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Encyclopedia > Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. It is considered a cornerstone methodology of public health research, and is highly regarded in evidence-based medicine for identifying risk factors for disease and determining optimal treatment approaches to clinical practice. Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... A 1930 Soviet poster propagating breast care. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


The work of communicable and non-communicable disease epidemiologists ranges from outbreak investigation, to study design, data collection and analysis including the development of statistical models to test hypotheses and the 'writing-up' of results for submission to peer reviewed journals. Epidemiologists may draw on a number of other scientific disciplines such as biology in understanding disease processes and social science disciplines including sociology and philosophy in order to better understand proximate and distal risk factors. Virus outbreaks occur when a virus bypasses infection control measures and a relatively high number of infections are observed where no cases or sporadic cases occurred in the past. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

Epidemiology, "the study of what is upon the people", is derived from the Greek terms epi = upon, among; demos = people, district; logos = study, word, discourse; suggesting that it applies only to human populations. But the term is widely used in studies of zoological populations (veterinary epidemiology), although the term 'epizoology' is available, and it has also been applied to studies of plant populations (botanical epidemiology).[1] Epizoology is the study of disease patterns in animal populations. ...


History

The Greek physician Hippocrates is sometimes said to be the father of epidemiology. He is the first person known to have examined the relationships between the occurrence of disease and environmental influences. He coined the terms endemic (for diseases usually found in some places but not in others) and epidemic (for disease that are seen at some times but not others.[2] For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during...


One of the earliest theories on the origin of disease was that it was primarily the fault of human luxury. This was expressed by philosophers such as Plato[3] and Rousseau,[4] and social critics like Jonathan Swift.[5] For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Rousseau is a French surname. ...


In the medieval Islamic world, Muslim physicians discovered the contagious nature of infectious disease. In particular, the Persian physician Avicenna, considered a "father of modern medicine",[6] in The Canon of Medicine (1020s), discovered the contagious nature of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted disease, and the distribution of disease through water and soil,[7] stated that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected,[8] introduced the method of quarantine as a means of limiting the spread of contagious disease,[9] the method of risk factor analysis, and the idea of a syndrome in the diagnosis of specific diseases.[10] During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... A sexually transmitted disease (STD), a. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ... A risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection but risk factors are not necessarily causal. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ...


When the Black Death bubonic plague reached Al Andalus in the 14th century, Ibn Khatima hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by small "minute bodies" which enter the human body and cause disease. Another 14th century Andalusian-Arabian physician, Ibn al-Khatib (1313–1374), wrote a treatise called On the Plague, in which he stated how infectious disease can be transmitted through bodily contact and "through garments, vessels and earrings."[8] In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ...


In the middle of the 16th century, a famous Italian doctor from Florence named Girolamo Fracastoro was the first one who proposed a theory that very small, unseeable, live particles cause diseases. They were considered to be able to spread by air, multiply by themselves and to be destroyable by fire. In such a way he refuted Galen's theory of miasms (poison gas in sick people). In 1543 he wrote a book "De contagione et contagiosis morbis". At that time, based of his theory, he was the first to promote personal and environmental hygiene. This theory could not have been proven until the development of the first microscope by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1675. Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Girolamo Fracastoro (Fracastorius) (1478‑1553) was an Italian physician, scholar and poet. ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... The miasmatic theory of disease held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language: pollution), a noxious form of bad air. In general, this concept has been supplanted by the more scientifically founded germ theory of disease. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Layewenhook) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Original map by Dr. John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854
Original map by Dr. John Snow showing the clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854

John Graunt, a professional haberdasher and serious amateur scientist, published Natural and Political Observations ... upon the Bills of Mortality in 1662. In it, he used analysis of the mortality rolls in London before the Great Plague to present one of the first life tables and report time trends for many diseases, new and old. He provided statistical evidence for many theories on disease, and also refuted many widespread ideas on them. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x869, 248 KB)The original map drawn by Dr. John Snow (1813-1858), a British physician who is one of the founders of medical epidemiology, showing cases of cholera in the London epidemics of 1854, clustered around the locations of water... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (889x869, 248 KB)The original map drawn by Dr. John Snow (1813-1858), a British physician who is one of the founders of medical epidemiology, showing cases of cholera in the London epidemics of 1854, clustered around the locations of water... A cluster refers to a grouping of health-related events that are related temporally and in proximity. ... John Graunt (1620-1674) was one of the first demographers. ... A haberdasher is a person who sells small items via retail, commonly items used in clothing, such as ribbons and buttons, or completed accessories, such as hats or gloves. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... In actuarial science, a life table (sometimes called a mortality table) is a table of statistics giving information related to: the average probability of survival or death at different ages, remaining life expectancy the proportion of the original birth cohort still alive. ...


Dr. John Snow is famous for the suppression of an 1854 outbreak of cholera in London's Soho district. He identified the cause of the outbreak as a public water pump on Broad Street and had the handle removed, thus ending the outbreak. (It has been questioned as to whether the epidemic was already in decline when Snow took action.) This has been perceived as a major event in the history of public health and can be regarded as the founding event of the science of epidemiology. Dr. John Snow John Snow (16 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Cast-iron architecture in Greene Street SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Broadwick Street showing the John Snow memorial and pub Broadwick Street (formerly Broad Street) is a street in Soho, City of Westminster London. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ...


Other pioneers include Danish physician P. A. Schleisner, who in 1849 related his work on the prevention of the epidemic of tetanus neonatorum on the Vestmanna Islands in Iceland. Another important pioneer was Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis, who in 1847 brought down infant mortality at a Vienna hospital by instituting a disinfection procedure. His findings were published in 1850, but his work was ill received by his colleagues, who discontinued the procedure. Disinfection did not become widely practiced until British surgeon Joseph Lister 'discovered' antiseptics in 1865 in light of the work of Louis Pasteur. Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... Cliffs on Heimaey, Vestmannaeyjar Vestmannaeyjar (The West-men Islands) is a small archipelago off the south coast of Iceland. ... Ignaz Semmelweis (1860 portrait): advised handwashing with a chlorinated-lime solution in 1847. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ...


In the early 20th century, mathematical methods were introduced into epidemiology by Ronald Ross, Anderson Gray McKendrick and others. Ronald Ross Sir Ronald Ross (May 13, 1857 – September 16, 1932) was a Scottish physician. ... Anderson Gray McKendrick (September 8, 1876 - May 30, 1943) was a Scottish physician and epidemiologist pioneered the use of mathematical methods in epidemiology. ...


Another breakthrough was the 1954 publication of the results of a British Doctors Study, led by Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill, which lent very strong statistical support to the suspicion that tobacco smoking was linked to lung cancer. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... The British doctors study is the generally accepted name of a prospective clinical trial which has been running from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer. ... Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll CH OBE FRS (28 October 1912–24 July 2005) was a British physiologist who became the foremost epidemiologist of the 20th century, turning the subject into a rigorous science. ... Austin Bradford Hill (July 8, 1897 - April 18, 1991), English epidemiologist and statistician, pioneered the randomized clinical trial and, together with Richard Doll, was the first to demonstrate the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ...

  • History of emerging infectious diseases

The discovery of new pathogens is an important activity in the field of medical science. ...

The profession

To date, few universities offer epidemiology as a course of study at the undergraduate level. Many epidemiologists are physicians, or hold other postgraduate degrees including a Master of Public Health (MPH), Master of Science or Epidemiology (MSc.) Doctorates include the Doctor of Public Health (DrPH), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Doctor of Science (ScD), or for clinically trained physicians, Doctor of Medicine (MD). In the United Kingdom, the title of 'doctor' is a honorary one conferred to those having attained the professional degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBBS or MBChB). As public health/health protection practitioners, epidemiologists work in a number of different settings. Some epidemiologists work 'in the field', i.e., in the community, commonly in a public health/health protection service and are often at the forefront of investigating and combating disease outbreaks. Others work for non-profit organizations, universities, hospitals and larger government entities such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Health Protection Agency, or the Public Health Agency of Canada. A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... The Master of Public Health (MPH) is a professional masters degree awarded for studies in areas related to public health. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... The Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) is an advanced professional degree for those who intend to pursue or advance a professional practice career in public health and for leaders and future leaders in public health practice. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... D.Sc. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinæ Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ (abbreviated MB BChir, MB BCh, MB ChB, BM BS, MB BS etc. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The Health Protection Agency (HPA), originally established as a special health authority (SpHA) in 2003, is an independent national organisation charged with protecting the health and well-being of the United Kingdom citizens from infectious diseases and in preventing harm and reducing impacts when hazards involving chemicals, poisons or radiation... The Public Health Agency of Canada is an agency of the Department of Health within the government of Canada which is responsible for public health and, more specifically, emergency preparedness and response and infectious and chronic disease control and prevention. ...


The practice

Epidemiologists employ a range of study designs from the observational to experimental and are generally categorized as descriptive, analytic (aiming to further examine known associations or hypothesized relationships), and experimental (a term often equated with clinical or community trials of treatments and other interventions). Epidemiological studies are aimed, where possible, at revealing unbiased relationships between exposures such as alcohol or smoking, biological agents, stress, or chemicals to mortality or morbidity. Identifying causal relationships between these exposures and outcomes are important aspects of epidemiology. Modern epidemiologist use disease informatics as a tool. This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the... The Disease Informatics is the application of Information Science in defining the diseases with least error, identifying most of the targets to combat a cluster of diseases (Disease Causal Chain) and designing a holistic solution (Health strategy) to the problem. ...


The term 'epidemiologic triad' is used to describe the intersection of Host, Agent, and Environment in analyzing an outbreak.


As causal inference

Although epidemiology is sometimes viewed as a collection of statistical tools used to elucidate the associations of exposures to health outcomes, a deeper understanding of this science is that of discovering causal relationships.


It is nearly impossible to say with perfect accuracy how even the most simple physical systems behave beyond the immediate future, much less the complex field of epidemiology, which draws on biology, sociology, mathematics, statistics, anthropology, psychology, and policy; "Correlation does not imply causation," is a common theme to much of the epidemiological literature. For epidemiologists, the key is in the term inference. Epidemiologists use gathered data and a broad range of biomedical and psychosocial theories in an iterative way to generate or expand theory, to test hypotheses, and to make educated, informed assertions about which relationships are causal, and about exactly how they are causal. Epidemiologists Rothman and Greenland emphasize that the "one cause - one effect" understanding is a simplistic mis-belief. Most outcomes — whether disease or death — are caused by a chain or web consisting of many component causes. For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... This article is about the social science. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Correlation does not imply causation is a phrase used in the sciences and statistics to emphasize that correlation between two variables does not imply there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the two. ... Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ...


Bradford-Hill criteria

In 1965 Austin Bradford Hill detailed criteria for assessing evidence of causation[11]. These guidelines are sometimes referred to as the Bradford-Hill criteria, but this makes it seem like it is some sort of checklist. For example, Phillips and Goodman (2004) note that they are often taught or referenced as a checklist for assessing causality, despite this not being Hill's intention [12]. Hill himself said "None of my nine viewpoints can bring indisputable evidence for or against the cause-and-effect hypothesis and none can be required sine qua non"[11]. Austin Bradford Hill (July 8, 1897 - April 18, 1991), English epidemiologist and statistician, pioneered the randomized clinical trial and, together with Richard Doll, was the first to demonstrate the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. ...

  1. Strength: A small association does not mean that there is not a causal effect.[11]
  2. Consistency: Consistent findings observed by different persons in different places with different samples strengthens the likelihood of an effect.[11]
  3. Specificity: Causation is likely if a very specific population at a specific site and disease with no other likely explanation. The more specific an association between a factor and an effect is, the bigger the probability of a causal relationship.[11]
  4. Temporality: The effect has to occur after the cause (and if there is an expected delay between the cause and expected effect, then the effect must occur after that delay).[11]
  5. Biological gradient: Greater exposure should generally lead to greater incidence of the effect. However, in some cases, the mere presence of the factor can trigger the effect. In other cases, an inverse proportion is observed: greater exposure leads to lower incidence.[11]
  6. Plausibility: A plausible mechanism between cause and effect is helpful (but Hill noted that knowledge of the mechanism is limited by current knowledge).[11]
  7. Coherence: Coherence between epidemiological and laboratory findings increases the likelihood of an effect. However, Hill noted that "... lack of such [laboratory] evidence cannot nullify the epidemiological affect on associations" [11].
  8. Experiment: "Occasionally it is possible to appeal to experimental evidence" [11].
  9. Analogy: The effect of similar factors may be considered[11].

Legal interpretation

Epidemiological studies can only go to prove that an agent could have caused, but not that it did cause, an effect in any particular case: An Epidemiological study is a statistical study on human populations, which attempt to link human health effects to a specified cause. ...

"Epidemiology is concerned with the incidence of disease in populations and does not address the question of the cause of an individual’s disease. This question, sometimes referred to as specific causation, is beyond the domain of the science of epidemiology. Epidemiology has its limits at the point where an inference is made that the relationship between an agent and a disease is causal (general causation) and where the magnitude of excess risk attributed to the agent has been determined; that is, epidemiology addresses whether an agent can cause a disease, not whether an agent did cause a specific plaintiff’s disease."[13] Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. ...

In United States law, epidemiology alone cannot prove that a causal association does not exist in general. Conversely, it can be (and is in some circumstances) taken by US courts, in an individual case, to justify an inference that a causal association does exist, based upon a balance of probability. Probability is the likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen. ...


Advocacy

As a public health discipline, epidemiologic evidence is often used to advocate both personal measures like diet change and corporate measures like removal of junk food advertising, with study findings disseminated to the general public in order to help people to make informed decisions about their health. Often the uncertainties about these findings are not communicated well; news articles often prominently report the latest result of one study with little mention of its limitations, caveats, or context. Epidemiological tools have proved effective in establishing major causes of diseases like cholera and lung cancer but have had problems with more subtle health issues, and several recent epidemiological results on medical treatments (for example, on the effects of hormone replacement therapy) have been refuted by later randomized controlled trials.[14] Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Advocacy is the act of arguing on behalf of a particular issue, idea or person. ... Cheetos The Luther Burger, a bacon cheeseburger which employs a glazed donut in place of each bun. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ...


Population-based health management

Epidemiological practice and the results of epidemiological analysis make a significant contribution to emerging population-based health management frameworks.


Population-based health management encompasses the ability to:

  • assess the health states and health needs of a target population;
  • implement and evaluate interventions that are designed to improve the health of that population; and
  • efficiently and effectively provide care for members of that population in a way that is consistent with the community’s cultural, policy and health resource values.

Modern population-based health management is complex, requiring a multiple set of skills (medical, political, technological, mathematical etc.) of which epidemiological practice and analysis is a core component, that is unified with management science to provide efficient and effective health care and health guidance to a population. This task requires the forward looking ability of modern risk management approaches that transform health risk factors, incidence, prevalence and mortality statistics (derived from epidemiological analysis) into management metrics that not only guide how a health system responds to current population health issues, but also how a health system can be managed to better respond to future potential population health issues.


Examples of organizations that use population-based health management that leverage the work and results of epidemiological practice include Canadian Strategy for Cancer Control, Health Canada Tobacco Control Programs, Rick Hansen Foundation, Canadian Tobacco Control Research Initiative.[15][16][17]


Each of these organizations use a population-based health management framework called Life at Risk that combines epidemiological quantitative analysis with demographics, health agency operational research and economics to perform:

  • Population Life Impacts Simulations: Measurement of the future potential impact of disease upon the population with respect to new disease cases, prevalence, premature death as well as potential years of life lost from disability and death;
  • Labour Force Life Impacts Simulations: Measurement of the future potential impact of disease upon the labour force with respect to new disease cases, prevalence, premature death and potential years of life lost from disability and death;
  • Economic Impacts of Disease Simulations: Measurement of the future potential impact of disease upon private sector disposable income impacts (wages, corporate profits, private health care costs) and public sector disposable income impacts (personal income tax, corporate income tax, consumption taxes, publicly funded health care costs).

Types of studies

Main article: Study design

A study design is an analystic approach to conduct an epidemiological investigation, such as a clinical trial. ...

Case series

Case-series describe the experience of a single patient or a group of patients with a similar diagnosis. They are purely descriptive and cannot be used to make inferences about the general population of patients with that disease. These types of studies, in which an astute clinician identifies an unusual feature of a disease or a patient's history, may lead to formulation of a new hypothesis. Using the data from the series, analytic studies could be done to investigate possible causal factors. These can include case control studies or prospective studies. A case control study would involve matching comparable controls without the disease to the cases in the series. A prospective study would involve following the case series over time to evaluate the disease’s natural history.[18]


Case control studies

Case control studies select subjects based on their disease status. The study population is comprised of individuals that are disease positive. The control group should come from the same population that gave rise to the cases. The case control study looks back through time at potential exposures both populations (cases and controls) may have encountered. A 2x2 table is constructed, displaying exposed cases (A), the exposed controls (B), unexposed cases (C) and the unexposed controls(D). The statistic generated to measure association is the odds ratio (OR), which is the ratio of the odds of exposure in the cases (A/C) to the odds of exposure in the controls (B/D). This is equal to (A*D)/(B*C). The odds-ratio is a statistical measure, particularly important in Bayesian statistics and logistic regression. ...

..... Cases high Controls
Exposed low A B
Unexposed C prevalence D

If the OR is clearly greater than 1, then the conclusion is "those with the disease are more likely to have been exposed," whereas if it is close to 1 then the exposure and disease are not likely associated. If the OR is far less than one, then this suggests that the exposure is a protective factor in the causation of the disease.


Case control studies are usually faster and more cost effective than cohort studies, but are sensitive to bias (such as recall bias and selection bias). The main challenge is to identify the appropriate control group; the distribution of exposure among the control group should be representative of the distribution in the population that gave rise to the cases. This can be achieved by drawing a random sample from the original population at risk. This has as a consequence that the control group can contain people with the disease under study when the disease has a high attack rate in a population. A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study used in medicine and social science. ...


Cohort studies

Cohort studies select subjects based on their exposure status. The study subjects should be at risk of the outcome under investigation at the beginning of the cohort study; this usually means that they should be disease free when the cohort study starts. The cohort is followed through time to assess their later outcome status. An example of a cohort study would be the investigation of a cohort of smokers and non-smokers over time to estimate the incidence of lung cancer. The same 2x2 table is constructed as with the case control study. However, the point estimate generated is the Relative Risk (RR) [What is Relative Risk? How is it measured? How can values be interpreted? Link to statistical analysis? Explanation needed], which is the incidence of disease in the exposed group (A/A+B) over the incidence in the unexposed (C/C+D).

..... Case Non case Total
Exposed A B (A+B)
Unexposed C D (C+D)

As with the OR, a RR greater than 1 shows association, where the conclusion can be read "those with the exposure were more likely to develop disease."


Prospective studies have many benefits over case control studies. The RR is a more powerful effect measure than the OR, as the OR is just an estimation of the RR, since true incidence cannot be calculated in a case control study where subjects are selected based on disease status. Temporality can be established in a prospective study, and confounders are more easily controlled for. However, they are more costly, and there is a greater chance of losing subjects to follow-up based on the long time period over which the cohort is followed.


Outbreak investigation

For information on investigation of infectious disease outbreaks, please see outbreak investigation.

This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Virus outbreaks occur when a virus bypasses infection control measures and a relatively high number of infections are observed where no cases or sporadic cases occurred in the past. ...

Validity: precision and bias

Random error

Random error is the result of fluctuations around a true value because of sampling variability. Random error is just that: random. It can occur during data collection, coding, transfer, or analysis. Examples of random error include: poorly worded questions, a misunderstanding in interpreting an individual answer from a particular respondent, or a typographical error during coding. Random error affects measurement in a transient, inconsistent manner and it is impossible to correct for random error.


There is random error in all sampling procedures. This is called sampling error. In statistics, when analyzing collected data, the samples observed differ in such things as means and standard deviations from the population from which the sample is taken. ...


Precision in epidemiological variables is a measure of random error. Precision is also inversely related to random error, so that to reduce random error is to increase precision. Confidence intervals are computed to demonstrate the precision of relative risk estimates. The narrower the confidence interval, the more precise the relative risk estimate.


There are two basic ways to reduce random error in an epidemiological study. The first is to increase the sample size of the study. In other words, add more subjects to your study. The second is to reduce the variability in measurement in the study. This might be accomplished by using a more accurate measuring device or by increasing the number of measurements. An Epidemiological study is a statistical study on human populations, which attempt to link human health effects to a specified cause. ...


Note, that if sample size or number of measurements are increased, or a more precise measuring tool is purchased, the costs of the study are usually increased. There is usually an uneasy balance between the need for adequate precision and the practical issue of study cost.


Systematic error

A systematic error or bias occurs when there is a difference between the true value (in the population) and the observed value (in the study) from any cause other than sampling variability. An example of systematic error is if, unbeknown to you, the pulse oximeter you are using is set incorrectly and adds two points to the true value each time a measurement is taken. Because the error happens in every instance, it is systematic. Conclusions you draw based on that data will still be incorrect. But the error can be reproduced in the future (eg, by using the same mis-set instrument). A portable saturometer (for emergencies) Measure by optic properties through the nail A pulse oximeter is a medical device that indirectly measures the amount of oxygen in a patients blood. ...


A mistake in coding that affects *all* responses for that particular question is another example of a systematic error.


The validity of a study is dependent on the degree of systematic error. Validity is usually separated into two components:

  • Internal validity is dependent on the amount of error in measurements, including exposure, disease, and the associations between these variables. Good internal validity implies a lack of error in measurement and suggests that inferences may be drawn at least as they pertain to the subjects under study.
  • External validity pertains to the process of generalizing the findings of the study to the population from which the sample was drawn (or even beyond that population to a more universal statement). This requires an understanding of which conditions are relevant (or irrelevant) to the generalization. Internal validity is clearly a prerequisite for external validity.

Internal validity is a term pertaining to scientific research that signifies the extent to which the conditions within a research design were conducive to drawing the conclusions the researcher was interested in drawing. ... External validity is a term used in scientific research. ...

Selection bias

Selection bias is one of three types of bias that threatens the internal validity of a study. Selection bias is an inaccurate measure of effect which results from a systematic difference in the relation between exposure and disease between those who are in the study and those who should be in the study. Selection bias is the error of distorting a statistical analysis by pre- or post-selecting the samples. ...


If one or more of the sampled groups does not accurately represent the population they are intended to represent, then the results of that comparison may be misleading.


Selection bias can produce either an overestimation or underestimation of the effect measure. It can also produce an effect when none actually exists.


An example of selection bias is volunteer bias. Volunteers may not be representative of the true population. They may exhibit exposures or outcomes which may differ from nonvolunteers (eg volunteers tend to be healthier or they may seek out the study because they already have a problem with the disease being studied and want free treatment).


Another type of selection bias is caused by non-respondents. For example, women who have been subjected to politically motivated sexual assault may be more fearful of participating in a survey measuring incidents of mass rape than non-victims, leading researchers to underestimate the number of rapes.


To reduce selection bias, you should develop explicit (objective) definitions of exposure and/or disease. You should strive for high participation rates. Have a large sample size and randomly select the respondents so that you have a better chance of truly representing the population.


Journals

A ranked list of journals:[19]


General journals

  • American Journal of Epidemiology
  • Epidemiologic Reviews
  • Epidemiology
  • International Journal of Epidemiology
  • Annals of Epidemiology
  • Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
  • European Journal of Epidemiology
  • Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
  • Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations
  • Eurosurveillance

Specialty journals

  • Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
  • Genetic Epidemiology
  • Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
  • Paediatric Perinatal Epidemiology
  • Epidemiology and Infection
  • Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety

Areas

By physiology/disease

  • Infectious disease epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular disease epidemiology
  • Cancer epidemiology
  • Neuroepidemiology
  • Epidemiology of Aging
  • Oral/Dental epidemiology
  • Reproductive epidemiology
  • Obesity/diabetes epidemiology
  • Renal epidemiology
  • Injury epidemiology
  • Psychiatric epidemiology
  • Veterinary epidemiology
  • Epidemiology of zoonosis
  • Respiratory Epidemiology
  • Pediatric Epidemiology
  • Quantitative parasitology

The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical diagnostic and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ...

By methodological approach

The emerging field of conflict epidemiology offers a more accurate method to measure deaths caused during violent conflicts or wars that can generate more reliable numbers than before to guide decision-makers. ... Molecular Epidemiology is a branch of public health that deals with the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and control of the disease in groups of relatives and populations. ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ... Spatial epidemiology is the study of the spatial distribution of disease. ... Infection control and hospital epidemiology is the discipline concerned with preventing the spread of infections within the health-care setting. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... Clinical surveillance (or Syndromic Surveillance) refers to the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data about a clinical syndrome that has a significant impact on public health, which is then used to drive decisions about health policy and health education. ... The Disease Informatics is the application of Information Science in defining the diseases with least error, identifying most of the targets to combat a cluster of diseases (Disease Causal Chain) and designing a holistic solution (Health strategy) to the problem. ...

See also

In Epidemiology, Age adjustment is a technique used to better allow populations to be compared when the ages of the populations are quite different (for example, Utah vs. ... Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is an agency of the European Union. ... E-epidemiology is the science underlying the acquisition, maintenance and application of epidemiological knowledge and information using digital media such as the internet, mobile phones, digital paper, digital TV. E-epidemiology also refers to the large-scale epidemiological studies that are increasingly conducted through distributed global collaborations enabled by the... Readers not making a formal study of epidemiology will often see the names of epidemiological methods quoted without reference to their actual definition. ... Epi Info is a public domain statistical software for epidemiology developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... OpenEpi (www. ... The Hispanic Paradox refers to the epidemiological finding that Hispanics in the U.S. tend to paradoxically have substantially better health than the average population in spite of what their aggregate socio-economic indicators would predict. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It is possible to model mathematically the progress of most infectious diseases to discover the likely outcome of an epidemic or to help manage them by vaccination. ... An important focus of observational epidemiology is the identification of modifiable causes of common diseases that are of public health interest. ... A study design is an analystic approach to conduct an epidemiological investigation, such as a clinical trial. ... The initial thoughts leading to the development of the Thousand Families Study arose through observations made by Sir James Spence, one of the first ever full time paediatricians in the United Kingdom, and from 1942, the first holder of a University Chair of Child Health in England. ... The original Whitehall Study investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiorespiratory disease prevalence and mortality rates among British male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64. ... Demographic transition occurs in societies that transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as part of the economic development of a country from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Nutter FW Jr (1999). "Understanding the interrelationships between botanical, human, and veterinary epidemiology: the Ys and Rs of it all". Ecosys Health 5 (3): 131–40. doi:10.1046/j.1526-0992.1999.09922.x. 
  2. ^ Changing Concepts: Background to Epidemiology. Duncan & Associates. Retrieved on 2008-02-03.
  3. ^ The Republic, by Plato. The Internet Classic Archive. Retrieved on 2008-02-03.
  4. ^ A Dissertation on the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind. Constitution Society.
  5. ^ Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels: Part IV. A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms.
  6. ^ Cas Lek Cesk (1980). "The father of medicine, Avicenna, in our science and culture: Abu Ali ibn Sina (980-1037)", Becka J. 119 (1), p. 17-23.
  7. ^ George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science.
    (cf. Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq (1997), Quotations From Famous Historians of Science, Cyberistan.
  8. ^ a b Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph.D. (2002). "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the Islamic Medical Association 2, p. 2-9.
  9. ^ David W. Tschanz, MSPH, PhD (August 2003). "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2).
  10. ^ Lenn Evan Goodman (2003), Islamic Humanism, p. 155, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195135806.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hill AB. (1965). The environment and disease: association or causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 58, 295-300. [1]
  12. ^ Phillips, CV & Goodman KJ. (2004). The missed lessons of Sir Austin Bradford Hill. Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations, 1:3.
  13. ^ Michael D., Green; D. Michal Freedman, and Leon Gordis. Reference Guide on Epidemiology publisher= Federal Judicial Centre. Retrieved on 2008-02-03. 
  14. ^ Taubes G. "Do we really know what makes us healthy?", NY Times, 2007-09-16. Retrieved on 2007-09-18. 
  15. ^ Smetanin P & Kobak P (2005a) “Interdisciplinary Cancer Risk Management” 1st International Cancer Control Congress to be held October 23-26, 2005 in Vancouver, Canada.
  16. ^ Smetanin P & Kobak P (2005b) “A Population-Based Risk Management Framework for Cancer Control” The International Union Against Cancer Conference July 8–12, 2006 in Washington DC.
  17. ^ Smetanin P & Kobak P (2005c) “Selected Canadian Life and Economic Forecast Impacts of Lung Cancer” 11th World Conference on Lung Cancer in Barcelona, Spain on 3-6 July 2005.
  18. ^ Hennekens C.H. and Buring, J.E. (1987) ‚ Epidemiology in Medicine. Mayrent, S.L (Ed.), Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
  19. ^ Epidemiologic Inquiry: Impact Factors of leading epidemiology journals. Epidemiologic.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-03.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Alfred Leon Sarton (1884-1956) was a seminal Belgian-American polymath and historian of science. ... Look up Cf. ... The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) is the largest Muslim medical organization in North America. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Clayton, David and Michael Hills (1993) Statistical Models in Epidemiology Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852221-5
A thorough introduction to the statistical analysis of epidemiological data, focussing on survival rates - their estimation, analysis and comparison.
  • Last JM (2001). "A dictionary of epidemiology", 4th edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Morabia, Alfredo. ed. (2004) A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts. Basel, Birkhauser Verlag. Part I.
  • Smetanin P., Kobak P., Moyer C., Maley O (2005) “The Risk Management of Tobacco Control Research Policy Programs” The World Conference on Tobacco OR Health Conference, July 12–15, 2006 in Washington DC.
  • Szklo MM & Nieto FJ (2002). "Epidemiology: beyond the basics", Aspen Publishers, Inc.

External links

  • The Health Protection Agency
  • The Collection of Biostatistics Research Archive
  • Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • The International Journal of Biostatistics
  • BMJ - Epidemiology for the Uninitiated' (fourth edition), D. Coggon, PHD, DM, FRCP, FFOM, Geoffrey Rose DM, DSC, FRCP, FFPHM, DJP Barker, PHD, MD, FRCP, FFPHM, FRCOG, British Medical Journal
  • Epidem.com - Epidemiology (peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes original research on epidemiologic topics)
  • NIH.gov - 'Epidemiology' (textbook chapter), Philip S. Brachman, Medical Microbiology (fourth edition), US National Center for Biotechnology Information
  • UTMB.edu - 'Epidemiology' (plain format chapter), Philip S. Brachman, Medical Microbiology
  • Monash Virtual Laboratory - Simulations of epidemic spread across a landscape
The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... Medical microbiology is a branch of microbiology which deals with the study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites which are of medical importance and are capable of causing diseases in human beings. ... National Center for Biotechnology Information logo The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health. ... Flu redirects here. ... Flu research includes molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... This article is about flu treatment in humans for mild human flu, which includes both efforts to reduce symptoms and treatments for the flu virus itself. ... The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) which is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus Influenzavirus A is a genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. ... Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... Influenzavirus C is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae. ... H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... H1N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus) currently endemic in both human and pig populations. ... The Asian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... H3N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... H3N2 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... H3N8 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... H5N2 is a strain of avian influenza virus. ... H5N3 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). ... H5N8 is a subtype of the species Influenzavirus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). ... H5N9 is a subtype of the species Influenzavirus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). ... H7N1 is a subtype of the species Influenzavirus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). ... H7N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H7N3 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H7N4 is a subtype of the species Influenzavirus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). ... H7N7 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H9N2 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... H10N7 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... H5N1 genetic structure refers to the molecular structure of the H5N1 viruss RNA. H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. ... See Epidemiology of WHO-confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. ... The global spread of H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. ... H5N1 clinical trials are clinical trials concerning H5N1 vaccine; which is to say they are investigations concerning H5N1 vaccine in humans intended to discover pharmacological effects and identify any adverse reactions. ... The thin line represents average mortality of recent cases. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Arbidol (Russian Cyrillic Арбидол) is an antiviral drug manufactured by Masterlek in Moscow, Russia. ... Adamantane (tricyclo[3. ... Amantadine, 1-aminoadamantane, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. ... Rimantadine (systematic name 1-(1-aminoethyl)adamantane) is an orally administered medicine used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, Influenzavirus A infection. ... Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of antiviral drugs, whose mode of action relies on blocking the function of viral neuraminidase protein, thus preventing the virus from budding from the host cell. ... Oseltamivir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. ... Peramivir is a pharmaceutical drug used to viral infections. ... Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Peramivir is a pharmaceutical drug used to viral infections. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... FluMist is the product name of a nasal spray vaccine against the flu virus. ... A 5cc vial of Fluzone Fluzone is the commercial name of an influenza virus vaccine, distributed by sanofi pasteur, USA. It is a split-virus vaccine, which is produced by chemical disruption of the influenza virus. ... An influenza pandemic is a large scale epidemic of the influenza virus, such as the 1918 Spanish flu. ... The Avian Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that originated in China in 1957 and spread worldwide that same year. ... The Hong Kong Flu was a pandemic outbreak of influenza that began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to the United States of America that year. ... The 1918 flu pandemic (commonly referred to as the Spanish flu) was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... See H5N1 flu and Flu for details about the illnesses and H5N1 and H3N2 for details about the causitive agents. ... The Pandemic Severity Index (PSI) is a scale or index created in January 2007 by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designed to mimic the system for indexing the severity of hurricanes (which is the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale for tropical cyclones). ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Canine influenza or dog flu refers to varieties of Influenzavirus A that create influenza in canines. ... Equine influenza (Horse flu) refers to varieties of Influenzavirus A that are endemic in horses. ... Location of initial outbreak, August 24, 2007 An outbreak of equine influenza in Australia was confirmed by the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries on August 24, 2007 in Sydney. ... Swine Flu is a form of Type A influenza that is normally virulent only in pigs. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
WWW Epidemiology Virtual Library (1685 words)
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Epidemiology
University of Cincinnati, Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
University of Virginia, Division of Biostatistics & Epidemiology
Epidemiology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1911 words)
Epidemiology is the scientific study of factors affecting the health and illness of individuals and populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine.
Strictly speaking, epidemiology can only go to prove that an agent could have caused but not that, in any particular case, it did cause: "Epidemiology is concerned with the incidence of disease in populations and does not address the question of the cause of an individual’s disease.
Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology at The University of Melbourne
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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