FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Enterovirus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Enterovirus
Enterovirus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Picornaviridae
Genus: Enterovirus
Species

Human: Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ...

  • Poliovirus
  • Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) (coxackie A viruses and enterovirus 71 (EV71))
  • Human enterovirus B (HEV-B) (coxsackie B viruses, echoviruses, coxsackie A9 virus, enterovirus 69 (EV69) and enterovirus 73 (EV73))
  • Human enterovirus C (HEV-C) (coxsackie A viruses)
  • Human enterovirus D (HEV-D) (enterovirus 68 (EV68) and enterovirus 70 (EV70))

Nonhuman: This article is about the virus. ... Coxsackie A virus is a cytolytic virus of the Picornaviridae family, a enterovirus (a group containing the polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses). ... An echovirus is a type of RNA virus that belongs to the Enterovirus and the Picornaviridae virus family. ... Coxsackie (virus) is a cytolytic virus of the Picornaviridae family, an enterovirus (a group containing the polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses). ...

  • Bovine enterovirus
  • Simian enterovirus
  • Porcine enterovirus

The enteroviruses are a genus of (+)ssRNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. Historically the most significant has been the Poliovirus (which is now nearly extinct). Other types are coxsackie and echovirus. Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... This article is about the virus. ...


Enterovirus are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis and can cause serious disease especially in infants and the immunocompromised. Aseptic meningitis is a condition in which the layers lining of the brain, or meninges, become inflamed and a pyogenic bacterial source is not to blame. ...


"Human enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) infect millions of people worldwide each year, resulting in a wide range of clinical outcomes ranging from unapparent infection to mild respiratory illness (common cold), hand, foot and mouth disease, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, myocarditis, severe neonatal sepsis-like disease, and acute flaccid paralysis. In the United States, enteroviruses are responsible for 30,000 to 50,000 meningitis hospitalizations per year as a result of 30 million to 50 million infections. Serologic studies have distinguished 66 human enterovirus serotypes on the basis of an antibody neutralization test, and additional antigenic variants have been defined within several of the serotypes on the basis of reduced or nonreciprocal cross-neutralization between prototype and variant strains. On the basis of their pathogenesis in humans and experimental animals, the enteroviruses were originally classified into four groups, polioviruses, coxsackie A viruses (CA), coxsackie B viruses (CB), and echoviruses, but it was quickly realized that there were significant overlaps in the biological properties of viruses in the different groups. The more recently isolated enteroviruses have been named with a system of consecutive numbers: EV68, EV69, EV70, and EV71."[1] Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert in the field of medicine. ... Aseptic technique refers to a procedure that is performed under sterile conditions. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... In medicine (cardiology), myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... Flaccid paralysis, is a clinical manifestation characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause (e. ... Serotypes refer to a group of related microorganisms or viruses distinguished by responses to different antigens. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... Pathogenesis is the mechanism by which a certain etiological factor causes disease (pathos = disease, genesis = development). ...

Contents

Transmission

Poliovirus, as well as coxsackie and echovirus are faecal-oral spread (compare with entero- - relating to the intestines).


Species and genetics

Enteroviruses are members of the picornavirus family, a large and diverse group of small RNA viruses and "is characterized by a single positive-strand genomic RNA known to have a high mutation rate caused by low-fidelity replication and frequent recombination."[2] Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ...


"The enterovirus genus comprises the following species: poliovirus, human enterovirus A (HEV-A) (coxackie A viruses and enterovirus 71), HEV-B (coxsackie B viruses, echoviruses, coxsackie A9 virus, and enteroviruses 69 and 73), HEV-C (coxsackie A viruses), HEV-D (enteroviruses 68 and 70), and at least three animal enterovirus species (bovine, simian, and porcine enteroviruses). They all contain a genome of approximately 7,500 bases and positive [(+)]-strand polarity. After infection of the host cell, the genome is translated in a cap-independent manner into a single polyprotein, which is subsequently processed by virus-encoded proteases into the structural capsid proteins and the nonstructural proteins, which are mainly involved in the replication of the virus"[3]


Poliovirus

Main article: Poliovirus

Incubation period of poliovirus is 1-2 weeks. The prodromal phase shows: Fever, malaise, myalgia (sore muscles), sore throat, vomiting, and constipation. Poliovirus can affect the spinal cord and cause paralysis. In this case, the disease is referred to as poliomyelitis. This article is about the virus. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... This article is about the disease. ...


Coxsackie and echovirus

Main articles: Coxsackie A virus and Echovirus

Coxsackie viruses (a non-phylogenic group) are mainly associated with human hand, foot and mouth disease. Coxsackie (virus) is a cytolytic virus of the Picornaviridae family, an enterovirus (a group containing the polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses). ... An echovirus is a type of RNA virus that belongs to the Enterovirus and the Picornaviridae virus family. ... Coxsackie A virus is a cytolytic virus of the Picornaviridae family, a enterovirus (a group containing the polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses). ... Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ...


Echoviruses, on the other hand, are a cause of many of the non-specific viral infections. It is mainly found in the intestine, and can cause nervous disorders. An echovirus is a type of RNA virus that belongs to the Enterovirus and the Picornaviridae virus family. ...


The usual symptoms of coxackie and echovirus are: Fever, mild rash, mild upper respiratory tract (URT) illness.


Chronic fatigue syndrome

In September 2007, a study published in the Journal of Clinical Pathology reported that acute respiratory or gastrointestinal infections associated with enterovirus may be a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome. The California-based study showed a statistically significant portion of the chronic fatigue study group tested positive for a viral protein compared to the control group.[4] Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is one of several names given to a poorly understood, highly debilitating disorder of uncertain cause/causes, which is thought to affect approximately 4 per 1,000 adults[1] in the United States and other countries, and a smaller fraction of children. ...


Enterovirus 71 (EV71)

EV71 was first isolated and characterized from cases of neurological disease in California in 1969.[5][6] "Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the newest member of Enterovirudae, is notable for its etiological role in epidemics of severe neurological diseases in children. It appears to be emerging as an important virulent neurotropic enterovirus in the upcoming era of poliomyelitis eradication".[7] The illness usually peaks in June or July. This article is about the U.S. state. ...


"Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may be asymptomatic or may cause diarrhea, rashes, and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, EV71 also has the potential to cause severe neurological disease. To date, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of host response to EV71 infection. [...] EV71 infection led to increases in the level of mRNAs encoding chemokines, proteins involved in protein degradation, complement proteins, and proapoptotis proteins."[8] Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ...


"Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), is sometimes associated with severe central nervous system diseases. In 1997, in Malaysia and Japan, and in 1998 in Taiwan, there were HFMD epidemics involving sudden deaths among young children, and EV71 was isolated from the HFMD patients, including the fatal cases. The nucleotide sequences of each EV71 isolate were determined and compared by phylogenetical analysis. EV71 strains from previously reported epidemics belonged to genotype A-1, while those from recent epidemics could be divided into two genotypes, A-2 and B."[9]


Treatment

There is no vaccine or antiviral agent known to be effective in treating or preventing EV71 infection. Experimental vaccines and antiviral agents are being worked on.[10] For example, "both bovine and human lactoferrins were found to be potent inhibitors of EV71 infection"[7] and "ribavirin could be a potential anti-EV71 drug."[11] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Lactoferrin is a globular protein found in milk and many mucosal secretions such as tears. ... Ribavirin (Copegus®; Rebetol®; Ribasphere®; Vilona®,Virazole®, also generics from Sandoz, Teva, Warrick) is an anti-viral drug which is active against a number of DNA and RNA viruses. ...


the recent research showed that the oral vaccination strategy may play well in the treament, the transgenic produce such as tomato and mammalian's milk have been proven to be potential candidates.


Regions affected

Malaysia and Singapore

In Malaysia, EV71 outbreaks occurred in 1997 and 2000, mainly associated with genotypes B3 and B4. Since 1997, EV71 epidemics (genotypes B and C) have been reported annually in Singapore, with genotype B4 forming the predominant causative agent of a large outbreak in 2000.[2]


Korea

In Korea, an EV71 epidemic in 2000 was caused by a relatively new genotype, C3, which has only rarely been identified outside of Korea in recent years.[2]


Taiwan

A large outbreak of HFMD due to EV71 infection occurred in Taiwan in 1998, including 129,106 case reports, 405 children with severe complications, and more than 80 deaths. After 1998, smaller EV71 epidemics occurred almost annually in Taiwan, primarily associated with EV71 viruses of genotypes C2 and B4.[2]


"Two outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000. Enteroviruses were isolated from a total of 1,892 patients in this laboratory during this period. Of the virus isolates, enterovirus 71 (EV71) was diagnosed in 44.4% of the patients (132 of 297) in 1998, 2% (13 of 646) in 1999, and 20.5% (195 of 949) in 2000. Genetic analyses of the 5�-untranslated and VP1 regions of EV71 isolates by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing were performed to understand the diversity of EV71 in these outbreaks of HFMD. Most EV71 isolates from the 1998 epidemic belonged to genotype C, while only one-tenth of the isolates were genotype B. Interestingly, all EV71 isolates tested from 1999 to 2000 belonged to genotype B. This study indicated that two genogroups of EV71 capable of inducing severe clinical illness have been circulating in Taiwan. Furthermore, the predominant EV71 genotypes responsible for each of the two major HFMD outbreaks within the 3-year period in Taiwan were different."[5]


Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, sporadic EV71 infections with incidences of monoplegia were reported in 1987, and a fatal case was documented in 2001.[2] In medicine, a Monoplegia is a paralysis of a single limb. ...


The number of EV71 cases in Hong Kon in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 were 35, 8, 16 and 12 respectively.[12] In 2008 , the Centre for Health Protection confirmed the total number of infections to 18 so far. In three of the cases, the children infected had traveled to Guangdong and Fujian.[13] Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


China

From 1999 to 2004, there were no epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shenzhen, People's Republic of China, but each year there were small, local outbreaks associated with only a few cases of neurological disease and no reported fatalities. Genetic analysis revealed 19 cases of EV71 among 147 children who had hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shenzhen during this time.[2] Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ... For other uses, see Shenzhen (disambiguation). ... Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by a number of enteroviruses in the family Picornaviridae. ... For other uses, see Shenzhen (disambiguation). ...


Until 2008, no large EV71 epidemic had been reported on the Chinese mainland, but sporadic infections were common in the southeast coastal area as well as inland regions, such as Beijing, Chongqing, and Jinan. From 1998 to 2004, the only EV71 viruses identified on mainland China belonged to the genotype C4, indicating far less variety in China than in Taiwan.[2]


On May 3, 2008, Chinese health authorities reported a major outbreak of EV71 enterovirus in Fuyang city (Anhui province, Chinese: 阜阳) and other localities in Anhui, Zhejiang, and Guangdong provinces. As of May 3, 2008, 3736 cases occurring mainly in children have been reported, with 22 dead and 42 critically ill. Some 415 new cases have been reported in the last 24 hours in Fuyang City alone.[14][15] As of May 5, 2008, 6,300 were sickened by the viral outbreak which killed another child, in Zhejiang raising the death toll to 26 children, with 1,198 other children affected in that province alone. Specifically, an additional 5,151 cases were reported in Anhui province with scores more in 4 other provinces. 8,531 cases of children infected with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) were reported in China. All the children infected are aged below 6, with most of them being under 2.[16][17][18] As of May 7 contagious HFMD led to 28 deaths.[19] Xinhua reported the number of people infected, also rose by 4000 to 15,799.[20] The death toll rose by two to 30, on Thursday, while the number of reported cases jumped to 19,962.[21][22] It was up by 4 to 34 on Friday, while reported infections jumped to 24,932.[23] Beijing received its first case of the virus on May 14.[24] is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Fuyang can be one of the following two cities in China: Fuyang, Anhui (阜阳) Fuyang, Zhejiang (富阳) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Xinhua (Chinese:新华通讯社/新華通訊社, pinyin:xīnhuá tōngxùnshè) is also the short for Xinhua News Agency Xinhua (Chinese:新化县/新化縣, pinyin:xīnhuà xiàn) is a county in Hunan,China, See Xinhua County. ...


See also

Other serious illnesses that can arise from these viruses:

Aseptic meningitis is a condition in which the layers lining of the brain, or meninges, become inflamed and a pyogenic bacterial source is not to blame. ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ... In medicine (cardiology), myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. ... Pericarditis is inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium. ... Herpangina (also called mouth blisters) is the name of a painful mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses. ...

Sources and notes

  1. ^ Molecular Evolution of the Human Enteroviruses: Correlation of Serotype with VP1 Sequence and Application to Picornavirus Classification J Virol. 1999 March; 73(3): 1941–1948
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Genetic Characteristics of Human Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Circulating from 1999 to 2004 in Shenzhen, People‘s Republic of China
  3. ^ Biological Significance of a Human Enterovirus B-Specific RNA Element in the 3′ Nontranslated Region J Virol. 2002 October; 76(19): 9900–9909. doi: 10.1128/JVI.76.19.9900-9909.2002.
  4. ^ medpagetoday
  5. ^ a b Change of Major Genotype of Enterovirus 71 in Outbreaks of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Taiwan between 1998 and 2000
  6. ^ Laboratory Investigation of a Suspected Enterovirus 71 Outbreak
  7. ^ a b Lactoferrin Inhibits Enterovirus 71 Infection of Human Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells In Vitro
  8. ^ Identification of genes involved in the host response to enterovirus 71 infection J Neurovirol. 2004 Oct;10(5):293-304
  9. ^ Enterovirus 71 from fatal and nonfatal cases of hand, foot and mouth disease epidemics in Malaysia, Japan and Taiwan in 1997-1998 Jpn J Infect Dis. 1999 Feb;52(1):12-5.
  10. ^ DNA vaccine constructs against enterovirus 71 elicit immune response in mice
  11. ^ Ribavirin Reduces Mortality in Enterovirus 71–Infected Mice by Decreasing Viral Replication
  12. ^ sc.chp.gov.hk, Joint departmental efforts to prevent EV71
  13. ^ standard.com.hk, Beijing records first virus death
  14. ^ China on alert as virus spreads BBC News
  15. ^ China orders heightened efforts to stop deadly virus AP News
  16. ^ news.bbc.co.uk, China virus toll continues rise
  17. ^ www.inthenews.co.uk, Hand-foot-mouth epidemic continues to infect children across China
  18. ^ ap.google.com, China says 6,300 cases in viral outbreak
  19. ^ news.xinhuanet.com, Xinhua's tally: Death toll of hand-foot-mouth disease rises to 28 in China
  20. ^ www.theaustralian.news.com.au, 28 Chinese children die from virus
  21. ^ ap.google.com/, Death toll from child viral disease up to 30 in China
  22. ^ uk.reuters.com, China reports two more deaths from child virus
  23. ^ ap.google.com, Report: Child viral death toll up to 34 in China
  24. ^ Iht.com, Beijing hit with first hand, foot and mouth disease death

  Results from FactBites:
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch (1038 words)
Enterovirus infections are suspected to play a role in the development of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes).
Newborns infected with an enterovirus may rarely develop severe illness and die from infection (see below: "What are the risks of enterovirus infections in pregnancy?").
The health care costs from enterovirus infections are unknown, but a large portion of the costs may come from use of over-the-counter medications to treat symptoms for millions of cases of "summer colds" and "flu" caused by enteroviruses.
Enterovirus Epidemic Taiwan 1998 (988 words)
The mode of transmission of enterovirus 71 is assumed to be oral-fecal and/or respiratory.
In view of the severity of the symptomatic cases this year there is unusual interest in a study of the risk factors contributing to disease, and to deaths caused by enterovirus type 71.
A popular theory of this epidemic is that the virulence and altered clinical manifestations of enterovirus type 71 are due to mutations of the virus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m