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Encyclopedia > Eosinophil granulocyte
Image of an eosinophil
Image of an eosinophil

Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells of the immune system that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates. They also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop in the bone marrow before migrating into blood. Image File history File linksMetadata Eosinophil. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Eosinophil. ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Classes and Clades See below Male and female Superb Fairy-wren Vertebrates are members of the subphylum Vertebrata (within the phylum Chordata), specifically, those chordates with backbones or spinal columns. ... This article deals specifically with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. ... Eosinophil granulocyte Basophil granulocyte Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ...


These cells are naturally transparent but appear brick-red when stained with a dye called eosin using the Romanowsky method; they are 'eosin (or acid)-loving' cells. The red color stains small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as histamine and proteins such as eosinophil peroxidase, RNase, DNases, lipase, plasminogen, and Major Basic Protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. See: transparency (optics) alpha compositing GIF#Transparency transparency (overhead projector) market transparency transparency (telecommunication) transparency (computing) For X11 pseudo-transparency, see pseudo-transparency. ... Eosin is an orange-pink dye derived from coal tar. ... Romanowsky staining was a prototypical staining technique that was the forerunner of several distinct but similar methods, including Giemsa, Wright, and Leishman stains, which are used to differentiate cells in pathologic specimens. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... A granule is a small grain. ... It has been suggested that Cytoplast be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Glutathione Peroxidase 1 A peroxidase (eg. ... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ... A deoxyribonuclease (DNase, for short) is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA backbone. ... A computer-generated image of a type of pancreatic lipase (PLRP2) from the guinea pig. ... Plasmin is an important degrading enzyme (EC 3. ... A 117-residue protein that predominates in eosinophil granules. ... The degranulation process in a Mast cell. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Eosinophils make up about 1-5% of the all white blood cells, and are about 10-12 micrometers in size. They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 6-12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 2-3 days in the absence of stimulation. A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Medulla in general means the inner part, and derives from the Latin word for marrow. In medicine it is contrasted to the cortex. ... Look up cortex in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... The spleen is an organ located the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old white blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... In zootomy and dermatology, skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/œsophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ...


Eosinophils

Contents

Eosinophil Development, Migration and Activation

Eosinophils develop and mature in bone marrow. They differentiate from myeloid precursor cells in response to the cytokines interleukin 3 (IL-3), interleukin 5 (IL-5), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).[1][2][3] Eosinophils produce and store many secondary granule proteins prior to their exit from the bone marrow. After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin) and CCL5 (RANTES), and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4). At these infectious sites, eosinophils are activated by Type 2 cytokines released from a specific subset of helper T cells (Th2); IL-5, GM-CSF and IL-3 are important for eosinophil activation as well as maturation. Myeloid cells is a subsummating term for all hemopoietic cells except the lymphoid ones (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic cells). ... Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is an interleukin, a type of biological signal (cytokine) that can improve the bodys natural response to disease as part of the immune system. ... IL-5 is an interleukin produced by T helper-2 cells and mast cells. ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, often abbreviated to GM-CSF, is a protein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. ... A worm is an elongated soft-bodied invertebrate animal. ... Chemokines are a class of chemotactic cytokines, or small secreted protein signals. ... Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 (CCL11) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family that is also known as eotaxin. ... Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and presumably secreted or RANTES is an 8kDa protein classified as a chemotactic cytokine or chemokine. ... Leukotrienes are autocrine and paracrine eicosanoid lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase. ... A helper (or TH) T cell is a T cell (a type of white blood cell) which has on its surface antigen receptors that can bind to fragments of antigens displayed by the Class II MHC molecules found on professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). ...


Functions of eosinophils

Following activation, eosinophils effector functions include production of:

In addition eosinophils to play a role in fighting viral infections, which is evident from the abundance of RNAses they contain within their granules, and in fibrin removal during inflammation. Eosinophils are considered the main effector cells in allergic responses and asthma pathogenesis and are associated with disease severity. They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. Eosinophils are also involved in many other biological processes, including postpubertal mammary gland development, oestrus cycling, allograft rejection and neoplasia.[9] Eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin are ribonucleases with antiviral activity.[9] They have also recently been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells.[10] The degranulation process in a Mast cell. ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... Lewis electron configuration of superoxide. ... In biochemistry, eicosanoids are a class of oxygenated hydrophobic molecules that largely function as autocrine and paracrine mediators. ... Leukotrienes are autocrine and paracrine eicosanoid lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase. ... Leukotriene B4 is a leukotriene involved in inflammation. ... Leukotriene C4 is a leukotriene. ... Leukotriene D4 is a leukotriene. ... Leukotriene E4 is a leukotriene. ... Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ... E1 - Alprostadil I2 - Prostacyclin A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase In molecular biology, elastase is an enzyme from the class of proteases (or better peptidases) that break down proteins. ... Growth factor is any of about twenty small proteins that attach to specific receptors on the surface of stem cells in bone marrow and promote differentiation and maturation of these cells into morphotic constituents of blood. ... Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF beta) is a biological protein. ... Vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF is an important signal protein involved in angiogenesis. ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of the numerous proteins that regulate cell growth and division. ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between immune system cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is secreted by the macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells. ... Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of biological response modifier, a substance that can improve the bodys natural response to disease. ... Interleukin-4, abbreviated IL-4, is a Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of activated B-cells, T-cells, and differentiation of CD4+T-cells into Th2 cells, among other effects. ... IL-5 is an interleukin produced by T helper-2 cells and mast cells. ... Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by T cells and macrophages to stimulate immune response to trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage leading to inflammation. ... Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a cytokine produced by macrophages that belongs to the IL-1 superfamily. ... Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a cytokine secreted by many cell types, but especially T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, that is an important mediator of allergic inflammation and disease. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes, and that is also responsible for making proteins out of amino acids. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... This article deals specifically with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. ... Pathogenesis is the mechanism by which a certain etiological factor causes disease (pathos = disease, genesis = development). ... A worm is an elongated soft-bodied invertebrate animal. ... Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. ... The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) refers to the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ... An allograft is a transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically non-identical member of the same species. ... Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Antigen presentation is a process in the bodys immune system by which macrophages, dendritic cells and leukocytes capture antigens and then carry those antigens to T-cells. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ...


Eosinophil granule proteins

Following activation by an immune stimulus, eosinophils degranulate to release an array of cytotoxic granule cationic proteins that are capable of inducing tissue damage and dysfunction.[11] These include:

Major basic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, and eosinophil cationic protein are toxic to many tissues.[9] Eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin are ribonucleases with antiviral activity.[12] Major basic protein induces mast cell and basophil degranulation, and is implicated in peripheral nerve remodelling.[13][14] Eosinophil cationic protein creates toxic pores in the membranes of target cells allowing potential entry of other cytotoxic molecules to the cell,[15] can inhibit proliferation of T cells, suppress antibody production by B cells, induce degranulation by mast cells, and stimulate fibroblast cells to secrete mucus and glycosaminoglycan.[16] Eosinophil peroxidase forms highly reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen intermediates that promote oxidative stress in the target, causing cell death by apoptosis and necrosis.[9] A 117-residue protein that predominates in eosinophil granules. ... Eosinophil peroxidase is a peroxidase which is cytotoxic to bacteria. ... Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Biology stubs | Blood and immune system cells ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... Mast cells A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Chondroitin sulfate Hyaluronan Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... Oxidative stress is a medical term for damage to animal or plant cells (and thereby the organs and tissues composed of those cells) caused by reactive oxygen species, which include (but are not limited to) superoxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite or hydrogen peroxide. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Death) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


Eosinophilia

An increase in eosinophils, i.e. the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/microlitre of blood is called an eosinophilia, and is typically seen in people with a parasitic infestation of the intestines, a collagen vascular disease (such as rheumatoid arthritis), malignant diseases such as Hodgkin's Disease, extensive skin diseases (such as exfoliative dermatitis), Addison's Disease, and with the use of certain drugs such as penicillin. In 1989, contaminated L-tryptophan supplements caused a deadly form of eosinophilia known as eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. Eosinophilia is the state of having high eosinophil granulocytes in the blood. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine (or colon). ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... In zootomy and dermatology, skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... Addisons disease (also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, or hypocortisolism) is a rare endocrine disorder which results in the body not producing sufficient amounts of certain adrenal hormones. ... It has been suggested that Blockbuster drug be merged into this article or section. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Tryptophan is an amino acid and essential in human nutrition. ... Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome is an incurable and sometimes fatal flu-like neurological condition that was caused by contaminated L-tryptophan supplements. ...


Eosinopenia

Eosinopenia is a decrease in eosinophil number, which occurs characteristically when glucocorticoids are administered or when the Cushing's disease is present. Dr. Harvey Cushing, the man who discovered the disease, identified Eosinopenia as one of the primary indicators in a patient suffering that disease. Over the years, with the increase in gluccorticoid therapy and the growing stresses in our society (another cause of a suppresed count), Eosinopenia has lost favor as a Cushing's diagnostic tool. That fact causes many people suffering Cushing's to often go undiagnosed for years until symptomatology is significant. The name glucocorticoid derives from early observations that these hormones were involved in glucose metabolism. ... Cushings syndrome or hypercortisolism is an endocrine disorder caused by excessive levels of the endogenous corticosteroid hormone cortisol. ... Harvey Cushing (c. ...


Treatment

Treatments used to combat eosinophils include:

Monoclonal antibody therapy is the use of monoclonal antibodies (or Mab) to specifically target cells. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... This article refers to literary antagonists. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Imatinib mesylate (or simply imatinib) is a new drug used to treat certain types of cancer. ...

Additional images

External links

Elseviers logo. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... The University of Wisconsin–La Crosse (also known as UW–La Crosse, Wisconsin-La Crosse, or UW-L) is a public university located in La Crosse, Wisconsin. ...

References

  1. ^ Metcalf D, Begley C, Nicola N, Johnson G (1987). "Quantitative responsiveness of murine hemopoietic populations in vitro and in vivo to recombinant multi-CSF (IL-3)". Exp Hematol 15 (3): 288-95. PMID 3493174. 
  2. ^ Metcalf D, Burgess A, Johnson G, Nicola N, Nice E, DeLamarter J, Thatcher D, Mermod J (1986). "In vitro actions on hemopoietic cells of recombinant murine GM-CSF purified after production in Escherichia coli: comparison with purified native GM-CSF". J Cell Physiol 128 (3): 421-31. PMID 3528176. 
  3. ^ Yamaguchi Y, Suda T, Suda J, Eguchi M, Miura Y, Harada N, Tominaga A, Takatsu K (1988). "Purified interleukin 5 supports the terminal differentiation and proliferation of murine eosinophilic precursors". J Exp Med 167 (1): 43-56. PMID 3257253. 
  4. ^ Trulson A, Byström J, Engström A, Larsson R, Venge P (2007). "The functional heterogeneity of eosinophil cationic protein is determined by a gene polymorphism and post-translational modifications". Clin Exp Allergy 37 (2): 208-18. PMID 17250693. 
  5. ^ Saito K, Nagata M, Kikuchi I, Sakamoto Y (2004). "Leukotriene D4 and eosinophil transendothelial migration, superoxide generation, and degranulation via beta2 integrin". Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 93 (6): 594-600. PMID 15609771. 
  6. ^ Bandeira-Melo C, Bozza P, Weller P (2002). "The cellular biology of eosinophil eicosanoid formation and function". J Allergy Clin Immunol 109 (3): 393-400. PMID 11897981. 
  7. ^ Kato Y, Fujisawa T, Nishimori H, Katsumata H, Atsuta J, Iguchi K, Kamiya H. "Leukotriene D4 induces production of transforming growth factor-beta1 by eosinophils". Int Arch Allergy Immunol 137 Suppl 1: 17-20. PMID 15947480. 
  8. ^ Horiuchi T, Weller P (1997). "Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by human eosinophils: upregulation by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-5". Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 17 (1): 70-7. PMID 9224211. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Rothenberg M, Hogan S. "The eosinophil". Annu Rev Immunol 24: 147-74. PMID 16551246. 
  10. ^ Shi H (2004). "Eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells". J Leukoc Biol 76 (3): 520-7. PMID 15218055. 
  11. ^ Gleich G, Adolphson C. "The eosinophilic leukocyte: structure and function". Adv Immunol 39: 177-253. PMID 3538819. 
  12. ^ Slifman N, Loegering D, McKean D, Gleich G (1986). "Ribonuclease activity associated with human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein". J Immunol 137 (9): 2913-7. PMID 3760576. 
  13. ^ Zheutlin L, Ackerman S, Gleich G, Thomas L (1984). "Stimulation of basophil and rat mast cell histamine release by eosinophil granule-derived cationic proteins". J Immunol 133 (4): 2180-5. PMID 6206154. 
  14. ^ Morgan R, Costello R, Durcan N, Kingham P, Gleich G, McLean W, Walsh M (2005). "Diverse effects of eosinophil cationic granule proteins on IMR-32 nerve cell signaling and survival". Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 33 (2): 169-77. PMID 15860794. 
  15. ^ Young J, Peterson C, Venge P, Cohn Z. "Mechanism of membrane damage mediated by human eosinophil cationic protein". Nature 321 (6070): 613-6. PMID 2423882. 
  16. ^ Venge P, Byström J, Carlson M, Hâkansson L, Karawacjzyk M, Peterson C, Sevéus L, Trulson A (1999). "Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP): molecular and biological properties and the use of ECP as a marker of eosinophil activation in disease". Clin Exp Allergy 29 (9): 1172-86. PMID 10469025. 

Clin Exp Allergy. 2005 Aug;35(8):986-94
Science. 2004 Sep 17;305(5691):1773-6.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2006 Oct;8(5):390-5. Review
Annu Rev Immunol. 2006;24:147-74. Review.


  Results from FactBites:
 
eosinophil granulocyte Dr.Jastrow's electron microscopic atlas (363 words)
Eosinophilic granulocytes or eosonophils (Terminologia histologica: Granulocyti acidophili; Eosinophili) belong to the white blood cells (leucocytes).
Eosinophils are attracted by a factor released by basophilic granulocytes and mast cells in case of inflammatory reactions where they are supposed to reduce local histamine effects.
Eosinophils are phagocyted by macrophages and during their degradation inside large phagolysosomes the macrophages show typical Charcot-Leyden crystals consisting of lysophospholipase.
eMedicine - Eosinophilia : Article Excerpt by: Michaelann Liss, DO (591 words)
Eosinophils are derived from hematopoietic stem cells initially committed to the myeloid line and then to the basophil-eosinophil granulocyte lineage.
A secondary or reactive increase in blood eosinophils, tissue eosinophils, or both is associated with a wide variety of infections (especially helminthic parasites), allergic responses, neoplasms, connective tissue disorders, medications and endocrinopathies.
In addition to these cytokines, eosinophils are a source of several cationic proteins that also contribute to the immunologic responses against infectious disease agents and to tissue damage in allergic and autoimmune diseases.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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