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Encyclopedia > Ephesus
Ephesus(Έφεσος)
Ancient City of Greece
(Efes)
The Celsus Library
Ephesus (Turkey )
Ephesus
Ephesus(Efes)

Ephesus (Hittite: Apasa Greek: Έφεσος, Turkish: Efes) was an Ionian city in ancient Anatolia. The city was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) flows into the Aegean Sea, and was part of the Panionian League. Efes can refer to the following: Efes is a city in Turkey, near the ancient city of Ephesus. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 523 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1395 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 320 pixelsFull resolution (3323 × 1331 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/png) Карта Турции в нужной проекции для Шаблон:ПозКарта, обрезанная ровно по линиям градусов (25° - 45° в.д., 43° - 35° с.ш.). Map of Turkey, in the equirectangular projection (equidistant cylindrical projection, or plate carrée). ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Efes can refer to the following: Efes is a city in Turkey, near the ancient city of Ephesus. ... Ephesus is a town located in Heard County, Georgia. ... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Ionian Islands Ionia (Greek Ιωνία) was an ancient region of western coastal of Anatolia (now in Turkey). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... A river in moder day Turkey south of todays city of Izmir. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Ionian League (also called the Panionic League) was a religious and cultural (as opposed to a political or military) confederacy comprised of 12 Ionian cities, formed as early as 800 BC. The cities were, (from south to north), Miletus, its principal city, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos...


Today's archaeological site lies 3 km south of the Selçuk district of İzmir Province, Turkey. The ruins of Ephesus are favourite international and local tourist attractions, partly owing to their easy accessibility from Adnan Menderes Airport and via the port of Kuşadası. Ayasoluk Hill in Selçuk, Turkey. ... Ä°zmir is a province of Turkey in western Anatolia on the Aegean coast. ... Ury House, Aberdeenshire ruined by removal of the roof after the second world war to avoid taxation. ... Adnan Menderes Izmir International Airport (IATA: ADB, ICAO: LTBJ) has been named after the Turkish politician and former prime minister Adnan Menderes. ... KuÅŸadası is a town on the Aegean coast of Turkey, near the ancient city of Ephesus, 90 km south of Ä°zmir and a short distance across from the island of Samos. ...


Ephesus hosted one of the seven churches of Asia, addressed in the Book of Revelation (2:1–7). It is also the site of a large Gladiator graveyard. The seven churches of Asia are seven churches mentioned in the Book of Revelation of the New Testament. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Ancient Ephesus

Site of the Temple of Artemis in the town of Selcuk, near Ephesus
Site of the Temple of Artemis in the town of Selcuk, near Ephesus

The surrounding area of Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age (about 6000 BC) as was revealed by the excavations at the hoyuk (mounds) at Arvalya and Cukurici Mounds. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 405 KB) Temple of Artemis, Ephesus, Turkey Source: en:Image:Ac. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 405 KB) Temple of Artemis, Ephesus, Turkey Source: en:Image:Ac. ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... Selcuk may correspond to two articles: Seljuk, the bey of the Seljuk Turks. ...


Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at the Ayasuluk Hill. In 1954 a burial ground from the Mycenaean era (1500-1400 BC) with ceramic pots was discovered close the ruins of the basilica of St. John. [1] This was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi (as they were called by Homer) settled in Ahhiyawa during the 14th and the 13th centuries BC. Scholars believe that Ephesus was founded on the settlement of Apasa (or Abasa), a Bronze Age-city noted in 14th century BC Hittite sources as in the land of Ahhiyawa. [2] The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Achaea (Greek: , Achaïa; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient province and a present prefecture of Greece, on the northern coast of the Peloponnese, stretching from the mountain ranges of Erymanthus and Cyllene on the south to a narrow strip of fertile land on the... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ...


Hellenistic Ephesus

The city of Ephesus itself was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on the Ayasuluk Hill, three kilometers from the center of antique Ephesus (as attested by excavations at the Seljuk castle during the 1990s). The mythical founder of the city was Androklos, son of king Kadros and a prince of Athens, who had to leave his country after the death of his father. According to legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality ("A fish and a boar will you show the way"). Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder. He was a successful warrior and, as king, he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. During his reign the city began to prosper. He died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League. [3] Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze, dating from the second century. Later, Greek historians such as Pausanias, Strabo and the poet Kallinos, and the historian Herodotos however reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons. Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of southwest Anatolia (compare Pelasgians), who were already there when the Indo-European Hellenes arrived. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... The Ionian League (also called the Panionic League) was a religious and cultural (as opposed to a political or military) confederacy comprised of 12 Ionian cities, formed as early as 800 BC. The cities were, (from south to north), Miletus, its principal city, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos... Priene (mod. ... Pausanias is the name of several ancient people: Pausanias was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC. Pausanias of Sparta was King of Sparta from 409 BC-395 BC. Pausanias was the servant/lover who assassinated Philip II of Macedon in 336 BC Pausanias, Greek traveller and geographer of... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ...


The Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus", identified with Artemis, was venerated in the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the largest building of the ancient world according to Pausanias (4.31.8). Pausanius mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus. [4] before the arrival of the Ionians. Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains. For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Cybele with her attributes. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...


About 650 BC Ephesus was attacked by Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. A few small Cimmerian artifacts can be seen at the archaeological museum of Ephese. The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is...


When the Cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. After a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council called the Kuretes. The city prospered again producing a number of important historical figures, such as the iambic poets Callinus [5] and the satirist Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and later the grammarian Zenodotos, the physicians Soranus and Rufus. An iamb is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. ... Callinus (also known as Kallinus) was a poet who lived in Ephesus in ancient Greece in the mid-7th century BC. He is the earliest known Greek elegiac poet. ... Hipponax of Ephesus was an Ancient Greek iambic poet. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Parrhasius, of Ephesus, one of the greatest painters of Greece. ... Zenodotus (Greek: ), Greek grammarian, literary critic, and scholar on Homer; first librarian of the Library of Alexandria; pupil of Philetas of Cos; a native of Ephesus. ... Soranus, Greek physician, born at Ephesus, lived during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian (AD 98-138). ...


About 560 BC Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under the mighty king Croesus. Even if he rules harshly, he treated the inhabitants with respect, and even became the main contributor to the construction of the temple of Artemis.[6] His signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple (now on display in the British Museum). Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup (synoikismos) in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city. See 110 Lydia for the asteroid. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Synoikismos roughly means dwelling together in Greek. ...


Later in the same century, the Persian king Cyrus the Great defeated king Croesus and the Lydians. When the Persian king refused a peace offer by the Ionian cities, they rose in revolt against the Persians, but were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BC. The Persians then incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire. Those cities were then ruled by satraps. “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Harpagus (also known as Harpagos or Hypargus), (Akkadian: Arbaku, Arbaces), was a Median general from the 6th Century BCE credited by Herodotus as having put Cyrus the Great on the throne through his defection to Cyrus II during the battle of Pasargadae. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ephesus continued to prosper. But when taxes continued to be raised under Cambyses II and Darius, the Ephesians participated in the Ionian Revolt against Persian rule in the Battle of Ephesus (498 BC), an event which instigated the Greco-Persian wars. In 479 BC, the Ionians, together with Athens and Sparta, were able to oust the Persians from Anatolia. In 478 BC the Ionian cities entered with Athens and Sparta the Delian League against the Persians. Ephesus didn't contribute ships but only participated with financial support by offering the treasure of Apollo to the goddess Athena, protector of Athens. Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya (کمبوجیه), d. ... Darius the Great (c. ... The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century BC and the beginning of the 5th century BC. They constituted the first major conflict between Greece and Persia. ... The Battle of Ephesus (498 BC) was a battle in the Ionian Revolt. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses see Sparta (disambiguation). ... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ...


During the Peloponnesian War, Ephesus was first allied to Athens but sided in a later phase, called the the Decelean War, or the Ionian War with Sparta, which also had received the support of the Persians. As a result, the rule over the kingdoms of Anatolia was ceded again to Persia. “Athenian War” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


These wars didn't affect much the daily life in Ephesus. In those times, Ephesus was surprisingly modern in their social relations. They allowed strangers to integrate. Education was much valued. Through the cult of Artemis, the city also became a bastion of women's rights. Ephesus even had its female artists. In later times Pliny mentions having seen at Ephesus a representation of the goddess Diana by Timarata, the daughter of a painter. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


In 356 BC the temple of Artemis was burnt down, according to legend, by a lunatic called Herostratus. By coincidence, this was the night that Alexander the Great was born. The inhabitants of Ephesus started at once with the restoration and even planning a larger and grander temple.

Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888
Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888

When Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 BC, the Greek cities of Asia Minor were liberated. The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death and Alexander was greeted triumphantly in Ephesus. When he saw that the temple of Artemis wasn't finished yet, he proposed to finance the temple and have his name as an inscription of the front. But the inhabitants of Ephesus refused, claiming that it was not fitting for a god to build a temple for another god. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Ephesus came under the rule of Lysimachus, one of Alexander's generals, in 290 BC. Image File history File links Karte_Ephesos_MKL1888. ... Image File history File links Karte_Ephesos_MKL1888. ... Meyers Konversations-Lexikon was a German encyclopaedia. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Combatants Macedon Greek allies Persia Greek mercenaries Commanders Alexander the Great Spithridates, Mithridates, Memnon of Rhodes, other Strength 5,000 cavalry 26,000 infantry 15,000 cavalry 12,000 Persian infantry 4-5,000 Greek mercenaries Casualties Between 100-200 4,000 killed 2,000 captured {{{notes}}} The Battle of... Lysimachus (c. ...


As the river Cayster was silting up the harbour, the resulting marshes were the cause of malaria and many deaths among the inhabitants. The people of Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement 2 km further on, when the king flooded the old city by blocking the sewers. [7] This settlement was called after the king's second wife Arsinoe II of Egypt. After Lysimachus had destroyed the nearby cities of Lebedos and Colophon in 292 BC, he relocated their inhabitants to the new city. The architectural layout of the city would remain unchanged for the next 500 years. Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoe II ( 316-270 BC). ... Lysimachus (c. ... Lebedos redirects here. ... Colophon (Greek Κολοφών; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was a titular see of Asia Minor. ...


Ephesus revolted after the treacherous death of Agathocles, giving the Syrian king Seleucus I Nicator an opportunity for removing and killing Lysimachus, his last rival, at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. After the death of Lysimachos the town took again the name of Ephesus. Agathocles (in Greek Aγαθoκλης; died 284 BC) was the son of Lysimachus by an Odrysian woman who Polyaenus1 calls Macris. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... The Battle of Corupedium (also called Corupedion) is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great. ...


Thus Ephese became part of the Seleucid Empire. After the murder on king Antiochus II Theos and his Egyptian wife, pharao Ptolemy III invaded the Seleucid Empire and the Egyptian fleet swept the coast of Asia Minor. Ephesus came under Egyptian rule between 263-197 BC. The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Coin of Antiochus II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of king Antiochus). ... Ptolemy III Euergetes I, (Ptolemaeus III) (Evergetes, Euergetes) (246 BC-222 BC). ...


When the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great tried to regain the Greek cities of Asia Minor, he came in conflict with Rome. After a series of battles, he was defeated by Scipio Asiaticus at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC. As a result, Ephesus came under the rule of the Attalid king of Pergamon Eumenes II (197-133 BC). When his grandson Attalus III died without male children of his own, he left his kingdom to the Roman Republic. Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (2nd century BC) was a Roman general and statesman. ... Combatants Roman Republic Seleucid Empire Commanders Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus Scipio Africanus Eumenes II of Pergamum Antiochus III the Great Strength 50. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... Coin of Eumenes II Eumenes II of Pergamon (ruled 197 - 158 BC) was king of Pergamon and a member of the Attalid dynasty. ... Attalus III was the last Attalid king of Pergamon, ruling from 138 BC to 133 BC. He succeeded Attalus II, although their relationship, if any, is unknown. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...

The Roman Theater at Ephesus.
The Roman Theater at Ephesus.
The Temple of Hadrian.
The Temple of Hadrian.

Image File history File links Image of the Theater at Ephesus, Turkey and some of the grand collonade File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Image of the Theater at Ephesus, Turkey and some of the grand collonade File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 1,009 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Arn Johnson 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 1,009 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Arn Johnson 2006. ...

Roman Ephesus

Ephesus became subject the Roman Republic. The city felt at once the Roman influence. Taxes rose considerably and the treasures of the city were systematically plundered. In 88 BC Ephesus welcomed Archelaus, a general of Mithridates the Great, king of Pontus, when he conquered Western Anatolia. This led to the Asiatic Vespers, the slaughter of 80,000 Roman citizens in Asia Minor, or any person who spoke with a Latin accent. Many had lived in Ephesus. But when they saw how badly the people of Chios had been treated by Zenobius, a general of Mithridates, they refused entry to his army. Zenobius was invited into the city to visit Philopoemen (the father of Monima, the favorite wife of Mithridates) and the overseer of Ephesus. As the people expected nothing good of him, they threw him into prison and murdered him. Mithridates took revenge and inflicted terrible punishments. However, the Greek cities were given freedom and several substantial rights. Ephesus became, for a short time, self-governing. When Mithridates was defeated in the First Mithridatic War by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Ephesus came back under Roman rule in 86 BC. Sulla imposed a huge indemnity, along with five years of back taxes, which left Asian cities heavily in debt for a long time to come. [8] This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The name Archelaus may refer to: Archelaus (philosopher), pupil of Anaxagoras, 5th century BC Archelaus I of Macedon, reigned 413-399 BC Archelaus (general), fought in the First and Third Mithridatic Wars (1st century BC) Archelaus of Cappadocia, reigned 36 BC-AD 17 Herod Archelaus, ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Asiatic Vespers - (Night of the Vespers) Date: Exact Date Unknown; circa 88-83 B.C.E. Mithridates Eupator VI of Pontus (Mithridates the Great) ordered the excecution of roughly 100,000 Italians that were Roman citizens or any person who spoke with an Latin accent. ... Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios), is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... The First Mithridatic War was fought between the Roman Republic and Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius, the king of Pontus. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ...


When Augustus became emperor in 27 BC, he made Ephesus instead of Pergamon the capital of proconsular Asia, which covered the western part of Asia Minor. Ephesus entered an era of prosperity. It became the seat of the governor, growing into a metropolis and a major center of commerce. It was second in importance and size only to Rome. [9] Ephesus has been estimated to be in the range of 400,000 to 500,000 inhabitants in the year 100 AD, making it the largest city in Roman Asia and of the day. Ephesus was at its peak during the first and second century AD. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Roman conquest of Asia minor The Roman province of Asia was the administrative unit added to the late Republic, a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul. ...


The city was distinguished for the Temple of Artemis (Diana [10], who had her chief shrine there), for Library of Celsus, and for its theatre, capable of holding 25,000 spectators. This open-air theater was used initially for drama, but during later Roman times gladiatorial combats were also held on its stage, with the first archaeological evidence of a gladiator graveyard found in May 2007.[11] The population of Ephesus also had several major bath complexes, built at various points while the city was under Roman rule. The city had one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world, with multiple aqueducts of various sizes to supply different areas of the city, including 4 major aqueducts. The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Ruins of Celsus Library The Library of Celsus is a monumental tomb for Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, built by his son Galius Julius Aquila in 135 in Ephesus, Turkey. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ...


The city and the temple were destroyed by the Goths in 263 AD. This marked the decline of the splendour of the city. This article is about the Germanic tribes. ...


Byzantine era (395-1071)

Ephesus remained the most important city of the Byzantine Empire (after Constantinople) in the 5th and 6th centuries. The emperor Constantine rebuilt much of the city and erected a new public bath. In 406 AD John Chrysostom, archbishop of Constinople, ordered the destruction of the Temple of Artemis. [12] Emperor Flavius Arcadius raised the level of the street between the theatre and the harbour. The basilica of St. John was built during the reign of emperor Justinian I in the sixth century. Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Look up Constantine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... Idealising bust of Arcadius in the Theodosian style combines elements of classicism with the new hieratic style (Istanbul Archaeology Museum) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Arcadius For the Greek grammarian, see Arcadius of Antioch. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ...


The town was again partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD.


The importance of the city as a commercial centre declined as the harbour slowly filled with silt from the river (today, Küçük Menderes) despite repeated dredges during the city's history.[13] (Today, the harbor is 5 km inland). The loss of its harbor caused Ephesus to lose its access to the Aegean Sea, which was important for trade. People started leaving the lowland of the city for the surrounding hills. The ruins of the temples were used as building blocks for new homes. Marble sculptures were ground to powder to make lime for plaster. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sackings by the Arabs first in the year 654-655 by caliph Muawiyah I, and later in 700 and 716 even hastened the decline. The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Mu‘āwÄ«yah ibn AbÄ« Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Events April 19 - The monastery on the Island of Iona celebrates Easter on the Roman date. ...


When the Seljuk Turks conquered it in 1071-100, it was a small village. The Byzantines resumed control in 1100 and changed the name of the town into Hagios Theologos. They kept control of the region until 1308. Crusaders, passing through, were surprised that there was only a small village, called Ayasalouk, where they had expected a bustling city with a large seaport. Even the temple of Artemis was completely forgotten by local population. This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ...


Turkish era

The town was conquered in 1304 by Sasa Bey, an army commander of the Menteşoğullari principality. Shortly afterwards, it was ceded to the Aydinoğullari principality that stationed a powerful navy in the harbour of Ayasluğ (the present-day Selçuk, next to Ephesus). Ayasoluk became an important harbour, from where the navy organised raids to the surrounding regions. The Anatolian Turkish Beylik of MenteÅŸe (1260-1424), with capital in Milas in southwest Anatolia and headquartered in Beçin castle near that city, was one of the frontier principalities established by Oghuz Turkish clans after the decline of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate. ... The Anatolian Turkish Beylik of AydınoÄŸlu with its capital in Aydın (named after the dynasty) was one of the frontier principalities established by Oghuz Turkish clans after the decline of Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate. ... Ayasoluk Hill in Selçuk, Turkey. ... Ayasoluk Hill in Selçuk, Turkey. ...


The town knew again a short period of flourishing during the 14th century under these new Seljuk rulers. They added important architectural works such as the İsa Bey Mosque, caravansaries and Turkish bathhouses (hamam). Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... Ä°sabey Mosque as it appears today Ä°sabey Mosque (Turkish: ) is one of the oldest and most impressive works of architectural art remaining from the Anatolian beyliks. ... Hamam may refer to: Turkish bath in Turkish Hamam (film), European film Hamam (soap), brand of soap in India Sam Hammam, Lebanese buisinessman and soccer guru Category: ...


They were incorporated as vasals into the Ottoman Empire for the first time in 1390. The Central Asian warlord Tamerlane defeated the Ottomans in Anatolia in 1402 and the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I died in captivity. The region was restored to the Anatolian Turkish Beyliks. After a period unrest, the region was again incorporated into the Ottoman Empire by sultan Mehmed II in 1425. Ottoman redirects here. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities (beylik) governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia as of the end of the 13th century. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ...


Ephesus was eventually completely abandoned in the 15th century and lost her former glory. Nearby Ayasluğ was renamed Selçuk in 1914.


Ephesus and Christianity

Photo of a 15th Century map showing Ephesus
Photo of a 15th Century map showing Ephesus


Ephesus became an important center for early Christianity from the 50s A.D. Paul used it as a base and spent there more than two years on his third missionary journey (Acts 19:8, 19:10, 20:31). He became embroiled in a dispute with artisans, whose livelihood depended on selling the statuettes of Artemis in the Temple of Artemis (Acts 19:23–41). He wrote between 53 and 57 A.D. the letter 1 Corinthians from Ephesus (possibly from the "Paul tower" close to the harbour, where he was imprisoned for a short time). Later Paul wrote to the Christian community at Ephesus, according to tradition, while he was in prison in Rome (around 62 A.D.) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 883 KB) Picture of a map of the region of what is now Turkey from the 15th Century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 883 KB) Picture of a map of the region of what is now Turkey from the 15th Century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... (Redirected from 1 Corinthians) See also: Second Epistle to the Corinthians and Third Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Epistle to Ephesians is one of the books of the Bible in the New Testament, written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. ...


The Apostle and Evangelist John lived in Asia Minor(Anatolia) in the last decades of the first century and from Ephesus had guided the Churches of that province. After Domitian's death the Apostle returned to Ephesus during the reign of Trajan, and at Ephesus he died about 100 AD at a great age. Ephesus was one of the seven cities addressed in Revelation (2:1–7), indicating that the church at Ephesus was still strong. In the Book of Revelation, the angel sent to John the Evangelist tells him (Revelation 1:11, KJV): What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Two decades later, the church at Ephesus there was still important enough to be addressed by a letter written by Bishop Ignatius of Antioch to the Ephesians in the early 2nd century AD, that begins with, "Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the Church which is at Ephesus, in Asia, deservedly most happy, being blessed in the greatness and fullness of God the Father, and predestinated before the beginning of time, that it should be always for an enduring and unchangeable glory" (Letter to the Ephesians). The church at Ephesus had given their support for Ignatius, who was taken to Rome for execution. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ...


The house of the Virgin Mary (Turkish: Meryem Ana, meaning "Mother Mary"), about 7 km from Selçuk, is believed to have been the last home of Mary, mother of Jesus. It is a popular place of pilgrimage which has been visited by three recent popes. Pope John Paul II visited the House of the Virgin Mary in 1979. ... Ayasoluk Hill in Selçuk, Turkey. ... According to the New Testament, Mary (Judeo-Aramaic מרים Maryām Bitter; Arabic مريم (Maryam); Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Geez: ማሪያም, Māryām; Syriac: Mart, Maryam, Madonna), was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth, who at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Saint Joseph (cf. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


The Church of Mary close to the harbor of Ephesus was the setting for the Third Ecumenical Council in 431, which resulted in the condemnation of Nestorius. A Second Council of Ephesus was held in 449, but its controversial acts were never approved by the Catholics. It came to be called the Robber Council of Ephesus or Robber Synod of Latrocinium by its opponents. The Church of Mary The Church of Mary (Turkish: Meryem Kilisesi) is an ancient Christian cathedral dedicated to the Theotokos (the Virgin Mary), located in Ephesus, Turkey. ... The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... Events June - Council of Ephesus: Nestorianism is rejected, the Nicene creed is declared to be complete. ... Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Second Council of Ephesus (called the Robber Council of Ephesus, Robber Synod or Latrocinium by its opponents) was a church council at Ephesus. ...


Main sights

The Roman Celsus Library.
The Roman Celsus Library.
The Gate of Augustus
The Tomb of St. John in St. John's Basilica.
The Temple of Hadrian
The Temple of Hadrian

The site is large. Only an estimated 15% has been excavated. The ruins that are visible give some idea of the city's original splendour, and the names associated with the ruins are evocative of its former life. The theater dominates the view down Harbour Street which leads to the long silted-up harbor. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2548 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2548 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (819 × 544 pixel, file size: 459 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gate of Augustus Ephesus File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (819 × 544 pixel, file size: 459 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gate of Augustus Ephesus File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) St. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 3. ...


The Library of Celsus, whose façade has been carefully reconstructed from all original pieces, was built ca. AD 125 by Gaius Julius Aquila in memory of his father, and once held nearly 12,000 scrolls. Designed with an exaggerated entrance — so as to enhance its perceived size, speculate many historians — the building faces east so that the reading rooms could make best use of the morning light. An underground tunnel, marked by the simple figures of a woman, a heart, and a price, leads from the library to a nearby building believed to have been a drinking establishment or brothel. Ruins of Celsus Library The Library of Celsus is a monumental tomb for Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, built by his son Galius Julius Aquila in 135 in Ephesus, Turkey. ...


A part of the site, St. John's Basilica, was built in the 6th century AD, under emperor Justinian I over the supposed site of the apostle's tomb. It is now surrounded by a Turkish town, Selçuk. This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Ayasoluk Hill in Selçuk, Turkey. ...


The Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, is represented only by one inconspicuous column, revealed during an archaeological excavation by the British Museum in the 1870s. Some fragments of the frieze (which are insufficient to suggest the form of the original) and other small finds were removed – some to London and some to the Archaeological Museum, Istanbul. Other edifices excavated include: The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... For other uses, see Wonders of the World (disambiguation). ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ...

  • The Odeon - a small roofed theatre[14] constructed by Vedius Antonius and his wife in around 150 A.D. It was a small salon for plays and concerts, seating about 1,500 people. There were 22 stairs in the theater. The upper part of the theatre was decorated with red granite pillars in the Corinthian style. The entrances were at both sides of the stage and reached by a few steps.[15]
  • The Temple of Hadrian dates from the 2nd century but underwent repairs in the 4th century and has been reerected from the surviving architectural fragments. The reliefs in the upper sections are casts, the originals being now exhibited in the Selçuk Archaeological Museum. A number of figures are depicted in the reliefs, including the emperor Theodisius I with his wife and eldest son.[16]
  • The Temple of Domitian was one of the largest temples on the city. It was erected on a pseudodipteral plan with 8 x 13 columns. The temple and its statue are some of the few remains connected with Domitian.[16]
  • The Theater - At an estimated 44,000 seating capacity, it is believed to be the largest outdoor theater in the ancient world.[17]
  • The Tomb/Fountain of Pollio - erected by a grateful city in 97 AD in honor of C. Sextilius Pollio, who constructed the Marnas aqueduct, by Offilius Proculus. It has a concave facade.[15][16]

There were two agoras, one for commercial and one for state business.[18][19] Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


Seven sleepers

Ephesus is believed to be the city of Seven Sleepers. The story of Seven Sleepers, which are considered saints by Christians and Muslims, tells that they were persecuted because of their belief in God and slept in a cave near Ephesus for centuries. In Christian mythology, the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus is a folktale concerning a number of fictional people who for a time were venerated as saints. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Notable people

Zeuxis and Parrhasius, painters of Ephesus in the 5th century BC, are reported in the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder to have staged a contest to determine which of the two was the greater artist. ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Parrhasius, of Ephesus, one of the greatest painters of Greece. ... Parrhasius, of Ephesus, one of the greatest painters of Greece. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Agasias was the name of two different Greek sculptors. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Manuel Philes (c. ... Events Discovery of Senegal and Cape Verde by Dinas Diaz Births March 1 - Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (died 1510) March 16 - Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg, Swiss-born preacher (died 1510) Albert Brudzewski, Polish astronomer (died 1497) Nicolas Chuquet, French mathematician Deaths June 5 - Leonel Power, English composer June 11 - Henry...

Notes

  1. ^ Coskun Özgünel (1996). "Mykenische Keramik in Anatolien". Asia Minor Studien 23. 
  2. ^ Akurgal, Ekrem (2001). The Hattian and Hittite Civilizations. Publications of the Republic of Turkey; Ministry of Culture, 111. 
  3. ^ Pausanius (1965). Description of Greece,. New York: Loeb Classical Library, 7.2.8-9. 
  4. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
  5. ^ translation by M.L. West (1999). Greek Lyric Poetry. Oxford University Press, 21. ISBN 0192836781. 
  6. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  7. ^ Strabo (1923-1932). Geography (volume 1-7). Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, 14.1.21. 
  8. ^ Appian of Alexandria (c.95-c.165). History of Rome: The Mithridatic Wars §§46-50. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  9. ^ Strabo . Geography (volume 1-7) 14.1.24. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press
  10. ^ accessed September 14, 2007
  11. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6614479.stm
  12. ^ Christian Persecutions against the Hellenes
  13. ^ accessed September 24, 2007
  14. ^ http://community.iexplore.com/planning/journalEntryActivity.asp?JournalID=7393&EntryID=13307&n=The+Theater+and+The+Odeum accessed September 24, 2007
  15. ^ a b Keskin, Naci. Ephesus. ISBN 975-7559-48-2
  16. ^ a b c Ephesus. Distributed by Rehber Basım Yayın Dağıtım Reklamcılık ve Tic. A.Ş. and Revak publishers. ISBN 975-8212-11-7,
  17. ^ http://www.biblestudy.org/biblepic/picture-of-largest-outdoor-theatre-in-ancient-world.html accessed September 21, 2007
  18. ^ http://www.ephesus.us/ephesus/agora.htm accessed September 21, 2007
  19. ^ http://www.ephesus.us/ephesus/stateagora.htm

Professor Ekrem Akurgal was, during a career that spanned more than fifty years, a prominent and internationally famous Turkish archaeologist, who has conducted marking research in several sites along the western coast of Anatolia such as Phokaia (Foça), Pitane (Çandarlı), Erythrai (Ildırı) and old Smyrna (the Bayraklı tumulus... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...

External links

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Coordinates: 37°56′23″N, 27°20′27″E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ephesus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (812 words)
The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus", identified by Greeks with Artemis, was venerated in the Temple of Artemis, the largest building of the ancient world, according to Pausanias (4.31.8) and one of the Seven Wonders of the World, of which scarcely a trace remains (illustration, left).
Ephesus was the setting for the Third Ecumenical Council in 431, which resulted in the condemnation of Nestorius.
The Roman city of Ephesus was abandoned in the 6th century AD when the harbor completely filled in with river silt (despite repeated dredges during the city's history), removing its access to the Aegean Sea.
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