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Encyclopedia > Environmental movement
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The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. Image File history File links Circle-question. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... It has been suggested that Greens be merged into this article or section. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ...


In general terms, environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources and stewardship of the natural environment through changes in public policy and individual behavior. Sustainability is an attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural environments both now and into the indefinite future. ... Look up stewardship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In its recognition of humanity as a participant in (not enemy of) ecosystems, the movement is centered around ecology, health, and human rights.


The environmental movement is represented by a range of organizations, from the large to grassroots. Due to its large membership, varying and strong beliefs, and occasionally speculative nature, the environmental movement is not always united in its goals. A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ...


At its broadest, the movement includes private citizens, professionals, religious devotees, politicians, and extremists. Environmentalists are also often linked with other social movements, such as human and animal rights and pacifism. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ...

Contents

History

The environmental history of the United States: The early conservation era was from 1832 to 1960. During the first years there were two early conservationist that made an impact, Henry David Thoreau and George Perkins Marsh. Thoreau was concerned about the wildlife from Massachusetts. He wrote Walden; or, Life in the Woods as he studied the wildlife from a cabin. George Perkins Marsh was influential about the need for resource conservation. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The roots of the modern environmental movement can be traced to attempts in nineteenth-century Europe and North America to expose the costs of environmental negligence, notably disease, as well as widespread air and water pollution, but only after the Second World War did a wider awareness begin to emerge.] It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


During the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, several events illustrated the magnitude of environmental damage caused by man. In 1954, the 23 man crew of the Japanese fishing vessel Lucky Dragon was exposed to radioactive fallout from a hydrogen bomb test at Bikini Atoll. In 1962 the publication of the book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson drew attention to the impact of chemicals on the natural environment. In 1967 the Torrey Canyon oil tanker went aground off the southwest coast of England, and in 1969 oil spilled from an offshore well in California's Santa Barbara Channel. In 1971 the conclusion of a law suit in Japan drew international attention to the effects of decades of mercury poisoning on the people of Minamata. This does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... Daigo FukuryÅ« Maru (第五福龍丸, Daigo FukuryÅ« Maru; loosely translated as Lucky Dragon No. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ... Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 — April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose landmark book, Silent Spring, is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement. ... The Torrey Canyon was the first of the big supertankers, capable of carrying a cargo of 120,000 tons of crude oil, and was wrecked off the western coast of Cornwall in 1967 causing an environmental disaster. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Looking south-southwest, across the Santa Barbara Channel; the Channel Islands are in the distance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mercury_toxicity. ... Minamata (水俣市; -shi) is a city located in Kumamoto, Japan. ...

Greenpeace protest in Brasília, Brazil.

At the same time, emerging scientific research drew new attention to existing and hypothetical threats to the environment and humanity. Among them were Paul R. Ehrlich, whose book The Population Bomb, published 1968, revived concerns about the impact of exponential population growth. Biologist Barry Commoner generated a debate about growth, affluence and "flawed technology." Additionally, an association of scientists and political leaders known as the Club of Rome published their report The Limits to Growth in 1972, and drew attention to the growing pressure on natural resources from human activities. Image:Greenpeace-Brasília. ... Image:Greenpeace-Brasília. ... Nickname: Location of Brasília Coordinates: Region Central-West State Distrito Federal Founded 21 April 1960 Government  - Administrator Ricardo Hernane Pires Area  - City 5,802 km²  (2,240. ... Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a Stanford University professor and a renowned entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies). ... The Population Bomb (1968) is a book written by Paul R. Ehrlich. ... Barry Commoner (born May 28, 1917) was an American biologist and college professor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Limits to Growth was a 1972 book modeling the consequences of a rapidly growing global population, commissioned by the Club of Rome. ...


Meanwhile, nuclear proliferation and photos of Earth from space emphasized the consequences of technological accomplishments, as well as Earth's truly small place in the universe. World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer-Earth objects and generally anything that involves the technologies, science, and politics regarding space endeavors. ...


In 1972, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm, and for the first time united the representatives of multiple governments in discussion relating to the state of the global environment. This conference led directly the creation of government environment agencies and the UN Environment Program. The United States also passed new legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act- the foundations for current environmental standards. An international conference held in Stockholm Sweden, in June 1972, to discuss new understandings and concerns about the state of the global environment. ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Â§ 1251, et seq. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ...


Love Canal

In 1978, a major environmental catastrophe at Love Canal, New York led to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) commonly called the "Superfund Act." Love Canal (1981) Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, located at (43. ... NY redirects here. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11...


In the Love Canal incident, the local school board purchased land near Hooker Chemical's toxic burial site for $1 and constructed a new elementary school. In 1978, resident Lois Gibbs led an effort to investigate community concerns about the health of its residents. Neighborhood residents had observed strange odors and substances in the area, an extremely high rate of cancer, and an alarming number of birth defects. Gibbs' own children were hospitalized regularly for epilepsy, asthma, and urinary tract infections. Lois Gibbs (born 1952) is an environmental activist whose involvement in environmental causes began in 1978, when she discovered that her 7-year-old sons elementary school in Niagara Falls, New York was built on a toxic waste dump. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ...


Because nobody was willing to pay for a solution to the problem, Ms. Gibbs struggled to gain attention until President Jimmy Carter announced a federal emergency. However, scarcity of government funds allowed for only residents nearest to the contaminated area be evacuated. James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ...


Later, when more money was secured, the government relocated and reimbursed more than 800 families. More than $200 million was used to clean up the site, and Congress passed the Superfund Act, which holds polluters accountable for misdeeds. So-called superfund sites are widespread in the United States, and are documented on a website run by the EPA [1]. Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... EPA redirects here. ...


Since the 1970s, public awareness, environmental sciences, ecology, and technology have advanced to include modern focus points like ozone depletion, global climate change, acid rain, and the harmful potential of GMOs. Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Ozone generator be merged into this article or section. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... The term acid rain also known as acid precipitation is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, dew, or dry particles. ... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ...


Scope of the movement

Biological studies

  • Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment;
  • Ecology, or ecological science, is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how these properties are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.

Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Primary focus points

  • The environmental movement is broad in scope and can include any topic related to the environment, conservation, and biology, as well as preservation of landscapes, flora, and fauna for a variety of purposes and uses. See List of environmental issues
  • The Conservation movement seeks to protect natural areas for sustainable consumption, as well as traditional (hunting, fishing, trapping) and spiritual use.

This is a list of environmental issues. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ...

Other focus points

  • Environmental health movement dates at least to Progressive Era, and focuses on urban standards like clean water, efficient sewage handling, and stable population growth. Environmental health could also deal with nutrition, preventive medicine, aging, and other concerns specific to human well-being. Environmental health is also seen as an indicator for the state of the natural environment, or an early warning system for what may happen to humans.
  • Environmental Justice is a movement that began in the U.S. in the 1980s and seeks an end to environmental racism and prevent low-income and minority communities from an unbalanced exposure to highways, garbage dumps, and factories. The Environmental Justice movement seeks to link "social" and "ecological" environmental concerns, while at the same time preventing de facto racism, and classism.
  • Ecology movement could involve the Gaia Theory, as well as Value of Earth and other interactions between humans, science, and responsibility.
  • Deep Ecology is often considered to be a spiritual spinoff of the ecology movement.
  • Bright green environmentalism is a currently popular sub-movement, which emphasizes the idea that through technology, good design and more thoughtful use of energy and resources, people can live responsible, sustainable lives while enjoying prosperity.

Environmental health comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, chemical, biological, social, and psychosocial factors in the natural environment. ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1920s. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption. ... A 1930 Soviet poster propagating breast care. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Environmental justice Environmental justice (EJ) is a holistic effort to analyze and overcome the power structures that have traditionally thwarted environmental reforms. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The global ecology movement is one of several new social movements that emerged at the end of the sixties; as a values-driven social movement, it should be distinguished from the pre-existing science of ecology. ... The Gaia hypothesis, a hypothesis put forward to explain a number of paradoxes about life and the earth was first formulated in the 1960s, by the independent research scientist James Lovelock. ... In economics, value of Earth is the ultimate in ecosystem valuation, and important to value of life calculations. ... Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ... The term bright green has emerged in the past few years to refer to a subcategory of environmentalism, distinguishing it from traditional forms. ...

Environmental law and theory

Property rights

Many environmental lawsuits question the legal rights of property owners, and whether the general public has a right to intervene with detrimental practices occurring on someone else's land. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Citizens' rights

One of the earliest lawsuits to establish that citizens may sue for environmental and aesthetic harms was Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference v. Federal Power Commission, decided in 1965 by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals. The case helped halt the construction of a power plant on Storm King Mountain in New York State. See also United States environmental law and David Sive, an attorney who was involved in the case. Storm King Mountain is along the west bank of the Hudson River south of Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York, USA. Its distinctive curved ridge is the most prominent aspect of the view south down Newburgh Bay, from Newburgh, Beacon and the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... David Sive is an attorney, environmentalist, and professor of environmental law, who has been recognized as a pioneer in the field of United States environmental law, and is credited with helping create the field of environmental law. ...


"Nature's rights"

Christopher D. Stone's 1972 essay, "Should trees have standing?" addressed the question of whether natural objects themselves should have legal rights. In the essay, Stone suggests that his argument is valid because many current rights-holders (women, children) were once seen as objects. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Environmental reactivism

Not In My Backyard (NIMBY) and NIMBY syndrome

Numerous criticisms and ethical ambiguities have led to growing concerns about technology, including the use of potentially-harmful pesticides, water additives like fluoride, and the extremely dangerous ethanol-processing plants. A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


NIMBY syndrome refers to public outcry caused by knee-jerk reaction to an unwillingness to be exposed to even necessary developments. Some serious biologists and ecologists created the scientific ecology movement which would not confuse empirical data with visions of a desirable future world. NIMBY (an acronym of Not In My Back Yard) describes the phenomenon in which residents oppose a development as inappropriate for their local area, but by implication do not oppose such development in anothers. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The global ecology movement is one of several new social movements that emerged at the end of the sixties; as a values-driven social movement, it should be distinguished from the pre-existing science of ecology. ...


Modern environmentalism

Today, the sciences of ecology and environmental science, rather than any aesthetic goals, provide the basis of unity to most serious environmentalists. As more information is gathered in scientific fields, more scientific issues like biodiversity, as opposed to mere aesthetics, are a concern. Conservation biology is rapidly-developing field. Environmentalism now has proponents in business: new ventures such as those to reuse and recycle technical equipment are becoming more and more popular. Computer liquidators are just one example. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A computer liquidator buys computer technology and related equipment that is no longer required by one company, and resells (flips) it to another company. ...


Criticisms of the environmental movement

Skeptics believe that environmentalism is more deeply rooted in politics than science, citing an uneasiness about compromising capitalistic ideals, or a sacrifice of a comfortable lifestyle. These concerns are often made valid by extremists associated with the movement who overshadow real accomplishments and scientific findings.


One recent critic is the American author Michael Crichton, who appeared before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works to address concerns illustrated in his novel that questions the existence of the global climate crisis. Michael Crichton (born October 23, 1942, pronounced [1]) is an American author, film producer, film director, and television producer. ... The United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works is responsible for dealing with matters related to the environment and infrastructure. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected...


Michael Crichton recommended use of double-blind experimentation in environmental research, which is a standard in medicine and many other scientific fields. However it is not possible to apply this method universally in science, especially at larger scales of time and space; for example the study of the solar system, or evolutionary biology. The double blind is ray charles is ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesof the scientific method, used to prevent research...


A consistent theme acknowledged by both supporters and critics is that scientists are constantly learning more about nature's complexities, and that the environmental debate deals with many points of view.


Environmental studies are also criticized for the reliance on recent data to define long-term environmental trends. Because of this, many environmentalists support the precautionary principle, or to err on the side of caution when making public policy. This conjecture, however, is precisely what makes skeptics nervous. The precautionary principle is a moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the...


See also

In alphabetical order:

The term bright green has emerged in the past few years to refer to a subcategory of environmentalism, distinguishing it from traditional forms. ... The Department for the Environment (Formerly the Department of Environmental Protection) was West Australias environmental agency. ... Eco-anarchism argues that small eco-villages (of no more than a few hundred people) are a scale of human living preferable to civilization, and that infrastructure and political systems should be re-organized to ensure that these are created. ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Nef pour quatorze reines by Rose-Marie Goulet, a memorial to the École Polytechnique Massacre, featuring sculptural elements integrated into a specially landscaped site Site specific art, also environmental art, is artwork created to exist in a certain place. ... Environmental journalism is the collection, verification, production, distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events, trends, issues and people that are associated with the non-human world with which humans necessarily interact. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... Free market environmentalism is an theory that argues the free market is the best tool to preserve the health and sustainability of the environment. ... This is a list of environmental organizations, organizations that preserve, analyze or monitor the environment in different ways. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Environmental skepticism is an umbrella term that describes those that believe certain claims put forward by environmentalists, particularly some of the more alarming claims, are exaggerated to some degree. ... Environmentalism is activism aimed at improving the environment, particularly nature. ... Green anarchism is a set of related political theories that is derived from philosophical and social movements such as social ecologists, feminism, egoism, situationism, surrealism, the Luddites, Anarcho-primitivism, post- and anti-leftists, indigenous, anti-industrialism, and pre-civilized people. ... It has been suggested that Greens be merged into this article or section. ... Since the 1980s, self-styled Green Scouts have appeared in several countries, related to the protection of the environment and in some cases linked to Greens Parties. ... Green syndicalism has been used as a name for the philosophy of the green guild or sustainable trades movement. ... Political ecology is an umbrella term for a variety of projects that involve politics and the environment. ... Some environmentalists take the position that traditional methods of social change like political lobbying, public awareness campaigns, and the like are insufficient for achieving necessary changes in the relationship between humans and the environment. ... Reconciliation Ecology is the concept of accomodating biodiversity within human landscapes. ... Roadless area conservation is an conservation-related term that refers to the prohibition of road construction in wilderness areas. ... Sea Shepherd flag flying on the Farley Mowat. ... Sustainable development is defined by its proponents as balancing the fulfillment of human needs with the protection of the natural environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... Technogaianism (a portmanteau word combining techno for technology and Gaia for the Earth Mother of Greek mythology) is the stance that advanced technology can help restore Earths environment, and that developing such technology should therefore be an important goal of environmentalists. ... The timeline of environmental events is a historical account of events that have shaped humanitys perspective on the environment. ...

Regional environmental movements

1970s US postage stamp block // History In North America, early figures in the Conservation movement were Johnny Appleseed Chapman, Chief Seattle, and Henry David Thoreau in the U.S. and Grey Owl in Canada. ... The earliest major environmental issue in New Zealand was the prospect of raising the level of Lake Manapouri for a hydro-electricity scheme. ...

Notes and references

  • John McCormick, The Global Environmental Movement, London: John Wiley, 1995
  • Sheldon Kamieniecki, editor, Environmental Politics in the International Arena: Movements, Parties, Organizations, and Policy, Albany: State Univerisity of New York Press, 1993, ISBN 0-7914-1664-X
  • Philip Shabecoff, A Fierce Green Fire: The American Environmental Movement, Island Press; Revised Edition, 2003, ISBN 1559634375
  • Paul Wapner, Environmental Activism and World Civil Politics, Albany: State University of New York, 1996, ISBN 0-7914-2790-0

  Results from FactBites:
 
Environmentalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (995 words)
Environmentalism is the advocation of preservation, restoration, or improvement of the natural environment, such as the control of pollution.
The Environmental Movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement.
The movement is represented by a range of organizations, from the large to grassroots.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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