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Encyclopedia > Entheogen
A flowering peyote, in cultivation.
A flowering peyote, in cultivation.

An entheogen, in the strictest sense, is a psychoactive substance used in a religious or shamanic context. Entheogens generally come from plant sources which contain molecules closely related to endogenous neurochemicals. They occur in a wide variety of sacraments of various religious rites [UDV/NAC] and have been shown (see Good Friday Experiment) to directly provoke what users perceive as spiritual/mystical experiences. In a broader sense, the word "entheogen" refers to any molecule which stimulates the central nervous system through one of the two main neurological pathways: Phenethylamine (which is a brain chemical associated with the adrenaline pathway, and a precursor of Mescaline and 2C-B) and Tryptamine (a brain chemical associated with the natural metabolism of serotonin, a precursor of Psilocin), DMT. (Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology, Cooper Bloom Roth - PIHKAL, Shulgin) In the aforementioned books the pathways of the neurochemicals are described as occurring from simpler precursors. Through enzyme reactions, the brain creates more complex molecules with a higher binding affinity with unique neurological and cognitive results. See Federal Analog Act. The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... Binomial name (Lem. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... The Marsh Chapel Experiment was run by a graduate student at Harvard Divinity School, under the supervision of Timothy Leary. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... Not to be confused with mesclun. ... 2C-B, or 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxybenzeneethanamine) is a class of phenethylamine, a lesser-known psychedelic drug of the 2C family, an entactogen. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Psilocin,(4-HO-DMT) sometimes called psilocine or psilotsin, is a psychedelic (hallucinogenic) mushroom alkaloid. ... DMT is a three-letter abbreviation (TLA) which may stand for Dimethyltryptamine, an endogenous and hallucinogenic tryptamine Dimethyl terephthalate Digital Monetary Trust Discrete multitone modulation used in for example are ADSL and VDSL modems; OFDM modulation with adaption of the transmission scheme and bit rate to the channel conditions individually... The Federal Analog Act is a controversial section of the DEA Controlled Substances Act, allowing any chemical substantially similar to an illegal drug (in Schedule I or II) to be treated as if it were also in Schedule I, but only if it is intended for human consumption. ...


These chemicals are the essence of the entheogens and are banned neurotransmitters, despite their use predating written language. Entheogens are molecules which induce alterations of consciousness identical in many ways to those documented for ritual ingestion of traditional shamanic inebriants. Examples are far reaching ancient sources predating the modern era: such as Greek: kykeon; African: Iboga; Vedic: Soma, Amrit. Entheogens have been safely utilized in a ritualized context for thousands of years. An altered state of consciousness is any state which is significantly different from a normative waking beta wave state. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Terminology

The word entheogen is a neologism derived from the ancient Greek : ἔνθεος (entheos) and γενέσθαι (genesthe). Entheos literally means "god (theos) within", translates as "inspired" and is the root of the English word "enthusiasm". The Greeks used it as a term of praise for poets and other artists. Genesthe means "to generate". So an entheogen is "that which generates God (or godly inspiration) within a person". A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


The word entheogen was coined in 1979 by a group of ethnobotanists and scholars of mythology (Carl A. P. Ruck, Jeremy Bigwood, Danny Staples, Richard Evans Schultes, Jonathan Ott and R. Gordon Wasson). The literal meaning of the word is "that which causes God to be within an individual". The translation "creating the divine within" is sometimes given, but it should be noted that entheogen implies neither that something is created (as opposed to just perceiving something that is already there) nor that that which is experienced is within the user (as opposed to having independent existence). Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Carl A. P. Ruck is a professor in the Classical Studies department at Boston University. ... For other persons named Richard Evans, see Richard Evans (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... R. Gordon Wasson (September 22, 1898 – December 23, 1986) was an author, amateur researcher and banker. ...


It was coined as a replacement for the terms "hallucinogen" (popularized by Aldous Huxley's experiences with mescaline, published as The Doors of Perception in 1953) and "psychedelic" (a Greek neologism for "mind manifest", coined by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond, who was quite surprised when the well-known author, Aldous Huxley, volunteered to be a subject in experiments Osmond was running on mescaline). Ruck et al. argued that the term "hallucinogen" was inappropriate due to its etymological relationship to words relating to delirium and insanity. The term "psychedelic" was also seen as problematic, due to the similarity in sound to words pertaining to psychosis and also due to the fact that it had become irreversibly associated with various connotations of 1960s pop culture. Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. ... Not to be confused with mesclun. ... The Doors of Perception is a 1954 book by Aldous Huxley detailing his experiences when taking mescaline. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For psychedelics, see psychedelic drug. ... Humphry Fortescue Osmond (July 1, 1917 - February 6, 2004) was a British psychiatrist, known for coining the word psychedelic and for his groundbreaking research in using psychedelic drugs in medical research. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Woodstock: the iconic Sixties event The Sixties in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969 (see: 1960s), but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past 20 years. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ...


The meanings of the term "entheogen" were formally defined by Ruck et al.:

In a strict sense, only those vision-producing drugs that can be shown to have figured in shamanic or religious rites would be designated entheogens, but in a looser sense, the term could also be applied to other drugs, both natural and artificial, that induce alterations of consciousness similar to those documented for ritual ingestion of traditional entheogens.

Since 1979, when the term was proposed, its use has become widespread in certain circles. In particular, the word fills a vacuum for those users of entheogens who feel that the term "hallucinogen", which remains common in medical, chemical and anthropological literature, denigrates their experience and the world view in which it is integrated. Use of the strict sense of the word has therefore arisen amongst religious entheogen users, and also amongst others who wish to practice spiritual or religious tolerance. Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ...


The use of the word "entheogen" in its broad sense as a synonym for "hallucinogenic drug" has attracted criticism on three grounds:

  • On pragmatic grounds, the objection has been raised that the meaning of the strict sense of "entheogen", which is of specific value in discussing traditional, historical and mythological uses of entheogens in religious settings, is likely to be diluted by widespread, casual use of the term in the broader sense.
  • Secondly, some people object to the misuse of the root theos (god in ancient Greek) in the description of the use of hallucinogenic drugs in a non-religious context, and coupled with the climate of religious tolerance or pluralism that prevails in many present-day societies, the use of the root theos in a term describing non-religious drug use has also been criticised as a form of taboo deformation.
  • Thirdly, there are some substances that at least partially fulfill the definition of an entheogen that is given above, but are not considered hallucinogenic in the usual sense. One important example is the bread and wine of the Christian (especially Roman Catholic and Episcopal) Eucharist -- assuming that the Eucharist was always non-entheogenic as it has been in most modern-era Christian groups. The 'bread' and 'wine' of early Christianity were discussed and treated in a way that fits the description of an entheogenic substance; ingesting the Eucharist induced the Holy Spirit, as a shared unity-experience in the mystic altered state.

Ideological objections to the broad use of the term often relate to the widespread existence of taboos surrounding psychoactive drugs, with both religious and secular justifications. The perception that the broad sense of the term "entheogen" is used as a euphemism by hallucinogenic drug-users bothers both critics and proponents of the secular use of hallucinogenic drugs. Critics frequently see the use of the term as an attempt to obscure what they perceive as illegitimate motivations and contexts of secular drug use[citation needed]. Some proponents also object to the term, arguing that the trend within their own subcultures and in the scientific literature towards the use of term "entheogen" as a synonym for "hallucinogen" devalues the positive uses of drugs in contexts that are secular but nevertheless, in their view, legitimate[citation needed]. Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about religious pluralism. ... A euphemism is a word or phrase used in place of a term that originally could not be spoken aloud (see taboo) or, by extension, terms which they consider to be disagreeable or offensive. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general; for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener;[1] or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ...


Beyond the use of the term itself, the validity of drug-induced, facilitated, or enhanced religious experience has been questioned. The claim that such experiences are less valid than religious experience without the use of any sacramental catalyst faces the problem that the descriptions of religious experiences by those using entheogens are indistinguishable from many reports of religious experiences which, are presumed in modern times to, have been experienced without their use. Such a claim however depends entirely on the assumption that the reports of well-known mystics were not influenced by ingesting visionary plants, a derivation which Dan Merkur calls into question.[1]


In light of mystery schools, secret teachings and covenants of various traditions (in addition to factors such as periods of suppression and persecution) it becomes further difficult to determine precisely the concealed and mystical processes whereby the mind derives its fruits. A modern example is the discovery of the double helix structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid by Francis Crick which he credits Lysergic Acid Diethylamide the noble honor of facilitating the augmentation of cognition essential to the revelation (which caused him to be awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine). While this alone is not conclusive evidence of a mystical or religious experience it does contribute to the mounting evidences that subjective states evoked by entheogens have a capacity to induce holistic understanding which may be differentiated from psychopathic or hallucinating states by a matter of several degrees. DNA replication Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid which carries genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular forms of life and many viruses. ... LSD redirects here. ...


In an attempt to empirically answer the question about whether neurochemical augmentation through biological or chemical entheogens may enable religio-mystical experience, the Marsh Chapel Experiment was conducted by physician and theology doctoral candidate, Walter Pahnke, under the supervision of Timothy Leary and the Harvard Psilocybin Project. In the double-blind experiment, volunteer graduate school divinity students from the Boston area almost all claimed to have had profound religious experiences subsequent to the ingestion of pure psilocybin. In 2006, a more rigorously controlled version of this experiment was conducted at Johns Hopkins University, yielding very similar results. The Marsh Chapel Experiment was run by a graduate student at Harvard Divinity School, under the supervision of Timothy Leary. ... Walter N. Pahnke M.D., Ph. ... For the American baseball player, see Tim Leary (baseball player). ... Begun by Dr. Timothy Leary and Dr. Richard Alpert, the Harvard Psilocybin Project was a series of loose experiments in psychology conducted by Leary and Alpert. ... The double blind is ray charles is ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesof the scientific method, used to prevent research... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...


Use of entheogens

Naturally occurring entheogens such as psilocybin and dimethyltryptamine, also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, or simply DMT (in the preparation ayahuasca) were, for the most part, discovered and used by older cultures, as part of their spiritual and religious life, as plants and agents which were respected, or in some cases revered. By contrast, artificial and modern entheogens, such as MDMA, never had a tradition of religious use. Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a psychedelic tryptamine. ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ...


Entheogens have been used in various ways, including as part of established traditions and religions, secularly for personal spiritual development, as a tool to augment the mind, secularly as recreational drugs, and medical and therapeutic use.


Entheogen-using cultures

The use of entheogens in human cultures is nearly ubiquitous throughout recorded history.


Africa

The best-known entheogen-using culture of Africa is the Bwitists, who used a preparation of the root bark of Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga).[2] A famous entheogen of ancient Egypt is the blue lotus (Nymphaea caerulea). There is evidence for the use of entheogenic mushrooms in Côte d'Ivoire (Samorini 1995). Numerous other plants used in shamanic ritual in Africa, such as Silene capensis sacred to the Xhosa, are yet to be investigated by western science. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Bwiti is a West Central African religion practiced by the forest-dwelling Babongo and Mitsogo people of Gabon (where it is one of the three official religions) and the Fang people of Gabon and Cameroon. ... Binomial name Tabernanthe iboga (L.) Nutt. ... Binomial name Sav. ... Psychedelic mushrooms is a general term for fungi that contain psychoactive substances. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ...


Americas

Entheogens have played a pivotal role in the spiritual practices of most American cultures for millennia. The first American entheogen to be subject to scientific analysis was the peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii). For his part, one of the founders of modern ethno-botany, the late Richard Evans Schultes of Harvard University documented the ritual use of peyote cactus among the Kiowa who live in what became Oklahoma. Used traditionally by many cultures of what is now Mexico, its use spread to throughout North America in the 19th century, replacing the toxic entheogen Sophora secundiflora (mescal bean). Other well-known entheogens used by Mexican cultures include psilocybin mushrooms (known to indigenous Mexicans under the Náhuatl name teonanácatl), the seeds of several morning glories (Náhuatl: tlitlíltzin and ololiúhqui) and Salvia divinorum (Mazateco: Ska Pastora; Náhuatl: pipiltzintzíntli). The ancient Aztecs employed a variety of entheogenic plants and animals within their society. ... Binomial name (Lem. ... For other persons named Richard Evans, see Richard Evans (disambiguation). ... Harvard redirects here. ... This article is about the tribe. ... North American redirects here. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species See text The Mescalbean, Mescal Bean or Frijolito (Calia) is a genus of three or four species of shrubs or small trees in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae. ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... Mexican may have several meanings. ... Nahuatl is a Native American language indigenous to central Mexico. ... This article is about the plant. ... Binomial name Cav. ... Binomial name Rivea corymbosa (L.)Hallier f. ... Binomial name Epling & Játiva[1] Salvia divinorum, also known as Diviners Sage,[2] Magic Mint,[2] María Pastora,[3] Sage of the Seers, or simply Salvia (although the genus name is shared among many plants), is a powerful psychoactive plant, a member of the sage genus and... The Mazateco language is the native language of the Mazatec peoples of Oaxaca, Mexico. ...

Urarina shaman, 1988
Urarina shaman, 1988

Indigenous peoples of South America employ a wide variety of entheogens. Better-known examples include ayahuasca (Banisteriopsis caapi plus admixtures) among indigenous peoples (such as the Urarina) of Peruvian Amazonia. Other well-known entheogens include: borrachero (Brugmansia spp); San Pedro Trichocereus spp); and various tryptamine-bearing snuffs, for example Epená (Virola spp), Vilca and Yopo (Anadananthera spp). The familiar tobacco plant, when used uncured in large doses in shamanic contexts, also serves as an entheogen in South America. Also, a tobacco that contains higher nicotine content, and therefore smaller doses required, called Nicotiana rustica was commonly used.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ... A river in the Amazon rainforest The Amazon is a rainforest in South America. ... Species See text Brugmansia is a genus of six species of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae, native to subtropical regions of South America, along the Andes from Colombia to northern Chile, and also in southeastern Brazil. ... Binomial name Trichocereus pachanoi San Pedro cactus (Trichocereus pachanoi) is a fast-growing cactus native to the Andes of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Species many species, including: Virola calophylla Virola colophylloidea Virola theiodora Virola, also known as Epená, is a genus of medium-sized tree native to the South American rainforest and closely related to other Myristicaceae, such as nutmeg. ... Binomial name Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. ... Binomial name Anadenanthera peregrina Speg. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Specifically, Shaman (saman) is a term in Evenk, Manchu and other Manchu-Tungus languages for an intellectual and spiritual figure; who usually possess power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, one of which is analogous to the function of a healer in other cultures. ... Nicotiana rustica is a very potent variety of tobacco. ...


In addition to indigenous use of entheogens in the Americas, one should also note their important role in contemporary religious movements, such as the Rastafari movement and the Church of the Universe. For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... The Assembly of the Church of the Universe, an entheogen religion, was established by Walter Tucker in 1969 in the Canadian province of Ontario. ...


Asia

The indigenous peoples of Siberia (from whom the term shaman was appropriated) have used the fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria) as an entheogen. The ancient inebriant Soma, mentioned often in the Vedas, may have been an entheogen. (In his 1967 book, Wasson argues that Soma was fly agaric. The active ingredient of Soma is presumed by some to be ephedrine, an alkaloid with stimulant and (somewhat debatable) entheogenic properties derived from the soma plant, identified as Ephedra pachyclada.) However, there are also arguments to suggest that Soma could have also been Syrian Rue, Cannabis, or some combination of any of the above plants. This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Binomial name Amanita muscaria Amanita muscaria is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Amanita. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... Veda redirects here. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Species Pagnum harmala Syrian Rue (Pagnum harmala) is a member of the Zygophyllaceae family. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ...


Europe

An early entheogen in Aegean civilization, predating the introduction of wine, which was the more familiar entheogen of the reborn Dionysus and the maenads, was fermented honey, known in Northern Europe as mead; its cult uses in the Aegean world are bound up with the mythology of the bee. Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece and the Aegean. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Maenad carrying a hind, fragment of an Attic red-figure cup, ca. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Gold plaques embossed with the winged bee goddesses, perhaps the Thriai, found at Camiros Rhodes, 7th century BCE (British Museum) The Bee, found in Ancient Near East and Aegean cultures, is believed to be the sacred insect that bridged the natural world to the underworld. ...


The extent of the use of visionary plants throughout European history has only recently been seriously investigated, since around 1960. The use of entheogens in Europe is thought, by most entheogen scholars, to have become greatly reduced by the time of the rise of post-Roman Christianity and especially during the great witch hunts of Early Modernity. European witches used various entheogens, including thorn-apple (Datura), deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), mandrake (Mandragora officinarum) and henbane (Hyoscyamus niger). These plants were used, among other things, for the manufacture of "flying ointments". In Christian society, witches were commonly believed to fly through the air on broomsticks after coating them with the ointment and applying them to the skin. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... 1533 account of the execution of a witch charged with burning the town of Schiltach in 1531. ... Witch redirects here. ... Species See text below Datura is a genus of 12-15 species of vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. ... Binomial name L. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), also known as belladonna or dwale, is a well-known perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves and berries that are highly toxic and hallucinogenic. ... Mandrake root redirects here. ... Binomial name Hyoscyamus niger L. Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in Eurasia. ...


Any association with these plants could have proven dangerous, leading to one's execution as a "practitioner of witchcraft". The vehemence of some Christian groups suppressing such use of visionary plants renders inconclusive the question of how widespread the use of visionary plants was throughout Christendom; from one perspective, clamping down on psychoactives appears to indicate the absence of use, if successful suppression is assumed, while from the other perspective, indicates widespread presence of use.


The imposition of Roman Christianity also saw the end of the two-thousand-year-old tradition of the Eleusinian Mysteries, the initiation ceremony for the cult of Demeter and Persephone involving the use of a possibly entheogenic substance known as kykeon. Similarly, there is evidence that nitrous oxide or ethylene may have been in part responsible for the visions of the equally long-lived Delphic oracle (Hale et al., 2003). The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... Kykeon (Gr. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... The word Sibyl comes (via Latin) from the ancient Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess. ...


In ancient Germanic culture cannabis was associated with the Germanic love goddess Freya. The harvesting of the plant was connected with an erotic high festival. It was believed that Freya lived as a fertile force in the plant's feminine flowers and by ingesting them one became influenced by this divine force. Similarly, fly agaric was consecrated to Odin, the god of ecstasy, while henbane stood under the dominion of the thunder god - Thor in Germanic mythology - and Jupiter among the Romans (Rätsch 2003). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Freya, in an illustration to Wagners operas by Arthur Rackham. ... A religious festival is a time of special importance marked by adherents to that religion. ... Binomial name Amanita muscaria Amanita muscaria is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Amanita. ... This is the article about the chief god in North Germanic tradition; for other uses see Odin (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Hyoscyamus niger L. Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in Eurasia. ... For other uses, see Thor (disambiguation). ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ...


In modern-era Christianity, at least, the Eucharist plays a symbolic role in religious tradition that has occasionally attracted the label of "entheogen" or "placebo entheogen", even though the modern-era mainstream Eucharistic practice does not conform to the definition of entheogenic as a vision-inducing substance. For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ...


Middle East

The entheogenic use of substances, particularly hashish. Its use by the "Hashshashin" to stupefy and recruit new initiates was widely reported during the Crusades. However, the drug used by the Hashshashin was likely wine, opium, henbane, or some combination of these, and, in any event, the use of this drug was for stupefaction rather than for entheogenic use. It has been suggested that the ritual use of small amounts of Syrian Rue is an artifact of its ancient use in higher doses as an entheogen. Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drug. ... Binomial name Hyoscyamus niger L. Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in Eurasia. ... Species Pagnum harmala Syrian Rue (Pagnum harmala) is a member of the Zygophyllaceae family. ...


Philologist John Marco Allegro has argued in his book The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross that early Jewish and Christian cultic practice was based on the use of Amanita muscaria which was later forgotten by its adherents, though this hypothesis has not received much consideration or become widely accepted. Allegro's hypothesis that Amanita use was forgotten after primitive Christianity seems contradicted by his own view that the chapel in Plaincourault shows evidence of Christian Amanita use in the 1200s.[3] John Marco Allegro (17 February 1923 - 17 February 1988) was a controversial archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar. ... Binomial name (L.:Fr. ...


Oceania

Indigenous Australians are generally supposed not to have used entheogens, although there is a strong barrier of secrecy surrounding Aboriginal shamanism, which has likely limited what has been told to outsiders. Natives of Papua New Guinea are known to use several species of entheogenic mushrooms (Psilocybe spp, Boletus manicus).[4] Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including Islam and various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group...


Kava or Kava Kava (Piper Methysticum) has been cultivated for at least 3000 years by a number of Pacific island-dwelling peoples. Historically, most Polynesian, many Melanesian, and some Micronesian cultures have ingested the psychoactive pulverized root, typically taking it mixed with water. Much traditional usage of Kava, though somewhat suppressed by Christian missionaries in the 19th and 20th centuries, is thought to facilitate contact with the spirits of the dead, especially relatives and ancestors (Singh 2004). There are no known uses of entheogens by the Māori of New Zealand. Binomial name G.Forst. ... Polynesian is an adjectival form which refers variously to: Polynesian pie Polynesian sauce, a food condiment available at Chick-fil-A the aboriginal inhabitants of Polynesia, and their: Polynesian culture Polynesian mythology Polynesian languages Category: ... Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the west Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. ... This article is about the Pacific region known as Micronesia. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ...


Archaeological record

There have been several examples of the use of entheogens in the archaeological record. Many of these researchers, like R. Gordon Wasson or Giorgio Samorini,[5][6] have recently produced a plethora of evidence, which has not yet received consideration within academia. The first direct evidence of entheogen use comes from Tassili, Algeria, with a cave painting of a mushroom-man, dating to 8000 BP. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. R. Gordon Wasson (September 22, 1898 – December 23, 1986) was an author, amateur researcher and banker. ... Giorgio Samorini Giorgio Samorini (born in 1957, in Bologna, Italy) is an ethnobotanist and psychedelics researcher. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ...


Classical mythology and cults

Although entheogens are taboo and most of them are officially prohibited in Christian and Islamic societies, their ubiquity and prominence in the spiritual traditions of various other cultures is unquestioned. The entheogen, "the spirit, for example, need not be chemical, as is the case with the ivy and the olive: and yet the god was felt to be within them; nor need its possession be considered something detrimental, like drugged, hallucinatory, or delusionary: but possibly instead an invitation to knowledge or whatever good the god's spirit had to offer." (Ruck and Staples)


Most of the well-known modern examples, such as peyote, psilocybe and other psychoactive mushrooms and ololiuhqui, are from the native cultures of the Americas. However, it has also been suggested that entheogens played an important role in ancient Indo-European culture, for example by inclusion in the ritual preparations of the Soma, the "pressed juice" that is the subject of Book 9 of the Rig Veda. Soma was ritually prepared and drunk by priests and initiates and elicited a paean in the Rig Veda that embodies the nature of an entheogen: Type species Psilocybe montana Species List of Psilocybe species Psilocybe is a genus of small mushrooms growing worldwide. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ...

Splendid by Law! declaring Law, truth speaking, truthful in thy works, Enouncing faith, King Soma!... O [Soma] Pavāmana, place me in that deathless, undecaying world wherein the light of heaven is set, and everlasting lustre shines.... Make me immortal in that realm where happiness and transports, where joy and felicities combine...

The Kykeon that preceded initiation into the Eleusinian Mysteries is another entheogen, which was investigated (before the word was coined) by Carl Kerenyí, in Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter. Other entheogens in the Ancient Near East and the Aegean include the poppy, Datura, the unidentified "lotus" eaten by the Lotus-Eaters in the Odyssey and Narkissos. Kykeon (Gr. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... Narcissus may mean either: Narcissus in Greek mythology the Narcissus flower and plant Narcissus, freedman and secretary to the Roman emperor Claudius Narcissus, murderer of the Roman emperor Commodus HMS Narcissus, a name borne by six ships of the Royal Navy Narcissus, a painting by Caravaggio Narcissus, a JavaScript engine...


According to Ruck, Eyan, and Staples, the familiar shamanic entheogen that the Indo-Europeans brought with them was knowledge of the wild Amanita mushroom. It could not be cultivated; thus it had to be found, which suited it to a nomadic lifestyle. When they reached the world of the Caucasus and the Aegean, the Indo-Europeans encountered wine, the entheogen of Dionysus, who brought it with him from his birthplace in the mythical Nysa, when he returned to claim his Olympian birthright. The Indo-European proto-Greeks "recognized it as the entheogen of Zeus, and their own traditions of shamanism, the Amanita and the 'pressed juice' of Soma — but better since no longer unpredictable and wild, the way it was found among the Hyperboreans: as befit their own assimilation of agrarian modes of life, the entheogen was now cultivable" (Ruck and Staples). Robert Graves, in his foreword to The Greek Myths, argues that the ambrosia of various pre-Hellenic tribes were amanita and possibly panaeolus mushrooms. Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... Species 600, see List of Amanita species Synonyms Aspidella The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... In Greek mythology, the mountainous district of Nysa, variously associated with Ethiopia, Libya, Tribalia or Arabia by Greek mythographers, was the traditional place where the rain nymphs, the Hyades, raised the infant Dionysus, the god of Nysa. ... For other uses, see Hyperborea (disambiguation). ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... Hellenic may refer to: the Hellenic Republic (the modern Greek state) the Hellenes, itself a term for either ancient or modern Greeks anything related to Greece in general or Ancient Greece in particular. ... Species 600, see List of Amanita species Synonyms Aspidella The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide. ... The Panaeolus genus of mushrooms contains several hallucinogenic varieties. ...


Amanita was divine food, according to Ruck and Staples, not something to be indulged in or sampled lightly, not something to be profaned. It was the food of the gods, their ambrosia, and it mediated between the two realms. It is said that Tantalus's crime was inviting commoners to share his ambrosia. For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... In ancient Greek mythology, Ambrosia (Greek ) is sometimes the food, sometimes the drink, of the gods, often depicted as conferring immortality on whoever consumes it. ... Tantalos, by Goya In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλος) was a son of Zeus[1] and the nymph Plouto (riches)[2] Thus he was a king in the primordial world, the father of a son Broteas whose very name signifies mortals (brotoi)[3] Other versions name his father as Tmolus wreathed... In ancient Greek mythology, Ambrosia (Greek ) is sometimes the food, sometimes the drink, of the gods, often depicted as conferring immortality on whoever consumes it. ...


The entheogen is believed to offer godlike powers in many traditional tales, including immortality. The failure of Gilgamesh in retrieving the plant of immortality from beneath the waters teaches that the blissful state cannot be taken by force or guile: when Gilgamesh lay on the bank, exhausted from his heroic effort, the serpent came and ate the plant. For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ...


Another attempt at subverting the natural order is told in a (according to some) strangely metamorphosed myth, in which natural roles have been reversed to suit the Hellenic world-view. The Alexandrian Apollodorus relates how Gaia (spelled "Ge" in the following passage), Mother Earth herself, has supported the Titans in their battle with the Olympian intruders. The Giants have been defeated: For other uses, see Gaia. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ...

When Ge learned of this, she sought a drug that would prevent their destruction even by mortal hands. But Zeus barred the appearance of Eos (the Dawn), Selene (the Moon), and Helios (the Sun), and chopped up the drug himself before Ge could find it.

Judaism and Christianity

According to some scholars,[7] cannabis was an ingredient of holy anointing oil mentioned in various sacred Hebrew texts. The herb of interest is most commonly known as kaneh-bosm (Hebrew: קְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם). This is mentioned several times in the Old Testament as a bartering material, incense, and an ingredient in holy anointing oil used by the high priest of the temple. Although Chris Bennett's research in this area focuses on cannabis, he mentions evidence suggesting use of additional visionary plants such as henbane, as well.[8] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chrism. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism...


The Septuagint translates kaneh-bosm as calamus, and this translation has been propagated unchanged to most later translations of the old testament. However, Polish anthropologist Sula Benet published etymological arguments that the Aramaic word for hemp can be read as kannabos and appears to be a cognate to the modern word 'cannabis',[9] with the root kan meaning reed or hemp and bosm meaning fragrant. Both cannabis and calamus are fragrant, reedlike plants containing psychotropic compounds. The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Binomial name L. Calamus or Common Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus) is a plant from the Acoraceae family, Acorus genues. ... Sula Benet (also known as Sara Benetowa) was a polish anthropologist of the 20th century who studied Polish and Judaic customs and traditions. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ...


Although some scholars, particularly philologist John Marco Allegro, have suggested that the self-revelation and healing abilities attributed to the figure of Jesus may have been associated with the effects of the plant medicines [from the Aramaic: "to heal"], this evidence is dependent on pre-Septuagint interpretation of Torah and Tenach, and goes firmly against the accepted teachings of the Holy See. However even the most conservative estimates contend the ecstatic experiences of some undefined minority of Christian hermits and mystics could possibly involve the use of entheogens, in conjunction with fasting, meditation and prayer.[10] Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... John Marco Allegro (17 February 1923 - 17 February 1988) was a controversial archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar. ...


Allegro was the only non-catholic appointed to the position of translating the dead sea scrolls. His extrapolations are often the object of scorn due to Allegro's theory of Jesus as a mythological personification of the essence of the psychoactive sacrament, furthermore they seem to conflict with the position of the Catholic Church in regards to the exclusivity of the non-canonical practice of transubstantiation and endorsement of alcohol ingestion as the exclusive means to attain communion with God. However, it is interesting to note: The Great Catholic Mystics Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and Meister Eckhart were accused of heresy only to have their ideas later adopted as revered and holy Jesuit teaching. Therefore one may infer certain conclusions in regards to the derision against Allegro's work, particularly in light of historical evidence [pursuant to this perpetual pattern]. It has been suggested that noogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... The Meister Eckhart portal of the Erfurt Church. ...


Allegro's book, The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross, relates the development of language to the development of myths, religions and cultic practices in world cultures. Allegro believed he could prove, through etymology, that the roots of Christianity, as of many other religions, lay in fertility cults; and that cult practices, such as ingesting visionary plants (or "psychedelics") to perceive the Mind of God [Avestan: Vohu Mana], persisted into the early Christian era, and to some unspecified extent into the 1200s with reoccurrences in the 1700s and mid 1900s, as he interprets the Plaincourault chapel's fresco to be an accurate depiction of the ritual ingestion of Amanita Muscaria as the Eucharist. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Fertility rites are religious rituals that reenact, either actually or symbolically, sexual acts and/or reproductive processes. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.:Fr. ...


The historical picture portrayed by Carl Ruck and other authors associated with Entheos journal is of fairly widespread use of visionary plants in early Christianity and the surrounding culture, with a gradual reduction of use of entheogens in Christianity.[11] These entheogen scholars have found and published many instances of visionary plant depictions in Christian art. R. Gordon Wasson's book Soma prints a letter from art historian Erwin Panofsky asserting that art scholars are aware of many 'mushroom trees' in Christian art.[12]


The question of the extent of visionary plant use throughout the history of Christian practice has barely been considered yet by academic or independent scholars. The question of whether visionary plants were used in pre-Theodosius Christianity is distinct from evidence that indicates the extent to which visionary plants were utilized or forgotten in later Christianity, including so-called "heretical" or "quasi-" Christian groups,[13] and the question of other groups such as elites or laity within "orthodox" Catholic practice.[14]


James Arthur asserts that the little scroll from the angel with writing on it referred to in Ezekiel 2: 8,9,10 and Ezekiel 3: 1,2,3 and Revelation 10: 9,10 was the speckled cap of the Amanita Muscaria mushroom.[15]


Entheogens in literature

The substance melange (spice) in Frank Herbert's Dune universe acts as both an entheogen and a geriatric medicine. Control of the supply of melange was crucial to the Empire, as it was necessary for, among other things, faster than light navigation. Look up Melange in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Frank Patrick Herbert (October 8, 1920 – February 11, 1986) was a critically acclaimed and commercially successful American science fiction author. ... The fictional Dune universe, or Duniverse, is the political, scientific, and social setting of author Frank Herberts six-book Dune series of science fantasy novels. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... Faster than the speed of light redirects here. ...


Consumption of the imaginary mushroom anochi as the entheogen underlying the creation of Christianity is the premise of Philip K. Dick's last novel, The Transmigration of Timothy Archer, a theme which seems to be inspired by John Allegro's book. For other uses, see Mushroom (disambiguation). ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... The Transmigration of Timothy Archer is a 1982 novel by Philip K. Dick. ...


Aldous Huxley's final novel, Island (1962), depicted a fictional entheogenic mushroom — termed "moksha medicine" — used by the people of Pala in rites of passage, such as the transition to adulthood and at the end of life. Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Psychedelic mushrooms is a general term for fungi that contain psychoactive substances. ...


Bruce Sterling's Holy Fire novel refers to the religion in the future as a result of entheogens, used freely by the population. For other persons named Bruce Sterling, see Bruce Sterling (disambiguation). ... Holy Fire is a 1996 science fiction novel by cyberpunk writer Bruce Sterling. ...


In Stephen King's The Gunslinger, Book 1 of The Dark Tower series, the main character receives guidance after taking mescaline. For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... The Gunslinger is a novel by American author Stephen King, and is the first volume in the Dark Tower series, which King considers to be his magnum opus. ... The Dark Tower can refer to one of several things: The Dark Tower (series) — a series of novels by Stephen King. ... Not to be confused with mesclun. ...


The Alastair Reynolds novel Absolution Gap features a moon under the control of a religious government which uses neurological viruses to induce religious faith. Alastair Reynolds (born in 1966 in Barry, South Wales) is a Welsh science fiction author. ... Absolution Gap is a 2003 science fiction space opera novel by Welsh author Alastair Reynolds. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The Psychedelic Sacrament: Manna, Meditation, and Mystical Experience by Dan Merkur, 2001, Park Street Press.
  2. ^ Bwiti: An Ethnography of the Religious Imagination in Africa by James W. Fernandez, Princeton University Press, 1982
  3. ^ Allegro, John Marco (1970). The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross: A Study of the Nature and Origins of Christianity within the Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East. Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-12875-5. 
  4. ^ Benjamin Thomas Ethnobotany & Anthropology Research Page
  5. ^ Giorgio Samorini, “The ‘Mushroom-Tree’ of Plaincourault”, Eleusis: Journal of Psychoactive Plants and Compounds, n. 8, 1997, pp. 29-37
  6. ^ Giorgio Samorini, “The ‘Mushroom-Trees’ in Christian Art”, Eleusis: Journal of Psychoactive Plants and Compounds, n. 1, 1998, pp. 87-108
  7. ^ Kaplan, Aryeh. (1981). The Living Torah New York. p. 442.
  8. ^ Sex, Drugs, Violence and the Bible, by Chris Bennett and Neil McQueen, 2001, Forbidden Fruit Publishing.
  9. ^ kanehbosm
  10. ^ The Psychedelic Sacrament: Manna, Meditation, and Mystical Experience by Dan Merkur, 2001, Park Street Press.
  11. ^ Conjuring Eden: Art and the Entheogenic Vision of Paradise, by Mark Hoffman, Carl Ruck, and Blaise Staples. Entheos: The Journal of Psychedelic Spirituality, Issue No. 1, Summer, 2001
  12. ^ Wasson and Allegro on the Tree of Knowledge as Amanita, Michael S. Hoffman, Journal of Higher Criticism, 2007
  13. ^ Daturas for the Virgin, José Celdrán and Carl Ruck, Entheos: The Journal of Psychedelic Spirituality, Vol. I, Issue 2, Winter, 2002
  14. ^ The Hidden World: Survival of Pagan Shamanic Themes in European Fairytales, by Carl Ruck, Blaise Staples, Jose Alfredo Celdran, Mark Hoffman, Carolina Academic Press, 2007
  15. ^ Amanita Muscaria Mushrooms and Religion - Research Page

References

  • Roberts, Thomas B. (editor) (2001). Psychoactive Sacramentals: Essays on Entheogens and Religion San Francisco: Council on Spiritual Practices.
  • Roberts, Thomas B. (2006) "Chemical Input, Religious Output—Entheogens" Chapter 10 in Where God and Science Meet: Vol. 3: The Psychology of Religious Experience Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.
  • Roberts, Thomas, and Hruby, Paula J. (1995-2003). Religion and Psychoactive Sacraments: An Entheogen Chrestomathy http://www.csp.org/chrestomathy [Online archive]
  • Stafford, Peter. (2003). Psychedlics. Ronin Publishing, Oakland, California. ISBN 0-914171-18-6.
  • Carl Ruck and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth 1994. Introductory excerpts
  • Huston Smith, Cleansing the Doors of Perception: The Religious Significance of Entheogenic Plants and Chemicals, 2000, Tarcher/Putnam, ISBN 1-58542-034-4
  • Giorgio Samorini 1995 "Traditional use of psychoactive mushrooms in Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)?" in Eleusis 1 22-27 (no current url)
  • M. Bock 2000 "Māori kava (Macropiper excelsum)" in Eleusis n.s. vol 4 (no current url)
  • Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing and Hallucinogenic Powers by Richard Evans Schultes, Albert Hofmann, Christian Ratsch - ISBN 0-89281-979-0
  • John J. McGraw, Brain & Belief: An Exploration of the Human Soul, 2004, AEGIS PRESS, ISBN 0-9747645-07
  • J.R. Hale, J.Z. de Boer, J.P. Chanton and H.A. Spiller (2003) Questioning the Delphic Oracle, 2003, Scientific American, vol 289, no 2, 67-73.
  • The Sacred Plants of our Ancestors by Christian Rätsch, published in TYR: Myth—Culture—Tradition Vol. 2, 2003–2004 - ISBN 0-9720292-1-4
  • Yadhu N. Singh, editor, Kava: From Ethnology to Pharmacology, 2004, TAYLOR & FRANCIS, ISBN 0-4153232-74

Huston Cummings Smith (born May 31, 1919) is among the preeminent religious studies scholars in the United States. ... Giorgio Samorini Giorgio Samorini (born in 1957, in Bologna, Italy) is an ethnobotanist and psychedelics researcher. ... John J. McGraw (Born 1974) is an American writer and philosopher. ... Christian Rätsch is Germanys premier expert on ethnopharmacology and psychoactive plants and animals. ... Tyr: Myth, Culture, Tradition is the name of an esoteric, traditionalist journal, edited by Michael Moynihan, Joshua Buckley, and Colin Cleary. ...

See also

Spirituality Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... This is a partial list of Entheogenic substances: Entheogen Ethnobotany Categories: | ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi, most specifically psychoactive mushrooms such as Amanita muscaria and those containing psilocybin, and can be considered a branch of both mycology and anthropology. ... Native American Church Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Psychology of religion is psychologys theory of religious experiences and beliefs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links

Erowid. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...

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ENTHEOGEN : Awakening the Divine Within (232 words)
Entheogen: Awakening the Divine Within is a feature length documentary which invites the viewer to rediscover an enchanted cosmos in the modern world by awakening to the divine within.
Entheogen invites the viewer to consider that the answers to these questions lie within the consciousness of each and every human being, and are accessible if only we give ourselves permission to awaken to the divine within.
Stan Grof, Marilyn Schlitz, Ralph Metzner, Alex Grey, Terrence McKenna, John Markoff, Daniel Pinchbeck, and Kat Harrison among others, postulate how the disenchantment of the modern world may be remedied by summoning the courage to take the next leap in the evolution of planetary consciousness.
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A more straightforward label is entheogen, which literally means "generating the divine within." In laymen's terms, that means "becoming god." We could also go with a purely phenomenological description and call them "consciousness expanding agents" because that's what they do.
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Entheogens are not illegal because a loving government is concerned that you're going to hurt yourself by smoking pot or tripping in your bedroom.
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