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Encyclopedia > Environmental Protection Agency
EPA redirects here. For the omega-3 fatty acid, see Eicosapentaenoic acid. For the city, see East Palo Alto, California. For Electrostatic Protected Areas, see Electrostatic discharge.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the United States federal government charged with protecting human health and with safeguarding the natural environment: air, water, and land. The EPA began operation on December 2, 1970. It is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the President of the United States. The EPA is not a Cabinet agency, but the Administrator is normally given cabinet rank. The current Administrator (as of 2005) is Stephen L. Johnson. Download high resolution version (825x899, 628 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Environmental Protection Agency Image:Rotavirus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Eicosapentaenoic acid (more commonly known as EPA; C20H30O2, all-cis-fatty acid 20:5 omega-3) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that acts as a precursor for prostaglandin-3, which inhibits platelet aggregation) and thromboxane-3 groups. ... East Palo Alto (often called EPA) is a city located in San Mateo County, California, United States. ... An electrostatic discharge (ESD) is an electric current driven by the excess electric charge stored on an insulating object. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... Natural is defined as of or relating to nature; this applies to both definitions of nature: essence (ones true nature) and the untouched world (force of nature). Natural is often used meaning good, healthy, or belonging to human nature. This use can be questioned, as many freely growing plants... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency is the head of the United States federal governments Environmental Protection Agency, and is thus responsible for enforcing the nations Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, as well as numerous other environmental statutes. ... The President of the United States (unofficially abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state of the United States. ... Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen L. Johnson Stephen L. Johnson (born March 21, 1951 in Washington D.C) is an American career civil servant. ...

Contents


Overview

The EPA comprises 18,000 people in headquarters program offices, 10 regional offices, and 17 labs across the country. The EPA employs a highly educated, technically trained staff, more than half of whom are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists. A large number of employees are legal, public affairs, financial, and computer specialists.


The EPA provides leadership in the nation's environmental science, research, education, and assessment efforts. The EPA works closely with other federal agencies, state and local governments, and Native American tribes to develop and enforce regulations under existing environmental laws. The EPA is responsible for researching and setting national standards for a variety of environmental programs and delegates to states and tribes responsibility for issuing permits, and monitoring and enforcing compliance. Where national standards are not met, the EPA can issue sanctions and take other steps to assist the states and tribes in reaching the desired levels of environmental quality. The Agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. Sanction is an interesting word, in that, depending on context, it can have diametrically opposing meanings. ...


In July of 1970, the law that established the EPA was passed in response to the growing public demand for cleaner water, air and land. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the federal government was not structured to make a coordinated attack on the pollutants which harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment and to establish new criteria to guide Americans in making a cleaner environment a reality.


In 1992 the EPA launched the Energy Star program. EPA also administers the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (which is much older than the agency) and registers all pesticides legally sold in the United States. It is also responsible for reviewing projects of other federal agencies' Environmental Impact Statements under NEPA. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Energy Star logo is placed on energy-efficient products Energy Star is a United States government program to promote energy efficient consumer products. ...


Fuel economy

American automobile manufacturers are required to use EPA fuel economy test results to advertise the gas mileage of their vehicles, and the manufacturers are disallowed from providing results from alternate sources. However, the tests have been questioned, because they do not measure actual fuel consumption but rather base measurements on tailpipe emissions. As emissions standards have become more strict, the test has drifted away from actual vehicle performance. The EPA's current testing system was developed in 1972. It apparently takes little to no consideration of carbon dioxide as it is not a regulated part of motor vehicle exhaust in the United States, even though it is the primary component. A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... An exhaust pipe is usually a pipe used to guide waste exhaust gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. ... Emission standards limit the amount of pollution that can be released into the atmosphere. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas comprised of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...


In the 1980s, an EPA study showed that customers were obtaining significantly lower mileage than the EPA rating. The agency correspondingly reduced advertised city mileage by 10% and highway mileage by 22%, but there continue to be significant differences. As of the 2000s decade, this problem is most evident in hybrid vehicles, which sometimes produce zero emissions (when running on batteries). The 1980s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1980 and 1989. ... Saddam Hussein shortly after his capture Major controversy over U. S. presidential election (November 7-December 13, 2000) September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on New Yorks World Trade Center and Virginias Pentagon killing almost 3000 people. ... Honda Insight, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle 2004 Toyota Prius, a hybrid gas-electric vehicle A hybrid vehicle uses multiple propulsion systems to provide motive power. ... Four double-A (AA) rechargable batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ...


In February 2005, the organization launched a program called "Your MPG" that allows drivers to add real-world fuel economy statistics into a database on the EPA's fuel economy website and compare them with others and the original EPA test results. 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Ongoing events • Iraqi legislative election • Bill C-38 (Canada gay marriage) • Tsunami relief Upcoming events • March 11: Red Nose Day 2005 in the UK. Deaths in February • 26 – Jef Raskin • 25 – Hugh Nibley • 25 – Peter Benenson • 21... The front page of the English Wikipedia Web site. ...


Related legislation

The legislation here is general environmental protection legislation, and may also apply to other units of the government, including the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture. The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a Cabinet department of the United States government that manages and conserves most federally-owned land. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ...


Air

1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Clean Air Act may be one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to reduction of smog and atmospheric pollution in general. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... The Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act is an amendment to the Clean Air Act. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970 is a United States environmental law that requires the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and enforce regulations to protect the general public from exposure to airborne contaminants that are known to be hazardous to human health. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is a United States law, passed in 1976, that regulates the introduction of new chemicals. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... This article is about the year. ... The 1990 Clean Air Act is a piece of U.S. legislation relating to the reduction of smog and atmospheric pollution. ...

Water

1948 (MCMXLVIII) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... The Safe Drinking Water Act was an act passed by Congress on December 16, 1974. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is a United States law, passed in 1976, that regulates the introduction of new chemicals. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The United States Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, 33 U.S.C.A. §1251 et seq. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Land

For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ... The Wilderness Act of 1964 (Public Law 88-577) created the legal definiton of wilderness in the United States, and protected some 9 million acres (37,000 km²) of federal land. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Wilderness Act of 1964 (Public Law 88-577) created the legal definiton of wilderness in the United States, and protected some 9 million acres (37,000 km²) of federal land. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The Wilderness Act of 1964 (Public Law 88-577) created the legal definiton of wilderness in the United States, and protected some 9 million acres (37,000 km²) of federal land. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...

Endangered species

  • 1946 - Coordination Act PL 79-732
  • 1966 - Endangered Species Preservation Act PL 89-669
  • 1969 - Endangered Species Conservation Act PL 91-135
  • 1972 - Marine Mammal Protection Act PL 92-522
  • 1973 - Endangered Species Act PL 93-205

1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Endangered Species Act (7 U.S.C. 136; 16 U.S.C. 460 et seq. ...

Hazardous waste

1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), enacted in 1976, is a Federal law of the United States contained in 42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992k. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site CERCLA is an acronym for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675 (commonly known as the Superfund), which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11, 1980 in response to the Love Canal... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... On January 11, 2002, President George W. Bush signed the Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act (Pub . ...

Controversy

The EPA has been involved in controversy since its inception. Many legislators protested that there was no constitutional authority for its creation and operation. Virtually every rule-making of the agency is controversial, with proponants of a particular rule valuing the potential improvements to environmental quality, and opponents challenging the value or legality or the rule.


The EPA has been involved in allegedly improper practices, during the Bush administration which was in power from 2001 to the present. EPA reports have allegedly been modified and distorted or politically-timed, and political influence has been alleged, but not proven, to be a factor in many cases. Politcal inluence on EPA activities has also been charged in previous administrations. The Bush administration is a group of people that includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


Cornell University and the Union of Concerned Scientists found in a non-scientific survey of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service that about 42 percent of scientists said they "felt pressured to not report publicly any findings that do not agree with Bush policies on endangered species" and almost a third said they felt pressured not to even express views within the agency. Cornell University is a leading research university based in Ithaca, New York. ... The Union of Concerned Scientists as defined on the UCS website: The Union of Concerned Scientists is a nonprofit partnership of scientists and citizens combining rigorous scientific analysis, innovative policy development, and effective citizen advocacy to achieve practical environmental solutions. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ...

[1]Scientists take aim at White House, MSNBC, February 20, 2005

February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Mercury Emissions

In March of 2005, 9 states, California, New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut, New Mexico and Vermont, sued the EPA. The EPA's inspector general had determined that the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions did not follow the Clean Air Act, and that the regulations were influenced by top political appointees.[2][3] The EPA had suppressed a study it commissioned by Harvard University which contradicted its position on mercury controls[4]. The suit alleged (alleges) that the EPA's rule allowing exemption from "maximum available control technology" was illegal, and additionally charged that the EPA's system of pollution credit trading allows power plants to forego reducing mercury emissions.[5] 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 200. ... A Clean Air Act may be one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to reduction of smog and atmospheric pollution in general. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ...

^ Proposed Mercury Rules Bear Industry Mark, Washington Post, January 31, 2004
^ EPA Inspector Finds Mercury Proposal Tainted, Washington Post, February 4, 2005
^ New EPA Mercury Rule Omits Conflicting Data, Washington Post, March 22, 2005
^ States Sue EPA Over Mercury Emissions, LA Times, March 30, 2005

9/11 Air Ratings

EPA's 9/11 Air Ratings Distorted, Report Says, LA Times, August 23, 2003


Global Warming

Bush covers up climate research, Guardian Unlimited, September 21, 2003

A memo revealed Philip Cooney, chief of staff for the White House Council on Environmental Quality, had edited climate change documents though he was unqualified to do so.^  Cooney resigned two days after the memo released, coincidentally, as Cooney said he had planned to resign for over two years. He said he resigned to "spend time with his family,"^  but just one week later he took a job at Exxon Mobil.^  Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ...

[6]U.S. Official Edited Warming, Emission Link - Report, Reuters, June 8, 2005
[7]White House Official Resigns After Climate Documents Flap, Agence France Presse, June 12, 2005
[8]Ex-White House environment official joins Exxon, Reuters, June 15, 2005

Fuel Economy

In July of 2005, an EPA report showing that auto companies were using loopholes to produce less fuel-efficient cars was delayed. The report was supposed to be released the day before a controversial energy bill was passed and would have provided backup for those opposed to it, but at the last minute the EPA delayed its release.^ 

[9]E.P.A. Holds Back Report on Car Fuel Efficiency, New York Times, July 28, 2005

EPA regional offices

Each EPA regional office is responsible within its states for the execution of the Agency's programs.


Region 1 - responsible within the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. State nickname: The Constitution State Other U.S. States Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Governor M. Jodi Rell (R) Senators Chris Dodd (D) Joe Lieberman (D) Official language(s) English Area 14,371 km² (48th)  - Land 12,559 km²  - Water 1,809 km² (12. ... State nickname: The Pine Tree State Other U.S. States Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci (D) Senators Olympia Snowe (R) Susan Collins (R) Official language(s) None Area 86,542 km² (39th)  - Land 80,005 km²  - Water 11,724 km² (13. ... State nickname: Bay State Other U.S. States Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney (R) Senators Edward Kennedy (D) John Kerry (D) Official language(s) English Area 27,360 km² (44th)  - Land 20,317 km²  - Water 7,043 km² (25. ... State nickname: The Granite State Other U.S. States Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Governor John Lynch (D) Senators Judd Gregg (R) John Sununu (R) Official languages English Area 24,239 km² (46th)  - Land 23,249 km²  - Water 814 km² (3. ... State nickname: The Ocean State, Little Rhody Other U.S. States Capital Providence Largest city Providence Governor Donald Carcieri (R) Senators Jack Reed (D) Lincoln Chafee (R) Official language(s) None Area 4,005 km² (50th)  - Land 2,709 km²  - Water 1,296 km² (32. ... State nickname: The Green Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Governor Jim Douglas (R) Senators Patrick Leahy (D) Jim Jeffords (I) Official language(s) None Area 24,923 km² (43th)  - Land 23,974 km²  - Water 949 km² (3. ...


Region 2 - responsible within the states of New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. State nickname: The Garden State Other U.S. States Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey (D) Acting, Outgoing Jon Corzine (D) (Governor-Elect) Senators Jon Corzine (D) (Outgoing) Frank Lautenberg (D) Official language(s) None defined Area 22,608 km² (47th)  - Land 19,231 km²  - Water 3,378... State nickname: The Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Rodham Clinton (D) Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² or 54,556 square miles (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water...


Region 3 - responsible within the states of Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. State nickname: The First State Other U.S. States Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Governor Ruth Ann Minner (D) Senators Joe Biden (D) Thomas Carper (D) Official language(s) None Area 6,452 km² (49th)  - Land 5,068 km²  - Water 1,387 km² (21. ... State nickname: Old Line State; Free State Other U.S. States Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Governor Robert L. Ehrlich (R) Senators Paul Sarbanes (D) Barbara Mikulski (D) Official language(s) English Area 32,160 km² (42nd)  - Land 25,338 km²  - Water 6,968 km² (21%) Population (2000)  - Population 5... State nickname: The Keystone State Other U.S. States Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell (D) Senators Arlen Specter (R) Rick Santorum (R) Official language(s) None Area 119,283 km² (33rd)  - Land 116,074 km²  - Water 3,208 km² (2. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Tim Kaine (D-Governor Elect) Senators John Warner (R) George Allen (R) Official language(s) English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... State nickname: Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Governor Joe Manchin (D) Senators Robert Byrd (D) Jay Rockefeller (D) Official languages English Area 62,809 km² (41st)  - Land 62,436 km²  - Water 376 km² (0. ... ...


Region 4 - responsible within the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. State nickname: Camellia State, The Heart of Dixie¹, Yellowhammer State Other U.S. States Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Governor Bob Riley (R) Senators Richard Shelby (R) Jeff Sessions (R) Official language(s) English Area 52,423 mi²/135,775 km² (30th)  - Land 50,750 mi²/131,442 km²  - Water... State nickname: Sunshine State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville (largest metropolitan area is Miami) Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Official language(s) English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ... State nickname: Bluegrass State Other U.S. States Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Governor Ernie Fletcher (R) Senators Mitch McConnell (R) Jim Bunning (R) Official languages English Area 104,749 km² (37th)  - Land 102,989 km²  - Water 1,760 km² (1. ... State nickname: Magnolia State Other U.S. States Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Governor Haley Barbour (R) Senators Thad Cochran (R) Trent Lott (R) Official language(s) English Area 125,546 km² (32nd)  - Land 121,606 km²  - Water 3,940 km² (3%) Population (2000)  - Population 2,697,243 (31st)  - Density... State nickname: Tar Heel State; Old North State Other U.S. States Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Governor Michael Easley (D) Senators Elizabeth Dole (R) Richard Burr (R) Official language(s) English Area 139,509 km² (28th)  - Land 126,256 km²  - Water 13,227 km² (9. ... State nickname: Palmetto State Other U.S. States Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford (R) Senators Lindsey Graham (R) Jim DeMint (R) Official language(s) English Area 82,965 km² (40th)  - Land 78,051 km²  - Water 4,915 km² (6%) Population (2000)  - Population 4,012,012 (26th)  - Density... State nickname: Volunteer State Other U.S. States Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Senators Bill Frist (R) Lamar Alexander (R) Official language(s) English Area 109,247 km² (36th)  - Land 106,846 km²  - Water 2,400 km² (2. ...


Region 5 - responsible within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State Other U.S. States Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Governor Rod Blagojevich (D) Senators Richard Durbin (D) Barack Obama (D) Official language(s) English Area 149,998 km² (25th)  - Land 143,968 km²  - Water 6,030 km² (4. ... State nickname: The Hoosier State Official languages English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Governor Mitch Daniels (R) Senators Richard Lugar (R) Evan Bayh (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 38th 94,321 km² 1. ... State nickname: The Wolverine State, The Great Lakes State Other U.S. States Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Governor Jennifer Granholm (D) Senators Carl Levin (D) Debbie Stabenow (D) Official language(s) English de-facto Area 96,889 mi² / 250,941 km² (11th)  - Land 56,855 mi² / 147,255 km²... State nickname: North Star State, Land of 10,000 Lakes, The Gopher State Other U.S. States Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Governor Tim Pawlenty (R) Senators Mark Dayton (D) Norm Coleman (R) Official language(s) None Area 225,365 km² (12th)  - Land 206,375 km²  - Water 18,990... State nickname: The Buckeye State Official languages None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus (largest metropolitan area is Cleveland) Governor Bob Taft (R) Senators Mike DeWine (R) George V. Voinovich (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 8. ... State nickname: Badger State Other U.S. States Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Governor Jim Doyle (D) Senators Herb Kohl (D) Russ Feingold (D) Official language(s) None Area 169,790 km² (23rd)  - Land 140,787 km²  - Water 28,006 km² (17%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,453,896 (18th)  - Density...


Region 6 - responsible within the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. State nickname: The Natural State Other U.S. States Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Governor Mike Huckabee (R) Senators Blanche Lincoln (D) Mark Pryor (D) Official language(s) English Area 137,732 km² (29th)  - Land 134,856 km²  - Water 2,876 km² (2. ... State nickname: Pelican State Other U.S. States Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans Governor Kathleen Blanco (D) Senators Mary Landrieu (D) David Vitter (R) Official language(s) None; English and French de facto Area 134,382 km² (31st)  - Land 112,927 km²  - Water 21,455 km² (16%) Population... State nickname: Land of Enchantment Other U.S. States Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Governor Bill Richardson (D) Senators Pete Domenici (R) Jeff Bingaman (D) Official language(s) English and Spanish Area 315,194 km² (5th)  - Land 314,590 km²  - Water 607 km² (0. ... Oklahoma is a Midwest state of the United States (with strong Southern, Western, and Midwestern influences) and its U.S. postal abbreviation is OK; others abbreviate the states name Okla. ... ...


Region 7 - responsible within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska. State nickname: The Hawkeye State Other U.S. States Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Governor Thomas Vilsack (D) Senators Chuck Grassley (R) Tom Harkin (D) Official language(s) English Area 145,743 km² (26th)  - Land 144,701 km²  - Water 1,042 km² (0. ... State nickname: The Sunflower State Official languages None Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Governor Kathleen Sebelius (D) Senators Sam Brownback (R) Pat Roberts (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 15th 82,277 mi²; 213,096 km² 0. ... State nickname: The Show Me State Other U.S. States Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City (largest metropolitan area is Saint Louis) Governor Matt Blunt (R) Senators Kit Bond (R) Jim Talent (R) Official language(s) English Area 69,709 mi²; 180,693 km² (21st)  - Land 68,898 mi²... State nickname: Cornhusker State Other U.S. States Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Governor Dave Heineman (R) Senators Chuck Hagel (R) Ben Nelson (D) Official language(s) English Area 200,520 km² (16th)  - Land 199,099 km²  - Water 1,247 km² (0. ...


Region 8 - responsible within the states of Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. State nickname: The Centennial State Other U.S. States Capital Denver Largest city Denver Governor Bill Owens (R) Senators Wayne Allard (R) Ken Salazar (D) Official language(s) English Area 269,837 km² (8th)  - Land 268,879 km²  - Water 962 km² (0. ... State nickname: Treasure State Other U.S. States Capital Helena Largest city Billings Governor Brian Schweitzer (D) Senators Max Baucus (D) Conrad Burns (R) Official language(s) English Area 381,156 km² (4th)  - Land 377,295 km²  - Water 3,862 km² (1%) Population (2000)  - Population 902,195 (44th)  - Density 2. ... State nickname: Peace Garden State, Roughrider State, Flickertail State Other U.S. States Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Governor John Hoeven (R) Senators Kent Conrad (D) Byron Dorgan (D) Official language(s) English Area 183 272 km² (19th)  - Land 178 839 km²  - Water 4 432 km² (2. ... State nickname: The Mount Rushmore State Other U.S. States Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Governor Mike Rounds (R) Senators Tim Johnson (D) John Thune (R) Official language(s) English Area 199,905 km² (17th)  - Land 196,735 km²  - Water 3,173 km² (1. ... Utah is one of the Four Corners states, and is bordered by: Idaho (at 42°N) and Wyoming (at 41°N and 111°W) in the north, by Colorado (at 109°W) in the east, at a single point by New Mexico to the southeast (at the Four Corners Monument... State nickname: Equality State Other U.S. States Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Governor Dave Freudenthal (D) Senators Craig Thomas (R) Mike Enzi (R) Official language(s) English Area 253,554 km² (10th)  - Land 251,706 km²  - Water 1,851 km² (0. ...


Region 9 - responsible within the states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and the territories of Guam and American Samoa. State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano (D) Senators John McCain (R) Jon Kyl (R) Official language(s) English Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942 km² (0. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Official language(s) English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Monarch Akahi Nui Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... State nickname: Silver State, Battle Born State (official) Other U.S. States Capital Carson City Largest city Las Vegas Governor Kenny Guinn (R) Senators Harry Reid (D) John Ensign (R) Official languages None Area 286,367 km² (7th)  - Land 284,396 km²  - Water 1,971 km² (0. ...


Region 10 - responsible within the states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Senators Ted Stevens (R) Lisa Murkowski (R) Official language(s) English Area 663,267 mi² / 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 571,951 mi² / 1,481... State nickname: Gem State Other U.S. States Capital Boise Largest city Boise Governor Dirk Kempthorne (R) Senators Larry Craig (R) Mike Crapo (R) Official language(s) none Area 216,632 km² (14th)  - Land 214,499 km²  - Water 2,133 km² (0. ... State nickname: Beaver State Other U.S. States Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski (D) Senators Ron Wyden (D) Gordon Smith (R) Official language(s) None Area 255,026 km² (9th)  - Land 248,849 km²  - Water 6,177 km² (2. ... State nickname: The Evergreen State Official languages None Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Governor Christine Gregoire (D) Senators Patty Murray (D) Maria Cantwell (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 18th 184,824 km² 6. ...


List of EPA administrators

1970–1973 William D. Ruckelshaus
1973–1977 Russell E. Train
1977–1981 Douglas M. Costle
1981–1983 Anne M. Gorsuch (Burford)
1983–1985 William D. Ruckelshaus
1985–1989 Lee M. Thomas
1989–1993 William K. Reilly
1993–2001 Carol M. Browner
2001–2003 Christine Todd Whitman
2003–2005 Michael O. Leavitt
2005— Stephen L. Johnson

William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an attorney and civil servant in the United States. ... Anne Gorsuch (21 April 1942–18 July 2004) was the first female Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, serving under President Ronald Reagan. ... Carol M. Browner served as Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency during the Clinton Administration and was charged with leading the federal governments efforts in safeguarding the environment. ... Christine Todd Whitman Christine Todd Christie Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican politician, the former Governor of New Jersey, and the former administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush. ... Michael O. Leavitt Michael Okerlund Leavitt (born February 11, 1951) is an American, Latter-day Saint politician, who is currently the Secretary of Health and Human Services. ... Stephen L. Johnson Stephen L. Johnson (born March 21, 1951 in Washington D.C) is an American career civil servant. ...

See also

Acid mine drainage (AMD) refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines. ... Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from on-going natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. ... The Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training is part of the Environmental Protection Agency. ...

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