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Education is a term often used to refer to formal education (see below). The word's broader meaning covers a range of experiences, from formal learning to the building of understanding and knowledge through day to day experiences. Ultimately, all that we experience serves as a form of education. Image File history File links AF-kindergarten. ... Image File history File links AF-kindergarten. ... A kindergarten classroom in Afghanistan. ... A university classroom with permanently-installed desk-chairs and green chalkboards. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up understanding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Look up Experience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article discusses the general concept of experience. ...


It is a widely held belief that education is lifelong. Individuals receive informal education from a variety of sources. Family members, peers, books and mass media have a strong influence on the informal education of the individual. A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the...


Education also refers to a discipline, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to understanding and improving the processes of teaching and learning. It draws on other disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology. Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Initiation rite of the Yao people of Malawi Anthropology (from the Greek word , man or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ...

Contents

Terminology

The word education is derived from the Latin educare (with a short u) meaning "to raise", "to bring up", "to train", "to rear", via "educatio/nis", bringing up, raising. In recent times, there has been a return to an alternative assertion that education derives from a different verb: educere (with a long u), meaning "to lead out" or "to lead forth". There is an English word from this verb, "eduction": drawing out. This is considered by some to be a more accurate understanding of the creative aspects needed in education to develop innate abilities and expand horizons. This approach was encouraged by Friedrich Froebel, John Dewey and Abraham Maslow. Institutions training teachers in the 1950's and 60's encouraged this for optimal learning experiences. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel (1782-1852) was a German educationalist. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Philosophy of education

The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, nature and ideal content of education. Related topics include knowledge itself, the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject, problems of authority, and the relationship between education and society. At least since Rousseau's time, the philosophy of education has been linked to theories of developmental psychology and human development. The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ... Contents | Overviews | Academia | Topics | Basic topics | Tables | Glossaries | Portals | Categories // This is a list of academic disciplines. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A Phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... In psychology, Human development is the study of mental and related processes across the life span. ...


Fundamental purposes that have been proposed for education include:

  1. The enterprise of civil society depends on educating young people to become responsible, thoughtful and enterprising citizens. This is an intricate, challenging task requiring deep understanding of ethical principles, moral values, political theory, aesthetics, and economics, not to mention an understanding of who children are, in themselves and in society.
  2. Progress in every practical field depends on having capacities that schooling can educate. Education is thus a means to foster the individual's, society's, and even humanity's future development and prosperity. Emphasis is often put on economic success in this regard.
  3. One's individual development and the capacity to fulfill one's own purposes can depend on an adequate preparation in childhood. Education can thus attempt to give a firm foundation for the achievement of personal fulfillment. The better the foundation that is built, the more successful the child will be. Simple basics in education can carry a child far.

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... Social responsibility is a doctrine that claims that an entity whether it is state, government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ethikos, meaning arising from habit; also Morality), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of value, or morals and morality. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Each individual has certain underlying values that contribute to their value system (see value in semiotics). ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... According to “Building Black Wealth In America” prosperity is that point where all reasonable wealth accumulation goals are exceeded for successive generations, it is the epitome of financial stability, reliability, and security. ... Social status is the standing, the honour or prestige attached to ones position in society. ... Human development may refer to: Human development (biology) Human development (psychology) see Developmental psychology Occasionally, it may refer to both, but because each of these is already an immense area, few if any contemporary academic discussions attempt to tackle both with any completeness. ... Look up success in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Maslows Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently extended to include his observations of mans innate curiosity. ...

The nature, origin and scope of knowledge

Main article: Epistemology
See also: Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom, Self-realization, and Ability

A central tenet of education typically includes “the imparting of knowledge.” At a very basic level, this purpose ultimately deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. The branch of philosophy that addresses these and related issues is known as epistemology. This area of study often focuses on analyzing the nature and variety of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth and belief. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In general, data consist of propositions that reflect reality. ... Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Personification of wisdom (Greek Σοφια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Detail from the Allegory of Wisdom and Strength by Paulo Veronese (c. ... Categories: Substubs ... Look up ability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Ability - the quality of person of being able to perform; A quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Look up belief in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


While the term, knowledge, is often used to convey this general purpose of education, it can also be viewed as part of a continuum of knowing that ranges from very specific data to the highest levels. Seen in this light, the continuum may be thought to consist of a general hierarchy of overlapping levels of knowing. Students must be able to connect new information to a piece of old information to be better able to learn, understand, and retain information. This continuum may include notions such as data, information, knowledge, wisdom, and realization. In general, data consist of propositions that reflect reality. ... In general, data consist of propositions that reflect reality. ... Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Personification of wisdom (Greek Σοφια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Detail from the Allegory of Wisdom and Strength by Paulo Veronese (c. ... Categories: Substubs ...


Psychology of education

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities. Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. ... Social psychology is often conceived to be the study of how individuals perceive, influence, and relate to others. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... An organization or organisation (read more about -ize vs -ise) is a formal group of people with one or more shared goals. ... Binet could be considered the first school psychologist A school psychologist is a certified practitioner who applies principles of clinical psychology and counseling to the diagnosis and treatment of students behavioral problems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gifted education. ... Disabilities are limitations in activity and/or functioning that are attributable to permanent medical conditions in physical, mental, emotional, and/or sensory domains and, significantly, are also due to societal responses to those limitations. ...


Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks (Lucas, Blazek, & Raley, 2006). Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek Βìο meaning life and Λoγος meaning the study of) is the study of life. ... Instructional design, also known as instructional systems design, is the analysis of learning needs and systemic development of instruction. ... Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ... Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts. ... Special education, also known as special ed or additional support needs, is instruction that is modified or particularized catering to students who have singular needs or disabilities, for example, because of mental illness or mental retardation. ... Classroom management is a term used by many teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behaviour by students. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... The learning sciences is a program of interdisciplinary study that works to further scientific understanding of learning and teaching as well as engage in the design and implementation of learning innovations. ...


Sociology of education

The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and forces affect educational processes and outcomes, and vice versa. By many, education is understood to be a means of overcoming handicaps, achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and status for all (Sargent 1994). Learners may be motivated by aspirations for progress and betterment. Education is perceived as a place where children can develop according to their unique needs and potentialities (Schofield 1999). The purpose of education can be to develop every individual to their full potential. However, according to some sociologists, a key problem is that the educational needs of individuals and marginalized groups may be at odds with existing social processes, such as maintaining social stability through the reproduction of inequality. The understanding of the goals and means of educational socialization processes differs according to the sociological paradigm used. The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual experiences affect educational processes and outcomes. ... The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual experiences affect educational processes and outcomes. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Sociological paradigm (also sociological perespectives or frameworks) are specific points of view used by social scientists in social research. ...


Academic disciplines

An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university, or via some other such method. Functionally, disciplines are usually defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and by the learned societies to which their practitioners belong. Professors say schooling is 80% psychological, 20% physical effort. Contents | Overviews | Academia | Topics | Basic topics | Tables | Glossaries | Portals | Categories // This is a list of academic disciplines. ... Contents | Overviews | Academia | Topics | Basic topics | Tables | Glossaries | Portals | Categories // This is a list of academic disciplines. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ... For a list of universities around the world, see Lists of colleges and universities Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... Academic publishing describes a system of publishing that is necessary in order for academic scholars to review work and make it available for a wider audience. ... Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising facts. ... A learned society is a society that exists to promote an academic discipline or group of disciplines. ...


Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences. The lunar farside as seen from Apollo 11 Natural science is the rational study of the universe via rules or laws of natural order. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ...


Teaching

Primary School in "open air". Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842.
Primary School in "open air". Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts of Bucharest, around 1842.

It is now widely recognized[citation needed] that the most important factors in any teacher's effectiveness are the interaction with students, the knowledge and personality of the teacher. The best teachers are able to translate information, good judgment, experience, and wisdom into a significant knowledge of a subject that is understood and retained by the student. Teachers need the ability to understand a subject well enough to convey its essence to a new generation of students. The goal is to establish a sound knowledge base on which students will be able to build as they are exposed to different life experiences. The passing of knowledge from generation to generation allows students to grow into useful members of society. Image File history File links Teaching_Bucharest_1842. ... Image File history File links Teaching_Bucharest_1842. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 228 km² Population (2003) 1,929,615[1] Density 9131. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A judgment or judgement (see spelling note below), in a legal context, is synonymous with the formal decision made by a court following a lawsuit. ... Personification of wisdom (Greek Σοφια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Detail from the Allegory of Wisdom and Strength by Paulo Veronese (c. ... Generation (From the Greek γιγνμαι), also known as procreation, is the act of producing offspring. ...

Further information: socialization

Teachers should have a firm grasp of a given knowledge area so that they can pass it on to their students using whatever techniques are effective. Different people learn in different ways, and many things will have to be explained many different times in many different ways before most of the students "get it". Some students, unfortunately, never will "get it"--since they are not interested or have not learned enough of the foundation knowledge of a given subject to advance to a new level. The main role of a teacher is to teach the students the core knowledge accumulated over centuries of human experience well enough for them to understand and retain enough of this knowledge to be able to continue to build on it and, at least in part, understand how the world works.


These ideas reflect a traditional view of teaching in which the responsibility for learning is placed on the student. In contemporary British pedagogy particularly, the onus lies on the teacher to create the appropriate dynamic for effective learning by students of all abilities, backgrounds and inclinations. The teacher is more than a repository of knowledge: effective teaching draws on a range of skills, insights and techniques which afford access to knowledge as well as to the development of appropriate skills. Students may not 'get it' because their social backgrounds exclude them from curricula which presuppose certain cultural and social values. It is the job of teachers to understand and identify barriers to learning, to remove those barriers and to bring the best out of those they educate.


Schooling

Schooling occurs when society or a group or an individual sets up a curriculum to educate people, usually the young. Schooling can become systematic and thorough. Sometimes education systems can be used to promote doctrines or ideals as well as knowledge, and this can sometimes lead to abuse of the system. In education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their contents offered by an institution such as a school or university. ...


Life-long or adult education have become widespread in many countries. However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as adult learning or lifelong learning.


Adult education takes on many forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning. Lending libraries provide inexpensive informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. Many adults have also taken advantage of the rise in computer ownership and internet access to further their informal education. A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information resources and services, organized for use, and maintained by a public body, institution, or private individual. ...


Alternative education

Main article: Alternative education

Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term which may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education). This may include both forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability) and forms of education designed for a general audience which employ alternative educational philosophies and/or methods. Great Neck Village School, an alternative high school in Great Neck, New York, USA Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, describes an education that is modified or particularized for those having singular needs, such as maladjusted people and gifted children. ... Great Neck Village School, an alternative high school in Great Neck, New York, USA Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, describes an education that is modified or particularized for those having singular needs, such as maladjusted people and gifted children. ... Traditional education is usually the absence or target of destruction by Education reform. ...


Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education. While some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools, independent schools, and home-based learning vary widely, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community. Education reform is a plan, program, or movement which attempts to bring about a systematic change in educational theory or practice across a community or society. ... Philosophy of education is the study of such questions as what education is and what its purpose is, the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject, problems of authority, the relationship between education and society, etc. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Scholarly method - or as it is more commonly called, scholarship - is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Freshman and Sophomore redirect here. ... Traditional education is usually the absence or target of destruction by Education reform. ... Sense of community (or psychological sense of community) is a concept in social psychology (or more narrowly, in community psychology), which focuses on the experience of community rather than its structure, formation, setting, or other features. ...


In certain places, especially in the United States, the term alternative may largely refer to forms of education catering to "at risk" students, as it is, for example, in this definition drafted by the Massachusetts Department of Education. [1]


Technology

Inexpensive technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers and mobile phones are being widely used in developed countries to both complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education). This gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging. Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students, including Multimedia literacy, and provides new ways to engage students, such as classroom management software. Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. Technology is also being used in the assessment of students. One example is the Audience Response System (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions. Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a level of thinking mastery sufficient to leave the surface of the planet for the first time and explore space. ... The tower of a personal computer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with e-learning. ... Multimedia literacy is a new aspect of literacy that is being recognised as technology expands the way people communicate. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Powerpoint Microsoft Office PowerPoint is a ubiquitous presentation program developed for the Microsoft Windows and Mac OS computer operating systems. ... An Interactive Whiteboard is an electronic whiteboard writing surface which can capture writing electronically in group presentation situations such as teaching. ...


What are ICTs and what types of ICTs are commonly used in education?

Main Article: ICT in Education


ICTs stand for information and communication technologies and are defined, for the purposes of this primer, as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information.”[1] These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony.


In recent years there has been a groundswell of interest in how computers and the Internet can best be harnessed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels and in both formal and non-formal settings. But ICTs are more than just these technologies; older technologies such as the telephone, radio and television, although now given less attention, have a longer and richer history as instructional tools.[2] For instance, radio and television have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning, although print remains the cheapest,most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries.[3] The use of computers and the Internet is still in its infancy in developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access.


Moreover, different technologies are typically used in combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. For instance, the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri Lanka.[4] The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, online programming.[5] Similarly, the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print, recorded audio and video, broadcast radio and television, and audioconferencing technologies.[6]


Challenges

The goal of education is fourfold: the social purpose, intellectual purpose, economic purpose, and political/civic purpose. Current education issues include which teaching method(s) are most effective, how to determine what knowledge should be taught, which knowledge is most relevant, and how well the pupil will retain incoming knowledge. Educators such as George Counts and Paulo Freire identified education as an inherently political process with inherently political outcomes. The challenge of identifying whose ideas are transferred and what goals they serve has always stood in the face of formal and informal education. Paulo Freire Paulo Freire (Recife, Brazil September 19, 1921 - São Paulo, Brazil May 2, 1997) was a Brazilian educator and influential theorist of education. ...


In addition to the "Three R's", reading, writing, and arithmetic, Western primary and secondary schools attempt to teach the basic knowledge of history, geography, mathematics (usually including calculus and algebra), physics, chemistry and sometimes politics, in the hope that students will retain and use this knowledge as they age or that the skills acquired will be transferable. The current education system measures competency with tests and assignments and then assigns each student a corresponding grade. The grades, usually a letter grade or a percentage, are intended to represent the amount of all material presented in class that the student understood. Pre- and post-tests may be used to measure how much was learned. Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ... Scribe Writing Writing, in its most general sense, is the preservation and the preserved text on a medium, with the use of signs or symbols. ... Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple daily counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... in 1930 was when the first traces of humans where discovered by cochroaches. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Calculus is the name given to a group of systematic methods of calculation, computation, and analysis in mathematics which use a common and specialized algebraic notation. ... Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. ... Physics (from the Greek, (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... Chemistry (from Persian language کیمیا Kimia and Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ...


Educational progressives or advocates of unschooling often believe that grades do not necessarily reveal the strengths and weaknesses of a student, and that there is an unfortunate lack of youth voice in the educational process. Some feel the current grading system lowers students' self-confidence, as students may receive poor marks due to factors outside their control. Such factors include poverty, child abuse, and prejudiced or incompetent teachers. Unschooling is a form of education in which learning is based on the students interests, needs, and goals. ... Youth voice is a fairly common neologism to refers to the distinct ideas, opinions, attitudes, knowledge, and actions of young people as a collective body. ... Self-confidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet realistic views of themselves and their situations. ... Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult, often synonymous with the term child maltreatment or the term child abuse and neglect. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


By contrast, many advocates of a more traditional or "back to basics" approach believe that the direction of reform needs to be the opposite. Students are not inspired or challenged to achieve success because of the dumbing down of the curriculum and the replacement of the "canon" with inferior material. They believe that self-confidence arises not from removing hurdles such as grading, but by making them fair and encouraging students to gain pride from knowing they can jump over these hurdles.


On the one hand, Albert Einstein, the most famous physicist of the twentieth century, who is credited with helping us understand the universe better, was not a model school student. He was uninterested in what was being taught, and he did not attend classes all the time. On the other hand, his gifts eventually shone through and added to the sum of human knowledge. Albert Einstein ( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... ...


There are a number of highly controversial issues in education. Should some knowledge be forgotten? Should classes be segregated by gender? What should be taught, are we better off knowing how to build nuclear bombs, or is it best to let such knowledge be forgotten? There are also some philosophies, for example Transcendentalism, that would probably reject conventional education in the belief that knowledge should be gained through purely personal experience. Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ...


A recent book argues that children are being expected to learn too much. "There is an ongoing tendency to increase the length of textbooks. There are various reasons why people want to add to the education of children. People who work on education often believe, nobly enough, that the most important contribution is to get children to learn more. Publishers want to sell new books and adding new material is an important aspect of an effective sales pitch". [7]


The cost of higher education in developed countries is increasingly becoming an issue.


Education and Economic Growth

If we look at a sorted list of nations with the highest level of secondary schooling we would notice these to be the richest countries in the world, based on GDP per capita. High rates of education are essential for countries to achieve high levels of economic growth. In theory poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries. But economists argue that if the gap in education between a rich and a poor nation is too large, as is the case between the poorest and the richest nations in the world, the transfer of these technologies that drive economic growth becomes difficult, thus the economies of the world's poorest nations stagnate.


Developing countries

According to The Borgen project, 115 million children lack access to education. In developing countries, the number and seriousness of the problems faced are naturally greater. People are sometimes unaware of the importance of education, and there is economic pressure from those parents who prioritize their children's making money in the short term over any long-term benefits of education. Recent studies on child labor and poverty have suggested that when poor families reach a certain economic threshold where families are able to provide for their basic needs, parents return their children to school. This has been found to be true, once the threshold has been breached, even if the potential economic value of the children's work has increased since their return to school. Teachers are often paid less than other similar professions. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A lack of good universities, and a low acceptance rate for good universities, is evident in countries with a relatively high population density. In some countries, there are uniform, overstructured, inflexible centralized programs from a central agency that regulates all aspects of education.

  • Due to globalization, increased pressure on students in curricular activities
  • Removal of a certain percentage of students for improvisation of academics (usually practised in schools, after 10th grade)

India is now developing technologies that will skip land based phone and internet lines. Instead, India launched EDUSAT, an education satellite that can reach more of the country at a greatly reduced cost. There is also an initiative started by a group out of MIT and supported by several major corporations to develop a $100 laptop. The laptops should be available by late 2006 or 2007. The laptops, sold at cost, will enable developing countries to give their children a digital education, and to close the digital divide across the world. // A typical - but restrictive - definition can be taken from the International Monetary Fund, which stresses the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, free international capital flows, and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. ... EDUSAT or GSAT-3 was launched in September 2004 by the Indian Space Research Organisation. ... The $100 laptop is an education project for creating an inexpensive laptop computer intended to provide every child in the world access to knowledge and modern forms of education. ...


In Africa, NEPAD has launched an "e-school programme" to provide all 600,000 primary and high schools with computer equipment, learning materials and internet access within 10 years. New Partnership for Africas Development is an economic development program of the African Union. ... The E-School program run by NEPAD aims to provide computers and internet access to all schools in Africa within 10 years, and also to set up health points to tie in with Nepads E-Health program. ...


Private groups, like The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, are working to give more individuals opportunities to receive education in developing countries through such programs as the Perpetual Education Fund. The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The Perpetual Education Fund is a program of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, first announced by President Gordon B. Hinckley on March 31, 2001. ...


An International Development Agency project called naabur.com, started with the support of American President Bill Clinton, uses the internet to allow co-operation by individuals on issues of social development.


Parental involvement

Parental involvement is an important element in a child's educational development. Early and consistent parental involvement in the child's life, for example by reading to children at an early age, teaching patterns, interpersonal communication skills, exposing them to diverse cultures and the community around them, and educating them about a healthy lifestyle, is critical. The socialization and academic education of a child are aided by the involvement of the student, parent(s), extended family, teachers, and others in the community. Parent involvement is more than the parent being the field trip helper, or the lunch lady. Parents need to be asked about how their child learns best. They need to share their career expertise with the children. Today's educators need to remember that parents are the child's first and foremost teacher; parents, too, are experts, and teachers should learn from them. A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Interpersonal communication is the process of sending and receiving information or communication with another person. ... A community usually refers to a group of people who interact and share certain things as a group, but it can refer to various collections of living things sharing an environment, plant or animal. ... Freshman and Sophomore redirect here. ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Extended family is a term with several distinct meanings. ... A teacher writes on a blackboard in an American college. ... A lunch lady is a woman who typically serves lunch in a school. ...


Academic achievement and parental involvement are strongly linked in the research. Many schools are now beginning parental involvement programs in a more organized fashion. In the US this has been led in part by the No Child Left Behind legislation from the US Department of Education. Signing ceremony at Hamilton High School in Hamilton, Ohio. ... The United States Department of Education was created in 1979 (by PL 96-88) as a Cabinet-level department of the United States government, and began operating in 1980. ...


Internationalization

Education is becoming increasingly international. Not only are the materials becoming more influenced by the rich international environment, but exchanges among students at all levels are also playing an increasingly important role. In Europe, for example, the Socrates-Erasmus Programme stimulates exchanges across European universities. Also, the Soros Foundation provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Some scholars argue that, regardless of whether one system is considered better or worse than another, experiencing a different way of education can often be considered to be the most important, enriching element of an international learning experience (Dubois et al. 2006).


See also

Education Portal
University Portal
Schools Portal

Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_bookcase. ... Raphael, The school of Athens (detail) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links School. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Libraries are a useful resource for adult learners. ... Great Neck Village School, an alternative high school in Great Neck, New York, USA Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, describes an education that is modified or particularized for those having singular needs, such as maladjusted people and gifted children. ... Classical education as understood and taught in the Middle Ages of Western culture is roughly based on the ancient Greek concept of Paideia. ... Comparative education seeks to throw light on education in one country (or group of countries) by using data and insights drawn from the practises and situation in another country, or countries. ... In education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses and their contents offered by an institution such as a school or university. ... Philosophy of education is the study of such questions as what education is and what its purpose is, the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject, problems of authority, the relationship between education and society, etc. ... Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ... Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. ... This glossary of education-related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In professional education learning by teaching designates a method which allows pupils and students to prepare and teach lessons or parts of lessons. ... This is a list of educators. ... Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor or further training thereafter. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // Public education is education mandated for the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... Special education, also known as special ed or additional support needs, is instruction that is modified or particularized catering to students who have singular needs or disabilities, for example, because of mental illness or mental retardation. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... For a list of universities around the world, see Lists of colleges and universities Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Blurton, Craig. New Directions of ICT-Use in Education. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  2. ^ Cuban, Larry (1986). Teachers and machines: the classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press. ISBN 0-8077-2792-X. 
  3. ^ Potashnik, M. and Capper, J.. Distance Education:Growth and Diversity. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  4. ^ Taghioff, Daniel. Seeds of Consensus—The Potential Role for Information and Communication Technologies in Development.. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  5. ^ http://www.open.ac.uk
  6. ^ http://www.ignou.ac.in
  7. ^ Bar-Yam,Yaneer (2005). Making Things Work. Knowledge Press. ISBN 0-9656328-2-2. 

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

References

  • Brief review of world socio-demographic trends shows world illiteracy trends.
  • Dharampal (2000). The Beautiful Tree. Other India Press. 
  • Bifulco,Robert and Ladd,Helen. "Institutional Change and Coproduction of Public Services: The Effect of Charter Schools on Parental Involvement." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory (Oct 2006): 552-576. http.journals.ohiolink.edu
  • Buddin,Richard and Zimmer,Ron. "Student achievement in charter schools:A complex picture." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management (2005): 351-371. Ohio Link. http://journals.ohiolink.edu
  • Dubois, H.F.W., Padovano G. & Stew, G. (2006) Improving international nurse training: an American–Italian case study. International Nursing Review 53(2): 110–116.
  • Li Yi. 2005. The Structure and Evolution of Chinese Social Stratification. University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-3331-5
  • Lucas, J. L., Blazek, M. A., & Raley, A. B. (2005) The lack of representation of educational psychology and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Educational Psychology, 25, 347-351.
  • Sargent,M. (1994) The New Sociology for Australians, Third Edition, Longman Chesire, Melbourne
  • Schofield,K. (1999) “The Purposes of Education”, Queensland State Education: 2010, [Online] URL: www.aspa.asn.au/Papers/eqfinalc.PDF [Accessed 2002, Oct 28]
  • Siljander, Pauli (2002). Systemaattinen johdatus kasvatustieteeseen. otava. ISBN 951-1-18439-3. 

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NH Department of Education - Data and Reports - Enrollment Data (533 words)
Enrollments at the elementary, middle/junior high and high school levels are reported by district with SAU totals.
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October enrollments are reported by school district along with the number of free/reduced eligible count and the percentage of free/reduced eligible.
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Enrollment increased by 87 to 2,568 students, a 3.5 percent increase, and credit hours taken increased by 1,016 (23,189 to 24,205), a 4.4 percent increase.
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