FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Environmental vegetarianism

Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of vegetarianism based on the belief that the production of meat by intensive agriculture is environmentally unsustainable. The primary environmental concerns with meat production are pollution and the use of resources such as fossil fuels, water, and land. This article refers to human nutrition and diet. ... This article is about the food. ... Intensive Farming Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs as relative to land area (as opposed to extensive farming). ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ...


The use of large industrial monoculture that is common in industrialised agriculture, typically for feed crops such as corn and soy is more damaging to ecosystems than more sustainable farming practices such as organic farming, permaculture, arable, pastoral, and rain-fed agriculture. Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ...


Animals fed on grain and those which rely on grazing need more water than grain crops [1]. According to the USDA, growing crops for farm animals requires nearly half of the U.S. water supply and 80% of its agricultural land. Animals raised for food in the U.S. consume 90% of the soy crop, 80% of the corn crop, and 70% of its grain. [2]. In tracking food animal production from the feed through to the dinner table, the inefficiencies of meat, milk and egg production range from a 4:1 energy input to protein output ratio up to 54:1. [3] The result is that producing animal-based food is typically much less efficient than the harvesting of grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds and fruits, though this might not be largely true for animal husbandry in the developing world where factory farming is almost non existent, making animal based food much more sustainable. “USDA” redirects here. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A glass of cows milk. ... An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ...

Contents

Emissions

Globally, the agriculture sector produces between 50-75% of anthropogenic methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions respectively, and about five percent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2). Agricultural activities contribute to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. Direct contributions resulting from emissions of CH4, N2O, and CO2 are due to deforestation, biomass burning, ruminant animals, decomposition of soil organic carbon from tillage practices, rice cultivation, fertilizer application, use of manure, and degradation of wetlands. Ploughing or soil turnover is the major cause of CO2 emissions from cropland. Livestock account for nearly 20% of the total U.S. methane emissions. [4] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1443x957, 249 KB) Summary From: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1443x957, 249 KB) Summary From: http://www. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) (also known as factory farming) which is used for finishing livestock, notably beef cattle, prior to slaughter. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... See biomass (ecology) for the use of the term in ecology, where it refers to the cumulation of living matter Switchgrass, a tough plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with a horse and plough. ...


Indirect effects account for most of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, and are attributed to emissions of nitrous oxides and other gases from concentrated livestock operations and from microbial activities in soil and water following applications of fertilizers. [5] The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ...


According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "methane is emitted from a variety of both human-related (anthropogenic) and natural sources. Human-related activities include fossil fuel production, animal husbandry (enteric fermentation in livestock and manure management), rice cultivation, biomass burning, and waste management. These activities release significant quantities of methane to the atmosphere. It is estimated that 60% of global methane emissions are related to human-related activities. Natural sources of methane include wetlands, gas hydrates, permafrost, termites, oceans, freshwater bodies, non-wetland soils, and other sources such as wildfires." [6] EPA redirects here. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... Enteric fermentation is fermentation that takes place in the digestive systems of animals. ... Hydrates are compounds formed by the union of water with some other substance, generally forming a neutral body, as certain crystallized salts. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more years. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Wikispecies has information related to: Isoptera Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ...

Diagram of agricultural soil N cycle and nitrous oxide production

The American Public Health Association and the United States National Academy of Sciences have stated that "pollution from massive animal factories jeopardizes public health in rural communities across the nation. Bearing no resemblance to the traditional family farm, these facilities pack thousands of animals into small spaces, produce as much waste as a small city, and spew toxic gases and other pollutants into the air. Livestock production is the single largest contributor of ammonia gas release in the United States, and giant animal factories also emit hydrogen sulfide and fine dust particles—both of which are linked to respiratory illness—in dangerous quantities." [7] Image File history File links N2Emissions. ... Image File history File links N2Emissions. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a professional organization for public health professionals in the United States. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...


A study by Gidon Eshel and Pamela Martin, vegetarians, and assistant professors of geophysics at the University of Chicago, compares the CO2 production resulting from various human diets in the United States. They find that a person in the United States who switched from the typical diet to a vegan diet would, on average, reduce CO2 production significantly more than switching from a Toyota Camry to a hybrid, Toyota Prius. [1] Relatedly, the production and consumption of meat and other animal products is associated with the clearing of rainforests, resource depletion, air and water pollution, land and economic inefficiency, species extinction, and other serious environmental harms, as well as various health issues such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, obesity, diabetes, and others [2]. For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ...


Greenhouse gas emissions are not limited to animal husbandry; for instance, in many countries where rice is the main cereal crop, rice cultivation is responsible for most of the methane emissions. [8] This article is about cereals in general. ...


Grazing and land use

Livestock can be an important means of converting otherwise unusable vegetation and crop by-products into high value milk and meat.
Livestock can be an important means of converting otherwise unusable vegetation and crop by-products into high value milk and meat.

Although it has a smaller direct footprint, factory farming requires large quantities of feed and large areas of land. Free-range animal production requires land for grazing, which has led to encroachment on undeveloped lands as well as clear cutting of forests. However, many point that Slash and burn agriculture among other unsustainable agricultural practices are equally, if not more responsible for the cutting down of forests.[9] Such expansion has increased the rate of species extinction and damaged the services offered by nature, such as the natural processing of pollutants. [10] Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... A glass of cows milk. ... This article is about the food. ... Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


According to the United Nations, "Ranching-induced deforestation is one of the main causes of loss of some unique plant and animal species in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America as well as carbon release in the atmosphere." [11] The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) agrees, saying that "Expanding livestock production is one of the main drivers of the destruction of tropical rain forests in Latin America, which is causing serious environmental degradation in the region." [12] An earlier FAO study which found that 90% of deforestation is caused by unsustainable agricultural practices. Logging and plantation forestry, though not as major contributors to deforestation, play a greater role in forest degradation. [13] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ...

Soy field
Soy field

Environmental vegetarians believe that the problem of overgrazing can be alleviated by adopting a vegetarian diet [14], although "[l]ong-distance air transport, deep-freezing, and some horticultural practices for producing fresh vegetables may lead to environmental burdens for vegetarian foods exceeding those of locally produced organic meat."[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Soyfield. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Soyfield. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ...


Reports and research by Dr Ruth Fairchild of the University of Wales Institute in Cardiff (UWIC) also show that veganism is beneficial to the environment. Besides this, the UWIC has also released exact data of the co2-emissions of all food products and a eco-diet to assist people in living more environmentally friendly.


While most meat production in western countries, especially the United States, currently utilizes inefficient grain feeding methods, not all meat production is inherently a poor use of land. A proportion of all grain crops produced is not suitable for human consumption. This can be fed to animals to turn into meat, thus improving efficiency and providing the most food from a certain land area. [16] [17] Non-commercially produced meats from wild sources, such as those obtained through hunting and fishing, do not add any burden to the local environment so long as their harvest is regulated to maintain healthy population levels. Performed correctly, this form of meat production can serve to manage local game populations that, having lost their natural predators to extirpation, otherwise grow beyond the carrying capacity of their environment and damage the local ecosystem. This form of management also makes use of and provides incentive for more natural areas that provide high quality habitat for all wild species, both game and non-game, as well as providing area for public recreation. To the extent that these practices replace a portion of the diet that would otherwise be produced through commercial means, they actually reduce the ecological footprint of an individual. Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ...


Water resources

Water is becoming increasingly scarce or polluted in many parts of the world. [18] Scientists at the World Water Week conference held in August 2004 advised that "growth in demand for meat and dairy products is unsustainable" and that "[a]nimals need much more water than grain to produce the same amount of food, and ending malnutrition and feeding even more mouths will take still more water." [19] Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to the vegetarian author John Robbins, it takes roughly takes 60, 108, 168, 229 pounds of water to produce a pound of potatoes, wheat, corn and rice respectively. He reports that a pound of beef however, requires 12,000 gallons of water.


Professor Pimentel explained of his calculations that:

the data we had indicated that a beef animal consumed 100 kg of hay and 4 kg of grain per 1 kg of beef produced. Using the basic rule that it takes about 1,000 liters of water to produce 1 kg of hay and grain, thus about 100,000 liters were required to produce the 1 kg of beef.

However, meat production is not the only culprit when it comes to misuse of water resources. Crops like rice pose a significant threat to other crops, and to the human food chain.[20] Farmers in some of the arid regions try to cultivate rice using groundwater bored through pumps, thus increasing the chances of famine in the long run. Furthermore, a study by the World Water Council on the "Virtual Water" (VW) concept shows that rice ranks right under beef, pork, poultry, eggs, and soybeans. [21] == HEADLINE TEXT== Food chains, food webs and/or food networks describe the feeding relationships between other species to another within an ecosystem. ... Missing main definition------ someone add if you know it please. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... The World Water Council is an international collaboration of NGOs, governments and international organisations, It is headquartered in Marseilles, France and it was founded in 1996. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Aquatic ecosystems

See also: Trawling
Trawling
Trawling

Trawling, the practice of pulling a fishing net through water behind boats, removes around 5 to 25% of an area's seabed life on a single run. [22] Overfishing has also been widely reported due to increases in the volume of fishing hauls to feed a quickly growing number of consumers. This has led to the breakdown of some sea ecosystems and several fishing industries whose catch has been greatly diminished. [23] [24] The extinction of many species has also been reported. [25] According to an FAO estimate, over 70% of the world’s fish species are either fully exploited or depleted. [26] For fishing by dragging a baited line after a boat, see troll (angling). ... Image File history File links Trawling_Drawing. ... Image File history File links Trawling_Drawing. ... For fishing by dragging a baited line after a boat, see troll (angling). ... × The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ...


According to Nitin Desai, Secretary General of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, "Overfishing cannot continue, the depletion of fisheries poses a major threat to the food supply of millions of people." [27] Also see: 2002 (number). ...


A 2005 report of the UN Millennium Project, commissioned by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, recommended the elimination of bottom trawling on the high seas by 2006 to protect seamounts and other ecologically sensitive habitats.[28] Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Millennium Project is an initiative that focuses on research implementing the organizational means, operational priorities, and financing structures necessary to achieve a certain set of goals. ...


Fisheries experts note that due to decreasing catch from natural sources, aquaculture has overtaken Capture as the main source of aquatic foods. Figures from Infofish indicate that fishing supply has plateaued and is likely to witness marginal growth in the future with captive fish breeding recording exponential growth. [29] This, critics note, would drastically reduce the environmental impact of deep sea ocean fishing while serving to create a sustainable food cycle in the Fisheries industry. Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ...


Significant negative effects of riparian ecosystems are also associated with meat production in the United States; in fact, 80% of stream and riparian habitats in the western US have been negatively impacted by livestock grazing. In the Western United States, cattle grazing tends to concentrate around rare and ecologically important bodies of water. This has been shown to result in increased phosphates, nitrates, decreased dissolved oxygen, increased temperature, increased turbidity, and reduced species diversity (Belsky et al., 1999). Waste release from pork farms in the Eastern United States have also been shown to cause large-scale eutrophication of bodies of water including the Mississippi River and Atlantic Ocean (Palmquist, et al., 1997). A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Turbidity standards of 5, 50, and 500 NTU Turbidity is a cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by individual particles (suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. ... Species diversity refers to the number and distribution of species in one location. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ...


Petroleum and fossil fuels

Farmer ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia. Animals can provide a useful source of draught power to farmers in the developing world
Farmer ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia. Animals can provide a useful source of draught power to farmers in the developing world

Petroleum and other fossil fuels are thought to be one of the resources freed up by a vegetarian diet. According to Environmental Health Perspectives: "Fossil fuel energy is also a major input to industrial agriculture. The food production system accounts for 17% of all fossil fuel use in the United States, and the average U.S. farm uses 3 kcal of fossil energy in producing 1 kcal of food energy. Meat production uses even more energy. In the typical feedlot system—where a little more than one-half of the cattle's feed is grain—the fossil energy input is about 35 kcal/kcal of beef protein produced.[30] Download high resolution version (1400x1050, 430 KB)Farming on Indonesia. ... Download high resolution version (1400x1050, 430 KB)Farming on Indonesia. ... A rice paddy in Japan A paddy field is a flooded parcel of farmland for growing rice (from the Malaysian word padi, a noun meaning growing rice). Paddy fields are a typical feature of rice-growing countries of East and Southeast Asia, such as China, Thailand, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


A Cornell University ecologist states that "animal protein production requires more than eight times as much fossil-fuel energy than production of plant protein while yielding animal protein that is only 1.4 times more nutritious for humans than the comparable amount of plant protein." [31] Time magazine has also editorialised on the subject. [32] Cornell redirects here. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...


A 2006 study at the University of Chicago, "conclude[s] that a person consuming a mixed diet with the mean American caloric content and composition causes the emissions of 1485 kg CO2-equivalent above the emissions associated with consuming the same number of calories, but from plant sources."[33] The study also notes that "Far from trivial, nationally this difference amounts to over 6% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions." For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


This view however reflects the situation in the developed world and does not take into account the situation in most third world countries. In the developing world, notably Asia and Africa, fossil fuels are seldom used to transport feed for farm animals. Sheep or goats, for example, require no fuel, since they graze on farmlands, while bales of hay for bovines are still transported mainly using bullock carts or similar devices. Little to no meat processing takes place in the vast majority of the developing world. Animals are also often herded to the place of slaughter (with the exception of poultry) resulting in a very low use of fossil fuels. [34] In fact farm animals in developing world are used for multiple purposes from providing draught power, to transportation while also serving as meat once it reaches the end of its economic life. A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Species See text. ... For the animal, see goat. ... For other uses, see Hay (disambiguation). ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of about 24 medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ...


A more efficient use of animal waste may be a contributing factor in sustainability. The by-products of slaughtered animals can be used to provide biogas. Trains running on this fuel are already in operation in Sweden [35]. The use of biogas to run mass transit is likely only possible as a side effect of industrial agriculture. Biogas-bus in Bern, Switzerland Biogas typically refers to a (biofuel) gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Bangkok Skytrain. ...


Related economic and social considerations

Environmental vegetarianism can be compared with economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism either out of necessity or because of a conscious simple living strategy. Such a person may base this belief on a philosophical viewpoint, such as the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound or that vegetarianism will help improve public health and curb starvation. According to the Worldwatch Institute, "massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease the health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off of rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry." [36] An economic vegetarian is a person who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint that the consumption of meat is expensive, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just because of necessity. ... Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... The Worldwatch Institute is an environmental research organisation in the United States. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ...


Environmental vegetarians call for a reduction of first world consumption of meat, especially in the US. According to the United Nations Population Fund "Each U.S. citizen consumes an average of 260 lbs. of meat per year, the world's highest rate. That is about 1.5 times the industrial world average, three times the East Asian average, and 40 times the average in Bangladesh." [37] In addition, "the ecological footprint of an average person in a high-income country is about six times bigger than that of someone in a low-income country, and many more times bigger than in the least-developed countries." [38] The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ...


The World Health Organization calls malnutrition "the silent emergency", and says it is a factor in at least half of the 10.4 million child deaths which occur every year.[39][40] Cornell scientists have advised that the U.S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat, although they distinguish "grain-fed meat production from pasture-raised livestock, calling cattle-grazing a more reasonable use of marginal land." [41] “WHO” redirects here. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ...


Critics note, starvation in the modern world is largely a political problem and may not be solved through flooding world markets with more grain[42]. Indeed, critics of environmental vegetarianism point out that should the U.S. give this "freed" grain to the developing world, it would amount to dumping, undermining local markets and worsening the situation. Among other results, this could lead also to a decrease in biodiversity.[43] Some environmentalists go even as far as to characterise food aid, in particular grain, as a commercial enterprise interested more in supporting farmers in the developed world than alleviating famine in the developing world. [44] In economics, dumping can refer to any kind of predatory pricing, and is by most definitions a form of price discrimination. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


Criticism

A widely adopted vegetarian diet, in and of itself, may not have profound effects on the health of the environment. The support of alternative farming practices (e.g. well husbanded organic farming, permaculture, and rotational grazing) and certain plant commodity avoidance such as rice, have a similarly beneficial impact on environmental health and sustainable agriculture. According to Cornell scientists, "the heavy dependence on fossil energy suggests that the US food system, whether meat-based or plant-based, is not sustainable."[45]. However, that study only looked at lacto-ovo vegetarian diets as an alternative to a meat-based diet, and did not measure the effects of an entirely plant based diet. It still found that a "meat-based diet requires more energy, land, and water resources than the lactoovovegetarian diet," but noted that the major threat to survival and to U.S. natural resources is rapid population growth. Management Intensive Grazing (MIG,) is the practice of using rotational grazing and careful, usually daily, management to get optimal production. ... “Vegan” redirects here. ...


Some environmental activists point out, adopting a vegetarian diet may be a way of focusing on personal actions and righteous gestures rather than systemic change. Dave Riley, an Australian environmentalist, echoes the views of some non-vegetarian environmentalists when he states that "being meatless and guiltless seems seductively simple while environmental destruction rages around us," noting that animals can contribute to the food chain. "For instance, yams, which keep poorly, are stored inside pigs, and today's rotting apples attracting fruit fly are tomorrow's bacon," Riley writes. [46].


The adoption of a lacto-ovo vegetarian or entirely plant-based vegan diet may not be totally necessary, because even modest reductions in meat consumption would substantially reduce the burden on our natural resources. "One personal act that can have a profound impact on these issues is reducing meat consumption. To produce 1 pound of feedlot beef requires about 2,400 gallons of water and 7 pounds of grain (42). Considering that the average American consumes 97 pounds of beef (and 273 pounds of meat in all) each year, even modest reductions in meat consumption in such a culture would substantially reduce the burden on our natural resources." [47] “Vegan” redirects here. ...


Notes

References

  1. ^ "Meat-Eaters Aiding Global Warming?: New Research Suggests What You Eat as Important as What You Drive" http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=1856817&page=1
  2. ^ Eco-Eating: Eating as if the Earth Matters http://www.brook.com/veg
  • Belsky, A. J., A. Matzke and S. Uselman "Survey of Livestock Influences on Stream and Riparian Ecosystems in the Western United States." Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 1999, Vol. 54, pp. 419-431).
  • Marlow Vesterby and Kenneth Krupa, "Major Uses of Land in the United States, 1997," U.S. Department of Agriculture Statistical Bulletin
  • John Robbins, The Food Revolution, Conari Press: Boston, 2001, p. 238
  • John Robbins, Diet For a New America
  • Corliss, R. (2002, July). Should We All Be Vegetarians? Time.
  • (2003 May-June) How Many Vegetarians are There? 2003 national Harris Interactive survey question. Vegetarian Journal
  • Environmental Integrity Project Animal Feeding Operations
  • Palmquist,Raymond B., Fritz M. Roka, Tomislav Vukina. "Hog Operations, Environmental Effects, and Residential Property Values" Land Economics, Vol. 73, No. 1 (Feb, 1997), pp. 114-124.
  • Task Force of the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (1999). Animal Agriculture and Global Food Supply. Task Force Report No. 135. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), Ames, Iowa, USA.
  • Food and Agriculture Organisation Statistical Databases (FAOSTAT). Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO 1998), Rome, Italy.

Red Wheel Weiser Conari, also known in different periods in its history as RedWheel/Weiser, LLC and Samuel Weiser, Inc. ...

See also

Diet for a New America is a book by John Robbins, advocating a plant-based, Vegan diet. ... John Robbins is an American author known for his books on food and health. ... An economic vegetarian is a person who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint that the consumption of meat is expensive, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just because of necessity. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Many vegetarians consider the production, subsequent slaughtering and consumption of meat or animal products as unethical. ... Movement for Compassionate Living are a UK based membership organisation promoting veganism and sustainable living. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals may pursue for a variety of motivations, such as spirituality, health, or ecology. ... Sustainable living might best be defined as a lifestyle that could, hypothetically, be sustained unmodified for many generations without exhausting any natural resources. ... “Vegan” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Environmental vegetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2504 words)
Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of vegetarianism based on the belief that the production of meat by intensive agriculture is environmentally unsustainable.
An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism either out of necessity or because of a conscious simple living strategy or a philosophical viewpoint such as the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound or that vegetarianism will help improve public health and curb starvation.
The adoption of a vegetarian or a more restrictive diet such as a vegan diet may not be necessary, because even modest reductions in meat consumption, in industrialized societies, would substantially reduce the burden on our natural resources.
Vegetarianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5568 words)
Vegetarianism is the practice of not eating meat, including beef, poultry, fish, and their by-products, with or without the use of dairy products or eggs.
Vegetarianism has been common in the Indian subcontinent, for spiritual reasons, such as ahimsa (nonviolence), to avoid indulgences (as meat was considered an indulgence), to reduce bad karmic influences, and for economic reasons.
Vegetarianism in the 19th century was associated with many cultural reform movements, such as temperance and anti-vivisection.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m