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Encyclopedia > Environmental engineering

Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. Tornadoes kill people. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ...


Environmental engineering involves water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects. Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... Waste management is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Environmental engineering law, as first defined by Stephen R. Muschiano, MSCEE, JD, P.E. of the State of Rhode Island of the United States, is a growing profession that requires an expertise in both environmental engineering and law. ...


Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies to evaluate the significance of the such hazards, advise on treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. Environmental engineers also design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems[3][4] as well as being concerned with local and worldwide environmental issues such as the effects of acid rain, ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial sources.[5][6] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ... The term acid rain or more accurately acid precipitation is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, dew, or dry particles. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... Vehicle emissions inspection station Automobile emissions control covers all the technologies that are employed to reduce the air pollution-causing emissions produced by automobiles. ... The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1968. ...

Contents

Educational licensing requirements

To become an environmental engineer, at least a Bachelor's degree in engineering (usually civil or chemical, and more frequently environmental engineering) is required, usually followed by specialized training at the Master's or Doctoral level. Additionally, engineers are more frequently obtaining specialized training in law (J.D.) and are utilizing their technical expertise in the practice of Environmental engineering law.[citation needed] A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ... J.D. redirects here; for alternate uses, see J.D. (disambiguation) J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called a Doctor of Law or Doctorate of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years... Environmental engineering law, as first defined by Stephen R. Muschiano, MSCEE, JD, P.E. of the State of Rhode Island of the United States, is a growing profession that requires an expertise in both environmental engineering and law. ...


Most jurisdictions also impose licensing and registration requirements.


Development of environmental engineering

Ever since people first recognized that their health and well-being were related to the quality of their environment, they have applied thoughtful principles to attempt to improve the quality of their environment. The Romans constructed aqueducts to prevent drought and to create a clean, healthful water supply for the metropolis of Rome. In the 15th century, Bavaria created laws restricting the development and degradation of alpine country that constituted the region's water supply. For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


Modern environmental engineering began in London in the mid-19th century when it was realized that proper sewerage could reduce the incidence of waterborne diseases such as cholera. The introduction of drinking water treatment and sewage treatment in industrialized countries reduced waterborne diseases from leading causes of death to rarities. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Urban areas require some methods for collection and disposal of sewage. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


In many cases, as societies grew, actions that were intended to achieve benefits for those societies had longer-term impacts which reduced other environmental qualities. One example is the widespread application of DDT to control agricultural pests in the years following World War II. While the agricultural benefits were outstanding and crop yields increased dramatically, thus reducing world hunger substantially, and malaria was controlled better than it ever had been, numerous species were brought to the verge of extinction due to the impact of the DDT on their reproductive cycles. The story of DDT as vividly told in Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" is considered to be the birth of the modern environmental movement and the development of the modern field of "environmental engineering." DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 — April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose landmark book, Silent Spring, is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement. ... Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ...


Conservation movements and laws restricting public actions that would harm the environment have been developed by various societies for millennia. Notable examples are the laws decreeing the construction of sewers in London and Paris in the 19th century and the creation of the U.S. national park system in the early 20th century. The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Briefly speaking, the main task of environmental engineering is to protect (from further degradation), preserve (the present condition), and enhance (the environment).


Scope of environmental engineering

Pollutants may be chemical, biological, thermal, radioactive, or even mechanical. Environmental engineering emphasizes several areas: process engineering, environmental chemistry, water and sewage treatment (sanitary engineering), waste reduction/management, and pollution prevention/cleanup. Environmental engineering is a synthesis of various disciplines, incorporating elements from the following: Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ... “Process engineering is about applying engineering approaches, techniques, and tools to the construction of Process Models. ... Environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places. ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ...

Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to the environment. Some consider environmental engineering to include the development of sustainable processes. There are several divisions of the field of environmental engineering. The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Environmental impact assessment and mitigation

It is a decision making tool. In this division, engineers and scientists assess the impacts of a proposed project on environmental conditions. They apply scientific and engineering principles to evaluate if there are likely to be any adverse impacts to water quality, air quality, habitat quality, flora and fauna, agricultural capacity, traffic impacts, social impacts, ecological impacts, noise impacts, visual(landscape) impacts, etc. If impacts are expected, they then develop mitigation measures to limit or prevent such impacts. An example of a mitigation measure would be the creation of wetlands in a nearby location to mitigate the filling in of wetlands necessary for a road development if it is not possible to reroute the road. Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ...


Water supply and treatment

Engineers and scientists work to secure water supplies for potable and agricultural use. They evaluate the water balance within a watershed and determine the available water supply, the water needed for various needs in that watershed, the seasonal cycles of water movement through the watershed and they develop systems to store, treat, and convey water for various uses. Water is treated to achieve water quality objectives for the end uses. In the case of potable water supply, water is treated to minimize risk of infectious disease transmittal, risk of non-infectious illness, and create a palatable water flavor. Water distribution systems are designed and built to provide adequate water pressure and flow rates to meet various end-user needs such as domestic use, fire suppression, and irrigation. A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ...


Wastewater conveyance and treatment

Water pollution
Water pollution

Most urban and many rural areas no longer discharge human waste directly to the land through outhouse, septic, and/or honey bucket systems, but rather deposit such waste into water and convey it from households via sewer systems. Engineers and scientists develop collection and treatment systems to carry this waste material away from where people live and produce the waste and discharge it into the environment. In developed countries, substantial resources are applied to the treatment and detoxification of this waste before it is discharged into a river, lake, or ocean system. Developing nations are striving to obtain the resources to develop such systems so that they can improve water quality in their surface waters and reduce the risk of water-borne infectious disease. water pollution, from epa. ... water pollution, from epa. ... Outhouse near Crabapple Lake, USA, with chipboard walls, and a fiberglass ceiling This article refers to an outhouse, privy or kybo that is an old type of toilet in a small structure separate from the main building which does not have a flush or sewer attached. ... A septic tank, the key component of a septic system, is a small scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewerage pipes provided by private corporations or local governments. ... A honey bucket is the bucket that is used in place of a flush toilet in communities that lack wastewater treatment. ... A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... Detox, short for detoxification, in general is the removal of toxic substances. ...

There are numerous wastewater treatment technologies. A wastewater treatment train can consist of a primary clarifier system to remove solid and floating materials, a secondary treatment system consisting of an aeration basin followed by flocculation and sedimentation or an activated sludge system and a secondary clarifier, a tertiary biological nitrogen removal system, and a final disinfection process. The aeration basin/activated sludge system removes organic material by growing bacteria (activated sludge). The secondary clarifier removes the activated sludge from the water. The tertiary system, although not always included due to costs, is becoming more prevalent to remove nitrogen and phosphorus and to disinfect the water before discharge to a surface water stream or ocean outfall. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 470 KB) Wonga Wetlands Sewage Plant File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sewage treatment Categories: ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 470 KB) Wonga Wetlands Sewage Plant File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sewage treatment Categories: ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ... Aeration is the process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid (usually water) or substance (such as soil). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Settling is the process by which particulates settle to the bottom of a liquid and form a sediment. ... Activated sludge is a process in sewage treatment in which air or oxygen is forced into sewage liquor to develop a biological floc which reduces the organic content of the sewage. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Disinfection is the destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means. ... General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ...


Air quality management

Industrial air pollution source
Industrial air pollution source

Engineers apply scientific and engineering principles to the design of manufacturing and combustion processes to reduce air pollutant emissions to acceptable levels. Scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, catalytic converters, and various processes are utilized to remove particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), reactive organic gases (ROG) and other air pollutants from flue gases and other sources prior to allowing their emission to the atmosphere. Image File history File links AirPollutionSource. ... Image File history File links AirPollutionSource. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ... Look up emission in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word scrubber can mean:- The part of a rebreather breathing set which absorbs the carbon dioxide which the individual using the breathing set breathes out. ... An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapour pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. ... Flue gas is gas that exits to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator. ... Air pollution dispersion terminology describes the words and technical terms that have a special meaning to those who work in the field of air pollution dispersion modeling. ...


Scientists have developed air pollution dispersion models to evaluate the concentration of a pollutant at a receptor or the impact on overall air quality from vehicle exhausts and industrial flue gas stack emissions. Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Exhaust pipe of a car An exhaust pipe is usually tubing used to guide waste exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. ... Flue gas stack at GRES-2 Power Plant in Ekibastus, Kazakhstan is 420 meters tall[1] A flue gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. ...


To some extent, this field overlaps the desire to decrease carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions from combustion processes. In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Other applications

In town planning, brownfield land is an area of land previously used or built upon, as opposed to industry or mining and therefore may be contaminated by hazardous waste or pollution. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... Risk assessment is a step in the risk management process. ... Environmental policy refers to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues and sustainability. ... This article describes hazardous waste as a substance; for the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal see Basel Convention Put simply, a Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and generally exhibits one... Environmental health is the branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health. ... Warning signs, such as this one, can improve safety awareness. ... Environmental Noise is unwanted sound, which may cause both nuisance and damage to health. ...

See also

The Association of Environmental Professionals (AEP) is a non-profit organization of interdisciplinary professionals including environmental science, resource management, environmental planning and other professions contributing to this field. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using living material to filter or chemically process pollutants. ... Ecological Sanitation One person produces about 500 litres of urine and only 50 litres of faeces per year. ... Environmental engineering law, as first defined by Stephen R. Muschiano, MSCEE, JD, P.E. of the State of Rhode Island of the United States, is a growing profession that requires an expertise in both environmental engineering and law. ... Engineering Geology is the application of the science of geology to the understanding of geologic phenomena and the engineering solution of geologic hazards and other geologic problems for society. ... Environmental design is the process of addressing environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. ... Started at Winter Semester 1999/00, the main aim is to create a medium(see Fachhochschule Lübeck) for the next generation in Lübeck City to understand and explore the Environmental awareness in Environmental Protection and Environmental Management, and also to provide a strong education background and constructive knowledge... Environmental restoration is a term common in the citizens’ environmental movement. ... Environmental studies is the systematic study of human interaction with their environment. ... Hydraulic engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Water quality modelling involves the prediction of water pollution using mathematical simulation techniques. ...

External links

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Environmental engineering at:

Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ...

References

  1. ^ Danny D. Reible (1998). Fundamentals of Environmental Engineering. CRC Publishers. ISBN 1-56670-047-7. 
  2. ^ James R. Mihelcic, Martin T. Auer, and others (1999). Fundamentals of Environmental Engineering. John Wiley. ISBN 0-471-24313-2. 
  3. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants, 1st Edition, John Wiley & Sons. LCCN 67019834. 
  4. ^ Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L., and Stensel, H.D. (2003). Wastewater Engineering (Treatment Disposal Reuse) / Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 0-07-041878-0. 
  5. ^ Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling, 2nd Edition, CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X.  www.crcpress.com
  6. ^ Beychok, M.R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion, 4th Edition, author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2.  www.air-dispersion.com

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