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Encyclopedia > Environmental science
Environmental science
Environmental technology

Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. It is inherently an interdisciplinary field that draws upon not only its core scientific areas, but also applies knowledge from other non-scientific studies such as economics, law and social sciences. Physics is used to understand the flux of material and energy interaction and construct mathematical models of environmental phenomena. Chemistry is applied to understand the molecular interactions among natural systems. Biology is fundamental to describing the effects within the plant and animal kingdoms. Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil Sugar cane can be used as a biofuel. ... An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ... Ecoforestry is forestry that emphasizes holistic practices which strive to protect and restore ecosystems1 instead of traditional forestry that maximizes economic productivity. ... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... Future energy development faces great challenges due to an increasing world population, demands for higher standards of living, a need for less pollution, a need to avert global warming, and a possible end to fossil fuels (see Hubbert peak theory). ... Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use and harvest energy, water, and materials, and reducing building impacts on human health and the environment, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal — the complete building life cycle. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. ... The international recycling symbol. ... World renewable energy in 2005 (except 2004 data for items marked* or **). Enlarge image to read exclusions. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... The following page contains a list of different forms of waste treatment Anaerobic digestion ArrowBio Composting Gasification Incineration In-vessel composting Landfill Mechanical biological treatment Mechanical heat treatment Plasma Pyrolysis Recycling Sewage treatment Tunnel composting UASB Windrow composting Categories: | ... Sustainable architecture is building design that takes into account all aspects of the building that will affect and be affected by the environment. ... This article is about a concept related to renewable energy, of which sustainable energy is a superset. ... Sustainable development has also been defined as the process of balancing the need of humans for economic and social development with the need to protect the natural and built environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... The following page consist of a list of waste water treatment technologies: Activated sludge Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic lagoon Cesspit Combined sewer overflow Composting toilet Constructed wetland Imhoff tank Floculation Reed bed Septic tank Sequencing batch reactor UASB Aerobic Granular Reactor This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Sustainability is an attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the fundamental laws of the Universe. ... A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. ... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


While the concept of environmental science has existed for centuries, it came alive as a substantive, active field of scientific investigation in the 1960s and 1970s driven by (a) the need for a large multi-disciplined team to analyze complex environmental problems, (b) the arrival of substantive environmental laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation and (c) the growing public awareness of a need for action in addressing environmental problems.


Environmental science encompasses issues such as climate change, conservation, biodiversity, groundwater and soil contamination, use of natural resources, waste management, sustainable development, air pollution and noise pollution. Due to the inherent interdisciplinary nature of environmental science, teams of professionals commonly work together to conduct environmental research or to produce Environmental Impact Statements, as required by the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) or under state laws. There are professional organizations that engender work in environmental science and aid in communication among the diverse sciences. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Sustainable development has also been defined as the process of balancing the need of humans for economic and social development with the need to protect the natural and built environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... Noise pollution, usually called environmental noise in technical venues, is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... According to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) whenever the U.S. Federal Government takes a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment it must first consider the environmental impact in a document called an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ...

Contents

Sub-categories

Atmospheric sciences examines the new phenomenology of the Earth's gaseous outer layer with emphasis upon interrelation to other systems. Atmospheric sciences comprises meteorological studies, greenhouse gas phenomena, atmospheric dispersion modeling of airborne contaminants,[1][2] sound propagation phenomena related to noise pollution, and even light pollution Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. ... Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Noise pollution, usually called environmental noise in technical venues, is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ...


Taking the example of the global warming phenomena, physicists create computer models of atmospheric circulation and infra-red radiation transmission, chemists examine the inventory of atmospheric chemicals and their reactions, biologists analyze the plant and animal contributions to carbon dioxide fluxes, and specialists such as meteorologists and oceanographers add additional breadth in understanding the atmospheric dynamics. Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program which attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology and marine science is the study of the earths oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes. ...


Ecology studies typically analyze the dynamics among an interrelated set of populations, or a population and some aspect of its environment. These studies could address endangered species, predator/prey interactions, habitat integrity, effects upon populations by environmental contaminants, or impact analysis of proposed land development upon species viability. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Siberian Tiger, a subspecies of tiger. ...


An interdisciplinary analysis of an ecological system which is being impacted by one or more stressors might include several related environmental science fields. For example one might examine an estuarine setting where a proposed industrial development could impact certain species by water pollution and air pollution. For this study biologists would describe the flora and fauna, chemists would analyze the transport of water pollutants to the marsh, physicists would calculate air pollution emissions and geologists would assist in understanding the marsh soils and bay muds. Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Articles with similar titles include physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... the are cool The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ...


Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical alterations in the environment. Principal areas of study include soil contamination and water pollution. The topics of analysis involve chemical degradation in the environment, multi-phase transport of chemicals (for example, evaporation of a solvent containing lake to yield solvent as an air pollutant), and chemical effects upon biota. Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ...


As an example study, consider the case of a leaking solvent tank which has entered the soil upgradient of a habitat of an endangered species of amphibian. Physicists would develop a computer model to understand the extent of soil contamination and subsurface transport of solvent, chemists would analyze the molecular bonding of the solvent to the specific soil type and biologists would study the impacts upon soil arthropods, plants and ultimately pond dwelling copepods who are the food of the endangered amphibian. A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... The Siberian Tiger, a subspecies of tiger. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat. ...


Geosciences includes environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the earth's crust. In some classification systems it can also embrace hydrology including oceanography. Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is a multidisciplinary field of applied science and is closely related to engineering geology and somewhat related to environmental geography. ... Environmental soil science is the study of the interaction of humans with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ...


As an example study of soils erosion, calculations would be made of surface runoff by soil scientists. Hydrologists would assist in examining sediment transport in overland flow. Physicists would contribute by assessing the changes in light transmission in the receiving waters. Biologists would analyze subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and fauna from increases in water turbidity. Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Regulations driving the studies

In the U.S. the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 set forth requirements for analysis of major projects in terms of specific environmental criteria. Numerous state laws have echoed these mandates, applying the principles to local scale actions. The upshot has been an explosion of documentation and study of environmental consequences before the fact of development actions. The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ...


One can examine the specifics of environmental science by reading examples of Environmental Impact Statements prepared under NEPA such as: Wastewater treatment expansion options discharging into the San Diego/Tiajuana Estuary, Expansion of the San Francisco International Airport, Development of the Houston, Metro Transportation system, Expansion of the metropolitan Boston MBTA transit system, and Construction of Interstate 66 through Arlington, Virginia. According to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) whenever the U.S. Federal Government takes a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment it must first consider the environmental impact in a document called an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). ... Tijuana is the largest city in the Mexican state of Baja California and the seat of the municipality of the same name. ... Rio de la Plata estuary Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Estuaries An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea[1]. Estuaries are often associated with high rates of... FAA diagram of SFO “SFO” redirects here. ... Houston redirects here. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Interstate 66 (abbreviated I-66) is an interstate highway in the eastern United States. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000...



In England and Wales the Environmental Agency[[1]](EA), (EA) formed in 1996 is the leading public body for protecting and improving the environment and enforces the regulations listed on the communities and local government site[[2]] (formerly the office of the deputy prime minister) which help drive the study environmental science in the UK. The Agency was set up under the Environment Act 1995 as an independent body and works closely with UK Government to enforce the regulations.


Terminology

One can distinguish between "environmental science" and "ecology", since the two fields embody different foci of investigation, although there is considerable overlap. Ecology and environmental science both focus on the interactions of populations of organisms with their environment (including parameters such as meteorology, environmental noise, water quality, air quality, and soil chemistry). A dissimilarity is that ecology is often concerned with issues of biodiversity and the distribution of organisms, while environmental science may address interactions of physical parameters that may not involve biological systems directly, but exert some influence on it. One can consider "ecology" as a basic sub-category to environmental science in analyzing biological systems, both on local and global scales. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image. ... Noise pollution, usually called environmental noise in technical venues, is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... Soil chemistry studies the chemical characteristics of soil. ...


See also

 v  d  e 
Fields within the natural sciences
Astronomy | Biology | Chemistry | Earth science | Physics

This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... The Association of Environmental Professionals (AEP) is a non-profit organization of interdisciplinary professionals including environmental science, resource management, environmental planning and other professions contributing to this field. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... The field of biogeochemistry involves scientific study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere), and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical... Logo of the CEEES The Confederation of European Environmental Engineering Societies (CEEES) was created as a co-operative international organization for information exchange regarding environmental engineering between the various European societies in this field. ... The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit (or, in Portuguese, Eco 92) was a major conference held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992. ... Ecological Sanitation One person produces about 500 litres of urine and only 50 litres of faeces per year. ... According to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) whenever the U.S. Federal Government takes a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment it must first consider the environmental impact in a document called an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). ... Environmental planning is a relatively new field of study that aims to merge the practice of urban planning with the concerns of environmentalism. ... Environmental studies is the systematic study of human interaction with their environment. ... This is a list of sdfsdfsdfsdfsdfẽsdto the anthropogenic effects on the natural environment. ... This is a list of environmental organizations, organizations that preserve, analyze or monitor the environment in different ways. ... Any piece of real estate can be the subject of a Phase I ESA. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment is a report prepared for a real estate holding which identifies specific environmental contamination liabilities. ... Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Environmental soil science is the study of the interaction of humans with the pedosphere as well as critical aspects of the biosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... Environmental economics is a subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues (other usages of the term are not uncommon). ... Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers the ethical relationship between human beings and the natural environment. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the fundamental laws of the Universe. ... Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. ... Sustainability is an attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the fundamental laws of the Universe. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Beychok, M.R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion, 4th Edition, author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2.  www.air-dispersion.com
  2. ^ Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling, 2nd Edition, CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X.  www.crcpress.com

  Results from FactBites:
 
Environmental science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (801 words)
Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related due to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development.
Environmental science encompasses issues such as climate change, conservation, biodiversity, groundwater and soil contamination, use of natural resources, waste management, sustainable development, and air pollution.
There are professional organizations that engender work in environmental science and aid in communication among the diverse sciences; the earliest known such organization, the Association of Environmental Professionals was founded in the United States; thereafter, a variety of other countries and states have formed such associations.
Encyclopedia4U - Environmental science - Encyclopedia Article (146 words)
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary science that relies heavily on the natural sciences.
Environmental science also relies on biology, ecology in particular.
The social sciences and economics are also major contributors to the field in that humans and their natural environment are interconnected in multiple ways.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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