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Encyclopedia > Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha


In office
November 1944 – April 1985
Succeeded by Ramiz Alia

Born October 16, 1908
Gjirokastër, Albania
Died April 11, 1985
Tirana, Albania
Nationality Albanian
Political party Albanian Party of Labour
Spouse Nexhmije Hoxha

Enver Hoxha , (IPA /ɛn'vɛɾ 'hɔʤa/, October 16, 1908April 11, 1985) was the leader of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Communist Albanian Party of Labour. He was also Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1946 to 1953. Under Hoxha, whose rule was characterized by isolation from the rest of Europe and his proclaimed firm adherence to Anti-Revisionism, which has been dubbed "Hoxhaism". [1] Albania's government of the time projected the image that it had emerged from semi-feudalism to become an industrialized state. Image File history File linksMetadata Enver. ... A large number of international organizations and other bodies have a secretary general or secretary-general as their chief administrative officers or in other administrative capacities. ... PPSh flag The Albanian Party of Labour, Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSh in Albanian, was the sole legal political party in Albania during communist rule (1946-1991). ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ramiz Alia (born October 18, 1925) was the leader of Albania from 1985 to 1992. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Gjirokastër, as seen from the Citadel. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... PPSh flag The Albanian Party of Labour, Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSh in Albanian, was the sole legal political party in Albania during communist rule (1946-1991). ... (Xhuglini) Nexhmije Hoxha [IPA: dÊ’uglini nÉ›dÊ’mijÉ› hÉ”dÊ’a] (born 7 February 1921, Monastir [now Bitola], Macedonia) is the widow of the Albanian leader Enver Hoxha. ... Image File history File links Sq-Enver_Hoxha. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A large number of international organizations and other bodies have a secretary general or secretary-general as their chief administrative officers or in other administrative capacities. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... PPSh flag The Albanian Party of Labour, Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë, PPSh in Albanian, was the sole legal political party in Albania during communist rule (1946-1991). ... List of Prime Ministers of Albania Ismail Qemali (1912-1913) Myfit Libohova (1913-1914) Turhan Pasha Përmeti (1914) Esat Pashë Toptani (1914) Abdullah Rushdi (1914-1918) Turhan Pasha Përmeti (1918-1920) Sulejman Bej Delvina (1920) Ilias Bej Vrioni (1920-1921) Pandeli Evangjeli (1921) Hasan Bej Prishtina (1921) Omer... World map showing the location of Europe. ... In the communist or Marxist-Leninist movement, an anti-revisionist is one who favors a strict Stalinist or Maoist interpretation of Marxist-Leninist ideology. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...

Contents

Biography

Discarded bust of Enver Hoxha
Discarded bust of Enver Hoxha

Hoxha was born in Gjirokastër, a city in southern Albania that has been home to many prominent families. He was the son of a Muslim Tosk cloth merchant who traveled widely across Europe during his childhood, and the major influence on Enver during these years was his uncle, Hysen Hoxha (/hy'sɛn 'hɔʤa/). Hysen Hoxha was a militant who campaigned vigorously for the independence of Albania - which occurred when Enver was four years old. Enver took to these ideas very strongly, especially after King Zog came to power in 1928. Whether his uncle was indeed among independence proclaimers and subscribers is disputed. He is present in a photo of the celebration of the independence of Albania, but many think that it is a retouch, a common practice during Hoxha's years. He routinely removed "enemies" from photos.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x722, 185 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Enver Hoxha ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x722, 185 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Enver Hoxha ... Gjirokastër, as seen from the Citadel. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Tosk is the southern dialect of the Albanian language. ... Zog I, Skanderbeg III of Albania (born Ahmet Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (October 8, 1895 – April 9, 1961) was King of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ...


In 1930, he went to study at the University of Montpellier in France on a state scholarship given to him by the Queen Mother, but he soon dropped out. From 1934 to 1936 he was a secretary at the Albanian consulate in Brussels, attached to the personnel office of Queen Mother Sadia. He returned to Albania in 1936 and became a teacher in Korçë, after stealing the consulate's yearly funds. However, he was never arrested or charged. The University of Montpellier, (Université de Montpellier), is a French university in Montpellier. ... Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... Korçë (Albanian: Korçë or Korça, Greek: Κορυτσά Koritsá , Italian: Corizza, South Slavic: Корча, Korcha or Корче, Korče, Aromanian: Curceaua, Turkish: Görice) is a major city in south-eastern Albania, located at near the border with Greece. ...


Hoxha was dismissed from his teaching post following the 1939 Italian invasion of World War II for refusing to join the Albanian Fascist Party. He opened a tobacco shop in Tirana where soon a small communist group started gathering. He was helped by Yugoslav communists to found and become leader of the Albanian Communist Party (called Party of Labour afterwards) in November 1941, as well as the resistance movement (National Liberation Army), which took power in November the 28(29) 1944. Still there is a disagreement between leftist and rightist Albanian political fractions concerning the accurate date of the day of liberation. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The flag of Albania used by the fascist government The Albanian Fascist Party (Albanian Partia Fashiste e Shqipërisë -- PFSh) was a fascist movement which held nominal power in Albania from 1939, when the country was conquered by Italy, until 1943, when Italy capitulated to the Allies. ... This article is about the product manufactured from Tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp. ... Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian and languages of other nationalities. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ...


After the liberation from the German occupation in september 28(29)1944, several Albanian partisan divisions crossed the border into the German occupied Yugoslavia and there contributed to the chasing of the last pockets of German resistance alongside Tito's partisans and the Soviet Red Army. This was during the last months of German occupation of Yugoslavia. Marshal Josip Broz Tito, during a Yugoslavian conference in the latter years thanked Hoxha for the assistance the Albanian partisans gave during the War for National Liberation (Lufta Nacionalçlirimtare). The term National Liberation Army or National Liberation War were used in both Albania and Yugoslavia. It is worth noting that the National Liberation festivity date is the 29 of september in both Albania and the Socialist Yugoslavia. Look up Partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Leadership

Hoxha declared himself an orthodox Marxist-Leninist and strongly admired Joseph Stalin. He adopted the model of the Soviet Union and severed relations with his former Yugoslav communist allies following their ideological breach with Moscow in 1948. He had defence minister Koçi Xoxe (/'kɔʧi 'ʣɔʣɛ/) executed a year later for alleged pro-Yugoslav activities. By 1949 the United States and British intelligence organizations were working with King Zog and the mountainmen of his personal guard. They recruited Albanian refugees and émigrés from Egypt, Italy, and Greece; trained them in Cyprus, Malta, and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany); and infiltrated them into Albania. Guerrilla units entered Albania in 1950 and 1952, but Albanian security forces killed or captured all of them. Kim Philby, a Soviet double agent working as a liaison officer between the British intelligence service and the United States Central Intelligence Agency, had leaked details of the infiltration plan to Moscow, and the security breach claimed the lives of about 300 infiltrators. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian and languages of other nationalities. ... Koçi Xoxe (IPA , 1917–June 11, 1949) was the Defence and Interior Minister of Albania for some time under Enver Hoxha until he was purged for pro-Yugoslav activities after Tito broke relations with Hoxhas ally, Stalin. ... King Zog of Albania King Zog (October 8, 1895–April 9, 1961) was an Albanian politician and the first king of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... Harold Adrian Russell Kim Philby or H.A.R. Philby (OBE: 1946-1965), (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence, a communist, and spy for the Soviet Unions NKVD and KGB. In 1963, Philby was revealed as a member of the spy...


By 1950, many reforms were taken. Illiteracy dropped from around 80-85% to 31%, the regime confiscated farmland from wealthy landowners and consolidated it into collective farms, imprisoning and executing thousands in the process, though also averting famine and greatly improving the quality of agriculture, making it nearly self-sufficient. The practice of blood feud was made illegal and by 1970 women, who previously were not allowed to hold paying jobs among other things were given equality and were encouraged to take up jobs in order to help the economy. Industry, in 1944 almost non-existent, contributed over 50% of the GDP by the 1980s, malaria-infested swamplands were renovated, and life expectancy rose from 38 to around 60-70 by 1980. The nations first university, the University of Tirana, was founded in 1957. Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ... Blood Feud is the last episode of the second season of The Simpsons. ... University of Tirana (Universiteti i Tiranës) is located in Tirana, Albania. ...

Pill boxes in Albania built during Hoxha's rule to avert possible internal revolution or external invasion. Over half a million were built.
Pill boxes in Albania built during Hoxha's rule to avert possible internal revolution or external invasion. Over half a million were built.

However, the opening of Albania's borders to the outside world following the collapse of the communist regime revealed exaggerated claims. Telephone communication, long established in every household in Albania's neighboring countries, was rare in most areas. In fact, very few Albanians other than higher-echelon party apparatchiks had access to such services despite Communist party claims that telephones were across Albania. Worker wages and living standards were also remarkably low by European standards, a fact that led to a massive exodus of Albanian workers into neighbouring Greece and Italy, where they could sustain better standards of living as illegal immigrants, than they did in their country as nationals. Hoxha's economic policies, which prohibited private ownership of automobiles and house numbers, exercised a brake on Albania's development and meant that in some areas collective agriculture was not even mechanized. Bunkers in Albania (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bunkers in Albania (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A bunker is a defensive warfare fortification to protect personnel or equipment. ... Apparatchik (Russian: аппара́тчик, IPA: plural apparatchiki) is a Russian colloquial term for a full-time, professional functionary of the Communist Party or government; i. ...


Despite his grandstanding, it appeared that Hoxha's major legacy was a complex of over 600,000 one-man concrete bunkers across a country of 3 million inhabitants, to act as look-outs and gun emplacements, pointed towards towns and villages just as often as away from them. The paranoid nature of Hoxha's character, which was beset by fears of an American invasion just as much as by fears of an internal revolution, was apparent in the design. The bunkers were built strong, and most easy to move, all there is to do is dig a hole and drop the bunker in with a crane or a helicopter. The types of bunkers vary from machine gun pillboxes, beach bunkers, to naval underground facilities, and even Air Force Mountain and underground bunkers. There were over 700,000 pillboxes build and around 500,000 pillboxes reported to still be in good condition and ready to serve in case of war. Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ...


Swing to Maoism

Part of a series on
Maoism

Basic concepts
Marxism-Leninism
Anti-Revisionism
3 Worlds Theory
Social-imperialism
People's war
New Democracy
Maoist tendencies
Conference of M-L
Parties and Organizations
Revolutionary
Internationalist Movement
Prominent Maoists
Mao Zedong
Prachanda
Charu Majumdar
Zhou Enlai
Jiang Qing
Abimael Guzmán
José María Sison
İbrahim Kaypakkaya
Related subjects
Communist Party of China
Cultural Revolution
Little Red Book
Naxalism
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Hoxha had remained a firm Stalinist despite new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's repudiation of Stalin's excesses in 1956 at the Twentieth Party Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, and this meant Albania's isolation from the rest of communist Eastern Europe. In 1960, Hoxha aligned Albania with the People's Republic of China, which also continued to uphold Stalin's legacy, in the Sino-Soviet split, severing relations with Moscow the following year. In 1968, Albania withdrew from the Warsaw Pact in response to the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... In the communist or Marxist-Leninist movement, an anti-revisionist is one who favors a strict Stalinist or Maoist interpretation of Marxist-Leninist ideology. ... The Three Worlds theory is a theory developed by Mao Zedong that suggests that the world is politically and economically divided into three world. ... Social-imperialism is imperialism with a socialist/communist face. ... Peoples war (also called protracted peoples war) is a military-political strategy invented by Mao Zedong. ... For different uses of the term, including political parties with the name New Democracy, see New Democracy (disambiguation). ... International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations, a grouping of parties and organizations adhering to Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought. ... The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement is an international Communist organization which upholds Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Prachanda (NepālÄ«: प्रचण्ड pracaṇḍa, born Pushpa Kamal Dahal on December 11, 1954) is the leader of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). ... Charu Majumdar Charu Majumdar(Bangla: চারু মজুমদার) (1918-1972) was an Indian Maoist revolutionary born in 1918 in Siliguri, West Bengal. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949 to... Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ ShÅ«méng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of... Guzmán as a prisoner Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso, also known by his nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo (English: President Gonzalo), a former professor of philosophy, was the leader of the Maoist insurgency often referred coloquially to as Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso in Spanish). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ibrahim Kaypakkaya was a leader of the Turkish communist movement. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) was a period of social chaos and political anarchy in the Peoples... Cover of Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong (毛主席语录 Pinyin: Máo Zhǔxí Yǔlù), better known as The Little Red Book, has been published by the Government of the Peoples Republic of China since 1966. ... Naxalite or Naxalism is an informal name given to radical, often violent, revolutionary communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held during February 14—February 26, 1956. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


Hoxha's internal policies were true to the Stalinist paradigm he admired, and the personality cult organized around him bore a striking resemblance to that of Stalin. Internally, the "Sigurimi" Albanian secret police made sure to replicate the repressive methods of the NKVD, MGB, KGB, and Stasi. Its activities permeated Albanian society to the extent that every third citizen had either served time in labor camps or been interrogated by Sigurimi officers. To eliminate dissent, the government resorted systematically to purges, in which opponents were dismissed from their jobs, imprisoned in forced-labour camps, and often executed. Travel abroad was forbidden to all but those on official business, in order to sustain the myth of an advanced Albania. Western-style dancing was banned, and art was made to reflect the styles of socialist realism. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The word MGB has several different meanings: MGB (USSR) was a predecessor of the KGB (secret police). ... Note: This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ...


In 1967, following two decades of progressively harsher persecution of religion under his rule, Hoxha triumphantly declared his nation to be the first and only officially atheist state in history. Partly inspired by China's Cultural Revolution, he proceeded to confiscate mosques, churches, monasteries, and shrines. Many were immediately razed, others turned into machine shops, warehouses, stables, and movie theaters. Parents were forbidden to give their children religious names. Anyone caught with the Qu'ran, Bibles, icons, or religious objects faced long prison sentences. “Atheist” redirects here. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) was a period of social chaos and political anarchy in the Peoples... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


According to a landmark Amnesty International report published in 1984, Albania's human rights record was dismal under Hoxha. The regime denied its citizens freedom of expression, religion, movement, and association although the constitution of 1976 ostensibly guaranteed each of these rights. In fact, certain clauses in the constitution effectively circumscribed the exercise of political liberties that the regime interpreted as contrary to the established order. In addition, the regime denied the population access to information other than that disseminated by the government-controlled media. The Sigurimi routinely violated the privacy of persons, homes, and communications and made arbitrary arrests. The courts ensured that verdicts were rendered from the party's political perspective instead of affording due process to the accused, who were often sentenced without even the formality of a trial. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... The Directorate of State Security, or Sigurimi (Full name:Drejtorija e Sigurimit të Shtetit) was Albanias secret police agency during the communist regime. ...


Hoxha was unhappy with China's reapprochment with the United States in the early seventies. He had himself normalized relations with Albania's neighbors immediately before Mao's death in 1976. The defeat of the Gang of Four in China's subsequent inner-party struggle in 1977 and 1978 led to the Sino-Albanian split and Albania's retreat into political isolation, with Hoxha claiming the anti-revisionist mantle to criticize both Moscow and Beijing. Deprived of its last main trading partner, Hoxha's Albania became a near-autarky from 1976 onwards. It was not until economic growth stopped in the mid-1970's that he began to normalize relations with Yugoslavia and attempted to increase relations with Western Europe. The Gang of Four on trial The Gang of Four (Chinese: 四人帮; pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the... The Sino-Albanian split in 1978 saw the parting of the Peoples Republic of China and Albania (the only Eastern European nation to side with China in the Sino-Soviet split of the early 1960s). ... In the Marxist-Leninist communist movement, an anti-revisionist is one who favors a stricter interpretation of the ideology in accordance with the teachings of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ...

Hoxha was exhumed in 1992 and informally reburied. The picture shows his second grave.
Hoxha was exhumed in 1992 and informally reburied. The picture shows his second grave.

In 1981, Hoxha ordered the execution of several party and government officials in a new purge. Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu was reported to have committed suicide following a further dispute within the Albanian leadership in December 1981, but it is widely believed that he was killed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (928x675, 435 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Enver Hoxha ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (928x675, 435 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Enver Hoxha ... Mehmet Shehu (January 10, 1913 Çorush (prononc. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Later, Hoxha withdrew into semi-retirement due to failing mental and psychical health and turned most state functions over to Ramiz Alia. He suffered from continuous dreams about the return of the Monarchy and King Zog. In his final years, he was confined to a wheelchair and was suffering from diabetes. Ramiz Alia (born October 18, 1925) was the leader of Albania from 1985 to 1992. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Hoxha's death on April 11, 1985 left Albania with a legacy of repression, technological backwardness, isolation, and fear of the outside world despite progress made by Hoxha. As communist party rule weakened throughout Eastern Europe, his succession by Ramiz Alia led to some relaxation in internal and foreign policies, culminating in Albania's abandonment of one-party rule in 1990 and the reformed Socialist Party's defeat in the 1992 elections. April 11 is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ramiz Alia (born October 18, 1925) was the leader of Albania from 1985 to 1992. ...


Kosovo and Albanian nationalism

Enver Hoxha, as a communist, embraced ideas of internationalism and brotherhood among different peoples. This point of view made Hoxha very close to Yugoslavian communists during World War II and afterwards until the break-up of 1948. Such ideals are thought to be the reason why Hoxha decided to fight against Albanian nationalist who sought unification of Albanian-inhabited land. However, especially in the 1980s, Hoxha used several speeches to gain popularity among Albanians in Yugoslavia. During the demonstrations in Kosovo in 1981, ethnic Albanians of Yugoslavia largely identified with Enver Hoxha as a symbol of nationalism, and regarded Albania, which they had no opportunity to visit, as a very prosperous country where human rights and equality were widely respected. Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


Sinan Hasani, an ethnic Albanian who was member of the Yugoslavian presidential administration, tagged Enver Hoxha “a scabby goat” (a mere translation of a Serbian idiom), while Hoxha called Hasani “a Serbian dog” in response. This gave a lot of credit to Hoxha, while Hasani, highly disliked by the Albanians, became even more unpopular. Sinan Hasani was an ethnic-Albanian Yugoslavian politician and president of Yugoslavia (head of the presidency). ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


Trivia

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References

  • Albania in Occupation and War, Owen S. Pearson, I.B. Tauris, London 2006, ISBN 1-84511-104-4
  • Albanian Stalinism, Pipa, Arshi, Boulder: East European Monographs, 1990, ISBN 0-88033-184-4

I.B. Tauris is a publishing house based in London and specializing in non-fiction. ...

See also

This article briefly outlines each period in the history of Albania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... It has been suggested that Historical persecution by Christians#Theological debate of persecution be merged into this article or section. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Hoxhaism - Red Wiki
Preceded by
King Victor Emmanuel III (de jure)
Leader of Albania
1944–1985
Succeeded by
Ramiz Alia
Preceded by
Created
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Albania
1946–1954
Succeeded by
Mehmet Shehu

  Results from FactBites:
 
Enver Hoxha (1262 words)
Hoxha was born in Gjirokastër, a city in southern Albania.
In 1968, Albania withdrew from the Warsaw Pact in response to the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.
Hoxha's death on April 11, 1985, at the age of 76 led to some relaxation in internal and foreign policies under his successor Ramiz Alia, as communist party rule weakened throughout Eastern Europe, culminating in Albania's abandonment of one-party rule in 1990 and the reformed Socialist Party's defeat in the 1992 elections.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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