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Encyclopedia > Epenthesis

In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (/ɛˈpɛnθɛsɪs/, from Greek epi "on" + en "in" + thesis "putting") is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. The deletion of a sound is called elision. The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of sounds and the human voice. ... In music, see elision (music). ...


In songs and poetry, epenthesis is often used to make words conform to the meter. An example in an English song is "The Umbrella Man", where the meter requires "umbrella" to be pronounced with four syllables, um-buh-rel-la, so that "any umbrellas" has the meter ány úmberéllas. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


In linguistics, epenthesis generally breaks up a consonant cluster or vowel sequence that is not permitted by the phonotactics of a language. Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Regular or semiregular epenthesis commonly occurs in languages which use affixes. For example, a schwa /ə/ (or in RP an /ɪ/) is inserted before the English plural suffix -/z/ and the past tense suffix -/d/ when the root ends in a similar consonant: glassglasses /glæsəz/ or /glɑːsəz/ or /glɑːsɪz/ and batbatted /bætəd/ or /bætɪd/. Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


(An alternate view is that the root form of these suffixes is /əz/ and /əd/ respectively, and that the /ə/ undergoes elision in most cases.) In music, see elision (music). ...


Epenthesis most often occurs within unfamiliar or complex consonant clusters. For example, the name Dwight is commonly pronounced with an epenthetic schwa between the /d/ and the /w/, and many speakers insert schwa between the /l/ and /t/ of realtor. The word hamster is often pronounced with a /p/ after the /m/. Genera Mesocricetus Phodopus Cricetus Cricetulus Allocricetulus Cansumys Tscherskia A hamster is a rodent belonging to the subfamily Cricetinae. ...


In English, epenthesis is sometimes used for humorous or childlike effect. For example, the cartoon character Yogi Bear says "pic-a-nic basket" for "picnic basket." Another example is to be found in the chants of England football fans in which England is usually rendered as [ˈɪŋgəlænd]. Yogi Bear Yogi Bear is a fictional anthropomorphic bear who appears in a series of animated cartoons created by Hanna-Barbera Productions. ...


In German, which readily forms new words by combination, epenthetic letters are commonplace to enable the words to sound euphonic. In French, the letter "t" is inserted in inverted interrogative phrases between a verb ending in a vowel and a pronoun beginning with a vowel, such as in "y a-t-il" (meaning "is there...?").

Contents

Epenthetic vowels

Vocalic epenthesis typically occurs when words are borrowed from a language that has consonant clusters or syllable codas that are not permitted in the borrowing language, though this is not always the cause. Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Languages use various vowels for this purpose, though schwa is quite common when it is available. For example,

  • Hebrew uses a single vowel, the schwa.
  • Japanese uses [ɯ] except following /t/ and d/, when it uses [o], and after /h/, when it uses an echo vowel. For example, the English word street becomes /sɯtoɺito/ in Japanese; the Dutch name Gogh becomes /gohho/, and the German name Bach, /bahha/.
  • Korean uses [ɯ], except when borrowing [ʃ], which takes a following [i] if the consonant is at the end of the word, or /ju/ otherwise.
  • Colloquial Brazilian Portuguese uses [i] between consonant clusters, except those formed with /l/ (atleta) or /r/ (prato). Words like psicologia and advogado are pronounced as /pisikoloʒiɐ/ and /adivogadu/. Some regional dialects use [e] instead of [i] for voiced consonant clusters.

Hebrew redirects here. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... echo vowel — When a word ends with a vowel and glottal stop and it comes at the end of the phrase, the echo vowel is the same as the vowel before the glottal stop, but its whispered and faint, as in yaa for ya arrow. ... Brazilian Portuguese is a collective name for the varieties of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 187 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple million Brazilian immigrants and temporary workers in other countries, mainly in Canada, United States, Portugal, Paraguay and Japan. ... In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ...

Finnish

In Finnish, there are two epenthetic vowels and two nativization vowels. One epenthetic vowel is the preceding vowel, found in the illative case ending -(h)*n, e.g. maahan, taloon. (There is no schwa in Finnish; the term "schwa" is often confused with the epenthetic vowel.) The second one is [e], connecting stems that have historically been consonant stems to their case endings, e.g. nim+nnimen. Illative case in the Finno-Ugric languages Illative (from Latin inferre to bring in) is, in the Finnish language, Estonian language and the Hungarian language, the third of the locative cases with the basic meaning of into (the inside of). An example from Hungarian would be a házba (into... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...


In standard Finnish, consonant clusters may not be broken by epenthetic vowels; foreign words undergo consonant deletion rather than addition of vowels. However, modern loans may not end in consonants. Even if the word, such as a personal name, is not loaned, a paragogic vowel is needed to connect a consonantal case ending to the word. The vowel is /i/, e.g. (Inter)netnetti, or in the case of personal name, Bush + -staBushista "about Bush". Paragoge is the addition to a sound to the end of a word. ...


Finnish has moraic consonants, of which L, H and N are of interest in this case. In standard Finnish, these are slightly intensified when preceding a consonant in a medial cluster, e.g. -hj-. Some dialects, like Savo and Ostrobothnian, employ epenthesis instead, using the preceding vowel in clusters of type -lC- and -hC-, and in Savo, -nh-. For example, Pohjanmaa "Ostrobothnia" → Pohojammaa, ryhmäryhymä, and Savo vanhavanaha. Ambiguities may result: salmi "strait" vs. salami. (An exception is that in Pohjanmaa, -lj- and -rj- become -li- and -ri-, respectively, e.g. kirjakiria. Also, in a small region in Savo, the vowel /e/ is used in the same role.) Mora (plural moras or morae) is a unit of sound used in phonology that determines syllable weight (which in turn determines stress) in some languages. ... Savo (Savolax) is the name of a geographical region in Finland which can refer to: Savo - a historical Province of Sweden (Historical provinces of Finland) Pohjois-Savon maakunta - a current Region of Finland Etelä-Savon maakunta - a current Region of Finland Eastern Finland - a current Province of Finland A dialect... Ostrobothnia, Österbotten (literally East (of) Bottom / the Gulf of Bothnia) or Pohjanmaa (literally Bottom land / soil / ground), is a historical province to the north in Finland. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Related phenomena

  • Prothesis is the addition of a sound to the start of a word.
  • Paragoge is the addition of a sound to the end of a word.
  • Infixation is the insertion of a morpheme within a word.
  • Tmesis is the inclusion of a whole word within another one.
  • Metathesis is the reordering of sounds within a word.

Prosthesis or prothesis in linguistics and poetry (Greek pro pre- + thesis putting) is the appending of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable in front of a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ... Paragoge is the addition to a sound to the end of a word. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Metathesis is a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word. ...

See also

A language-game is a philosophical term of art developed by Ludwig Wittgenstein, referring to simple examples of language use and the actions into which the language is woven. ...

Reference

Välivokaali


External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
Epenthesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (419 words)
In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (Greek epi, "on" × en, "in" + thesis, "putting") is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation.
Epenthesis may also occur for ease of pronunciation in consonant clusters, especially unfamiliar or complex ones.
Epenthesis is also used for humorous or childlike effect, for example the cartoon characters Yogi Bear who says "pic-a-nic basket" and Homer Simpson who says "saxo-ma-phone".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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