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Encyclopedia > Epidemic

In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is "expected", based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a specified period of time is called the "incidence rate"). (An epizootic is the same thing but for an animal population.) Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... A disease or medical condition is an abnormality that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... An epizootic is the nonhuman equivalent of an epidemic, meaning that large numbers of animals are infected with a disease. ...


Defining an epidemic can be subjective, depending in part on which "expected" it is. An epidemic may be restricted to one locale (outbreak), more general (an "epidemic") or even global (pandemic). Because it is based on what is "unexpected" or thought normal, a few cases of a very rare disease like rabies may be classified as an "epidemic", while many cases of a common disease (like the common monster) would not. A pandemic (from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads across a large region (example a continent), or even worldwide. ...


Common diseases that occur at a constant but relatively high rate in the population are said to be "endemic". An example of an endemic disease is malaria in all parts of Africa (for example, Liberia) in which a small portion of the population is unexpected to get malaria at some point in their lifetimes. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ...


Famous examples of epidemics include the bubonic plague epidemic of Medieval Europe known as the Black Death, and the Great Influenza Pandemic concurring with the end of World War II. Bubonic plague is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease plague, which is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... The Spanish Flu Pandemic, also known as the Great Influenza Pandemic, the 1918 Flu Epidemic, and La Grippe, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 25 million to 40 million people (possibly significantly more) world-wide in 1918 and 1919. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Non-biological usage

The term is often used in a non-biological sense to refer to widespread and growing societal problems, for example, in discussions of obesity,or an non-mental illness. Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


See also

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is an agency of the European Union. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... A pandemic (from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads across a large region (example a continent), or even worldwide. ... Syndemic refers to the concentration of two or more diseases or other health conditions in a population in which there is some level of biological interaction among the diseases and health conditions that magnifies the negative health effects of one or more of the comorbid diseases or health conditions. ... It is possible to model mathematically the progress of most infectious diseases to discover the likely outcome of an epidemic or to help manage them by vaccination. ... This is a list of major epidemics. ...

External links

  • Video Panel Discussion on Pandemics with Experts

  Results from FactBites:
 
Epidemic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (297 words)
An epidemic may be restricted to one locale (an outbreak), more general (an "epidemic") or even global (pandemic).
Famous examples of epidemics include the bubonic plague epidemic of Medieval Europe known as the "Black Death", the Great Influenza Pandemic concurring with the end of World War I, and the current AIDS epidemic, which some also consider to be of pandemic proportions.
The disease involved in an epidemic can be transmitted by a vector, from person to person, or from a common source such as contaminated water.
epidemic. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (255 words)
Epidemics may also be caused by new disease agents in the human population, such as the Ebola virus.
A worldwide epidemic is known as a pandemic, e.g., the influenza pandemic of 1918 or the AIDS pandemic beginning in the 1980s.
Epidemic disease is controlled by various measures, depending on whether transmission is through respiratory droplets, food and water contaminated with intestinal wastes, insect vectors, or other means.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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