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Encyclopedia > Ephedra
Bottle of Ephedrine, an alkaloid found in Ephedra
Bottle of Ephedrine, an alkaloid found in Ephedra

Ephedra refers to the plant Ephedra sinica.[1] E. sinica, known in Chinese as ma huang (; pinyin: má huáng), has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 5,000 years for the treatment of asthma and hay fever, as well as for the common cold.[2] Several additional species belonging to the genus Ephedra have traditionally been used for a variety of medicinal purposes, and are a possible candidate for the Soma plant of Indo-Iranian religion.[3] Native Americans and Mormon pioneers drank a tea brewed from an Ephedra, called Mormon Tea. Species See text. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... ephedrine In 1887 Nagajoshi Nagai (1845­1929), a Japanese researcher working in Germany, isolated ephedrine as the active ingredient of ma huang but found the substance to be highly toxic. ... ephedrine In 1887 Nagajoshi Nagai (1845­1929), a Japanese researcher working in Germany, isolated ephedrine as the active ingredient of ma huang but found the substance to be highly toxic. ... Binomial name Ephedra sinica Ephedra sinica is a member of the ephedraceae family, native to China. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ...


In recent years, the safety of ephedra-containing dietary supplements has been questioned by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and the medical community as a result of a high rate of serious side effects and ephedra-related deaths.[4][5][6][7][8] In response to accumulating evidence of adverse effects and deaths related to ephedra, the FDA banned the sale of ephedra-containing supplements on April 12, 2004.[9] A suit by an ephedra manufacturer was upheld by a Federal District Court judge in Utah on April 14, 2005. [10] The FDA appealed this ruling, and on August 17, 2006 the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit upheld the FDA's ban of ephedra.[11] As of June 2007, the sale of ephedra-containing dietary supplements remains illegal in the United States due to their health risks. A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... FDA redirects here. ... The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine or NCCAM, a division of the National Institutes of Health within the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States federal government, was established in October, 1991, as the Office of Alternative Medicine, which was re-established as the NCCAM... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Colorado District of Kansas District of New Mexico Eastern, Northern, and Western Districts of Oklahoma District of Utah District of Wyoming These districts...

Contents

Ephedra biochemistry

The alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are the active constituents of the plant. Pseudoephedrine is used in over-the-counter decongestants. Derivatives of ephedrine are used to treat low blood pressure, but alternatives with reduced cardiovascular risk have replaced it for treating asthma. Ephedrine is also considered a performance-enhancing drug and is prohibited in most competitive sports. Some species in the Ephedra genus have no alkaloid content and are therefore essentially inert; however, the most commonly used species, E. sinica, has a total alkaloid content of 1–3% by dry weight. Ephedrine constitutes 40–90% of the alkaloid content, with the remainder consisting of pseudoephedrine and the demethylated forms of each compound.[12] Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... In sports, doping refers to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly those that are forbidden by the organizations that regulate competitions. ...


Effects and uses

Ephedra is both a stimulant and a thermogenic; its biological effects are due to its ephedrine and pseudoephedrine content.[13] These compounds stimulate the brain, increase heart rate, constrict blood vessels (increasing blood pressure), and expand bronchial tubes (making breathing easier). Their thermogenic properties cause an increase in metabolism, evidenced by an increase in body heat. Sustained-Release 15mg Dexedrine Spansules. ... Thermogenics are dietary supplements taken to increase the bodys metabolism through the generation of heat (thermogenesis) and thus burn fat. ... Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ...


In traditional Chinese herbology, E. sinica is included in many herbal formulas that treat cold and flu such as 麻黃湯 ma huang tang (ephedra decoction) or 麻杏石甘湯 ma xing shi gan tang (ephedra, apricot kernel, gypsum, and licorice decoction). Ephedra is used therapeutically as a diaphoretic to help expel exterior pathogens and regulate the proper functioning of the lungs.[14] Chinese materia medica (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the common name of Chinese materia medica subject. ... A diaphoretic is a drug which increases perspiration. ...


Ephedra is widely used by athletes,[15] despite a lack of evidence that it enhances athletic performance.[16][17] Ephedra may also be used as a precursor in the illicit manufacture of methamphetamine.[18] This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...


Ephedra has also been used for weight loss, sometimes in combination with aspirin and caffeine. Some studies have shown that ephedra, when taken in a regulated and supervised environment, is effective for marginal short-term weight loss (0.9kg/month more than the placebo), although it is unclear whether such weight loss is maintained.[19] However, several reports have documented the large number of adverse events attributable to unregulated ephedra supplements.[20] This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... An adverse event is any change in health that occurs in a person after he or she enrolls in a clinical trial. ...


Side effects of ephedra may include severe skin reactions, irritability, nervousness, dizziness, trembling, headache, insomnia, profuse perspiration, dehydration, itchy scalp and skin, vomiting, hyperthermia, irregular heartbeat, seizures, heart attack, stroke, or death.[21] A side-effect is any effect other than an intended primary effect. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Hyperthermia in its advanced state referred to as heat stroke or sunstroke, is an acute condition which occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


Purity and dosage

There are no formal requirements for standardization or quality control of dietary supplements in the United States, and the dosage of effective ingredients in supplements may vary widely from brand to brand or batch to batch.[22][23][24] Studies of ephedra supplements have found significant discrepancies between the labeled dose and the actual amount of ephedra in the product. Significant variation in ephedrine alkaloid levels, by as much as 10-fold, was seen even from lot to lot within the same brand.[25][26] “Standard” redirects here. ... For the Jurassic 5 album, see Quality Control (album) In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. ...


Safety and regulatory actions in the United States

Escalating concerns regarding the safety of ephedra supplements led the FDA to ban the sale of ephedra-containing supplements in the United States in 2004. This ban was challenged by supplement manufacturers and initially overturned, but ultimately upheld.


Initial concerns and supplement industry response

In 1997, in response to mounting concern over serious side effects of ephedra, the FDA proposed a ban on products containing 8 mg or more of ephedrine alkaloids and stricter labeling of low-dose ephedra supplements. The FDA also proposed that ephedra labels be required to disclose the health risks of ephedra, such as heart attack, stroke, or death.[27] Heart attack redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


In response, the supplement industry created a public relations group, the Ephedra Education Council, to oppose the changes, and commissioned a scientific review by a private consulting firm, which reported that ephedra was safe.[28] The Ephedra Education Council also attempted to block publication of a study confirming wide discrepancies between the labeled potency of supplements and the actual amount of ephedra in the product.[22] For the Arrested Development episode, see Public Relations (Arrested Development episode). ...


During this time, Metabolife, makers of the best-selling brand of ephedra supplement, had received over 14,000 complaints of adverse events associated with its product; these reports were not provided to the FDA.[28][29] Senators Orrin Hatch and Tom Harkin, authors of the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act, questioned the scientific basis for the FDA's proposed labeling changes and suggested that the number of problems reported were insufficient to warrant regulatory action. At the time, Hatch's son was working for a firm hired to lobby Congress and the FDA on behalf of ephedra manufacturers.[30] Metabolife is an American corporation which manufactures dietary supplements. ... Orrin Grant Hatch (born March 22, 1934) is a Republican United States Senator from Utah, serving since 1977. ... Thomas Richard Tom Harkin (born November 19, 1939) is a liberal Democratic Senator from Iowa, serving in his fourth senate term. ... This article is about the political effort. ...


In addition to the activities of the Ephedra Education Council, Metabolife spent more than $4 million between 1998 and 2000 lobbying against state regulation of ephedra in Texas.[31] Business Week reported that efforts to regulate ephedra and other potentially harmful supplements had been "beaten down by deep-pocketed industry lobbying."[32] BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ...


Ultimately, in 2000, the FDA withdrew the proposed labeling changes and restrictions.[33]


Additional evidence

A review of ephedra-related adverse reactions, published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2000, found a number of cases of sudden cardiac death or severe disability resulting from ephedra use, many of which occurred in young adults using ephedra in the labeled dosages.[4] Subsequently, in response to pressure from the consumer advocacy group Public Citizen,[32] Metabolife was compelled by the Department of Justice in 2002 to turn over reports of over 15,000 ephedra-related adverse events, ranging from insomnia to death, which the company had previously withheld from the FDA.[34][28] Use of ephedra was considered to have possibly contributed to the death of Minnesota Vikings offensive lineman Korey Stringer from heatstroke in 2001.[35] The New England Journal of Medicine (New Engl J Med or NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... A cardiac arrest is the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract effectively during systole. ... ... Public Citizen is a U.S. non-governmental organization, founded by Ralph Nader in 1971 and based in Washington, DC. Its activities span across a diverse range of issues, including energy policy, trade policy, campaign finance reform and accountability, consumer protection, medical malpractice, and public health. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1961–present) Western Conference (1961-1969) Central Division (1967-1969) National Football Conference (1970-present) NFC Central (1970-2001) NFC North (2002-present) Current uniform Team colors Purple, Gold, White Fight song Skol, Vikings Mascot Viktor the Viking, Ragnar Personnel Owner Zygi Wilf General... An offensive lineman (football) is one of a group of positions in American football. ... Korey Damont Stringer (May 8, 1974 – August 1, 2001) was an American football player who died from complications brought on by heat stroke, during training camp in Mankato, Minnesota while playing for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League. ... Hyperthermia is an acute condition resulting from excessive exposure to heat, it is also known as heat stroke or sunstroke. ...


Death of Steve Bechler

Steve Bechler, a pitcher for the Baltimore Orioles, died of complications from heatstroke following a spring training workout on February 17, 2003. The medical examiner found that ephedra toxicity played a "significant role" in Bechler's sudden death.[36] Following Bechler's death, the FDA re-opened its efforts to regulate ephedra use. According to Bruce Silverglade, legal director for the Center for Science in the Public Interest, "All of a sudden [after Bechler's death] Congress dropped objections to an ephedra ban and started demanding the FDA act."[28] Steven Scott Bechler (November 18, 1979 - February 17, 2003) was a Major League Baseball pitcher for the Baltimore Orioles in 2002. ... A baseball pitcher delivers the ball to home plate In baseball, pitching is the act of throwing the baseball from the pitchers mound toward the catcher with the goal of retiring a batter who attempts to make contact with it, or draw a walk. ... This article is about the contemporary American major league baseball team. ... A Grapefruit League game at the LA Dodgers camp in Vero Beach, Florida In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of exhibition games which precedes the regular season. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A coroner is the presiding officer of a special court to investigate deaths that occur under unusual circumstances where conventional criminal proceedings are not immediately called for. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


Senator Orrin Hatch, who in 1999 had helped block the FDA's attempts to regulate ephedra, said in March 2003 that "...it has been obvious to even the most casual observer that problems exist," and called FDA action to regulate ephedra "long overdue."[30] Given Hatch's prior defense of ephedra, Time described his statement as "a dazzling display of hypocrisy."[37] Orrin Grant Hatch (born March 22, 1934) is a Republican United States Senator from Utah, serving since 1977. ... TIME redirects here. ...


Ephedra banned

In response to renewed calls for the regulation of ephedra, the FDA commissioned a large meta-analysis of ephedra's safety and efficacy by the RAND Corporation. This study found that while ephedra promoted modest short-term weight loss, there was no evidence that it was effective for long-term weight loss or performance enhancement. The use of ephedra in this study was associated with significant gastrointestinal, psychiatric, and autonomic side effects.[38] Almost simultaneously, a study in Annals of Internal Medicine found that ephedra was 100 to 700 times more likely to cause a significant adverse reaction than other commonly used supplements such as kava or Ginkgo biloba.[5] A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ... Alternate meanings: See RAND (disambiguation) The RAND Corporation is an American think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the U.S. military. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Annals of Internal Medicine (Ann Intern Med; ISSN 0003-4819) is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP). ... Binomial name G.Forst. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ...


On December 30, 2003, the FDA issued a press release recommending that consumers stop buying and using ephedra, and indicating its intention to ban the sale of ephedra-containing supplements.[39] Subsequently, on April 12, 2004, the FDA issued a final rule banning the sale of ephedra-containing dietary supplements. Tommy Thompson, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, stated that "...These products pose unacceptable health risks, and any consumers who are still using them should stop immediately."[9] is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A news release or press release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people with similar names, see Thomas Thompson. ... The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ...


Legal challenges

Nutraceutical Corporation, a supplement manufacturer based in Park City, Utah, challenged the legality of the FDA's ban of ephedra as exceeding the authority given the agency by the Dietary Health Supplements and Education Act. Nutraceutical Corporation stated that they did not intend to start marketing ephedra, but were concerned about the scope of the FDA's regulatory action. Judge Tena Campbell of the Utah Federal District Court ruled that the FDA had not proven that low doses of ephedra were unsafe, although she also noted that studies to address the safety of low-dose ephedra would be unethical. Nevertheless, her ruling overturned the ban on the sale of ephedra in the state of Utah, and called into question whether the ban could be enforced anywhere in the United States.[40] The Silver King mine was once the worlds richest. ... The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ...


The ruling was appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit in Denver, Colorado. On August 17, 2006, the Appeals Court upheld the FDA's ban of ephedra, finding that the 133,000-page administrative record compiled by the FDA supported the agency's finding that ephedra posed an unreasonable risk to consumers.[11] Nutraceutical Corp. filed a petition for a writ of certiorari seeking a rehearing on the ban of ephedra; however, on May 14, 2007 the United States Supreme Court declined to hear this petition. The sale of ephedra-containing dietary supplements remains illegal in the United States due to their health risks.[7] The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Colorado District of Kansas District of New Mexico Eastern, Northern, and Western Districts of Oklahoma District of Utah District of Wyoming These districts... Nickname: Location of Denver in the State of Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State State of Colorado City and County Denver[1] Founded 1858-11-22, as Denver City, K.T.[2] Incorporated 1861-11-07, as Denver City, C.T.[3] Consolidated... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In English Law certiorari (Latin, to inform) is a public law relief (i. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


Use in sports

Ephedrine is listed as a banned substance by both the International Olympic Committee and the World Anti-Doping Agency.[41] The U.S. National Football League banned players from using ephedra as a dietary supplement in 2001 after the death of Minnesota Vikings offensive tackle Korey Stringer; ephedra was found in Stringer's locker and lawyers for the team contend that it contributed to his death.[35][42] The substance is also banned by the National Basketball Association.[40] Nonetheless, ephedra remains widely used by athletes; a 2006 survey of collegiate hockey players found that nearly half had used ephedra in the belief it would enhance athletic performance.[43] In sports, doping refers to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly those that are forbidden by the organizations that regulate competitions. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an independent foundation created through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). ... NFL redirects here. ... League/Conference affiliations National Football League (1961–present) Western Conference (1961-1969) Central Division (1967-1969) National Football Conference (1970-present) NFC Central (1970-2001) NFC North (2002-present) Current uniform Team colors Purple, Gold, White Fight song Skol, Vikings Mascot Viktor the Viking, Ragnar Personnel Owner Zygi Wilf General... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Korey Damont Stringer (May 8, 1974 – August 1, 2001) was an American football player who died from complications brought on by heat stroke, during training camp in Mankato, Minnesota while playing for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League. ... NBA redirects here. ...


Prominent cases of ephedra use

In the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the Argentine footballer Diego Armando Maradona tested positive for ephedrine.[44] The Japanese motorcycle racer Noriyuki Haga tested positive for it in 2000, being disqualified from two races and banned from two more as a result.[45] NFL punter Todd Sauerbrun of the Denver Broncos was suspended for the first month of the 2006 season after testing positive for ephedra.[42] The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... Diego Armando Maradona (born October 30, 1960) is a former Argentine football player. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... Noriyuki Haga (born March 2, 1975), also known as Nori, Nitro Nori, and Haga-san, is a Japanese motorcycle racer. ... [[Image:|frame|right|Todd Sauerbrun punts the ball for the Carolina Panthers. ... Todd Sauerbrun (born January 4, 1973 in Setauket, New York) is an American football player. ... League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1960-1969) Western Division (1960-1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970–present) AFC West (1970–present) Current uniform Team colors Broncos Navy Blue, Orange, White[1] Mascot Thunder II (live horse) Miles (person in costume suit) Personnel Owner Pat Bowlen...


See also

Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Sida cordifolia is an herbal supplement containing ephedrine which can aid in fat loss, commonly used by bodybuilders and athletes for superior performance and leaner bodies. ... Pinellia is a genus of plants in the family Araceae. ... Synephrine Synephrine is a dietary supplement aimed at encouraging fat loss. ...

References

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  2. ^ Abourashed E, El-Alfy A, Khan I, Walker L (2003). "Ephedra in perspective--a current review". Phytother Res 17 (7): 703-12. doi:10.1002/ptr.1337. PMID 12916063. 
  3. ^ Botany of Haoma, from Encyclopedia Iranica. Accessed March 15, 2007.
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  6. ^ National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Consumer Advisory on ephedra (2004-10-01). Retrieved on 2007-02-13. ]
  7. ^ a b Food and Drug Administration summary of actions regarding sale of ephedra supplements. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
  8. ^ WebMD page on ephedra supplements. Accessed 7 Feb 2007.
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  14. ^ Ephedra, Mahuang, Ma Huang, desert tea, Mormon tea, American ephedra, Chinese ephedra, European ephedra, Pakistani ephedra, Ephedra sinica, Ephedra intermedia, Ephedra equisetina, Ephedra distacha, Ephedra trifurca
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  21. ^ Ephedra information from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Accessed April 11, 2007.
  22. ^ a b "Swallowing Ephedra", by Sharon Brownlee. Published online at Salon.com on June 7, 2000. Accessed 8 Feb 2007.
  23. ^ Dietary Supplements: Background Information. From the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health. Accessed 7 Feb 2007.
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  29. ^ Criminal investigation sought for diet supplement seller, published in USA Today on August 15, 2002. Accessed April 10, 2007.
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  34. ^ "The Secret of Ephedra's Questionable Success". A report on "All Things Considered", National Public Radio, November 22, 2002. Accessed 7 Feb 2007.
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  38. ^ Shekelle P, Hardy M, Morton S, Maglione M, Mojica W, Suttorp M, Rhodes S, Jungvig L, Gagné J (2003). "Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis". JAMA 289 (12): 1537-45. doi:10.1001/jama.289.12.1537. PMID 12672771. 
  39. ^ "FDA Announces Plans to Prohibit Sales of Dietary Supplements Containing Ephedra": Press release from the FDA website, issued December 30, 2003, accessed 7 Feb 2007.
  40. ^ a b "Judge's Decision Lifts Ban On Sale of Ephedra in Utah", from the New York Times, published April 15, 2005. Accessed 7 Feb 2007.
  41. ^ World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, 2006.PDF (1.50 MiB) Accessed March 15, 2007.
  42. ^ a b Sauerbrun fails test: Broncos punter faces suspension for use of ephedra, by Bill Williamson. Published in the Denver Post on July 6, 2006. Accessed March 15, 2007.
  43. ^ Bents R, Marsh E (2006). "Patterns of ephedra and other stimulant use in collegiate hockey athletes". Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 16 (6): 636-43. PMID 17342884. 
  44. ^ "Maradona's fall from grace", by John May. From the BBC, published April 19, 2004. Accessed March 15, 2007.
  45. ^ "Haga Saga", by Dirck Edge. From motorcycledaily.com, May 24, 2000. Accessed March 15, 2007.

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Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) is Harvard Universitys School of Public Health. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 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The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Consumer Reports is an American magazine published monthly by Consumers Union. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... BusinessWeek is a business magazine published by McGraw-Hill. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... NPR redirects here. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The first issue of Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954, showing Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat in Milwaukee County Stadium. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... TIME redirects here. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Denver Post is a daily newspaper published in Denver, Colorado. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ephedra (1190 words)
Ephedra is a potent and useful herb for relieving the constriction and congestion associated with bronchial asthma.
Ephedra is an effective nasal decongestant and is used in the treatment of various allergic disorders in adults.
Ephedra acts as a strong central nervous system stimulant, but despite the claims of some advocates, there is no substantial clinical evidence that it is either a safe or effective promoter of weight loss in obese persons or an enhancer of athletic performance.
Ephedra (1261 words)
Ephedra is an erect branching shrub that can be found in arid regions all over the world.
The nodes of the ephedra plant are said to be toxic.
Ephedra is often prescribed in combination with substances that support the adrenal glands such as licorice, ginseng, vitamin C, magnesium, zinc, vitamin B6, and panthothenic acid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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