialism EMS in many countries) is a service providing out-of-hospital acute care and transport to definitive care, to patients with illnesses and injuries which the patient believes constitutes a medical emergency. ... Emergency psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry and emergency medicine designed to respond to emergencies requiring psychiatric intervention. ... {{Otheruses4|the medical term|the Australian television series|Medical Emergenc an immediate threat to a persons life or long term health. ... Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Epinephrine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (834 words)
Epinephrine is a catecholamine, a sympathomimetic monoamine derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.
Epinephrine was isolated and identified in 1895 by Napoleon Cybulski, Polish physiologist.
Epinephrine is used as a drug to promote peripheral vascular resistance via alpha-stimulated vasoconstriction in cardiac arrest and other cardiac disrhythmias resulting in diminished or absent cardiac output, such that blood is shunted to the body's core.
Epinephrine - definition of Epinephrine in Encyclopedia (602 words)
Epinephrine plays a central role in the short-term stress reaction—the physiological response to conditions that threaten the physical integrity of the body.
Epinephrine is used as a drug in order to stimulate cardiac action in cardiac arrest, as a vasoconstrictor in anaphylactic shock and sepsis, and as a bronchodilator in acute bronchial asthma.
Chemically, epinephrine is a catecholamine hormone, a sympathomimetic monoamine derived from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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