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Encyclopedia > Enomoto Takeaki
Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869.
Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869.

Enomoto Takeaki (榎本 武揚 Enomoto Takeaki, August 25, 1836August 26, 1908) was a Japanese Navy admiral faithful to the Tokugawa Shogunate, who fought against the new Meiji government until the end of the Boshin War, but later served in the government. Enomoto Takeaki during the Boshin War (1869). ... Enomoto Takeaki during the Boshin War (1869). ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ... 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... 1908 (MCMVIII) is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治時代 ) (1868–1912... The Boshin War (戊辰戦争 Boshin Sensō, literally War of the Year of the Dragon) was fought in 1868-1869 between the Tokugawa Shogunate and the pro-Imperial forces in Japan. ...

Contents


Studies in Europe

Enomoto around 19, before leaving for Europe.
Enomoto around 19, before leaving for Europe.

Enomoto was born as a member of a retainer family of the Tokugawa clan. In the era of isolationist policy (Sakoku), Japan had strictly limited contacts with only a few foreign countries, like Korea, China and the Netherlands. Enomoto started learning Dutch in the 1850s, and after Japan’s ‘opening’ by Commodore Matthew Perry in 1854, he studied Dutch naval warfare in the Bakufu’s Naval Training Center in Nagasaki and at the Tsukiji Warship Training Center in Edo. By the age of 26, he was sent to the Netherlands, where he studied naval warfare, 1862-1867. He reportedly became fluent in both the Dutch and English languages. Enomoto Takeaki, around 19. ... Enomoto Takeaki, around 19. ... The Tokugawa clan crest The Tokugawa clan ) was a powerful daimyo family of Japan. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Sakoku (Japanese: 鎖国, literally country in chains) was the foreign relations policy of the Tokugawa shogunate, whereby nobody, whether foreign or Japanese, could enter or leave Japan on penalty of death. ... Korea is a country divided into two independent nations, South Korea and North Korea, whose people share history, language, and ethnicity. ... // Events and Trends Technology Production of steel revolutionised by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Science Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, putting forward the theory of evolution... The military rank of Commodore is used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a flag officer. ... Photograph of Perry Matthew Calbraith Perry (April 10, 1794 – March 4, 1858) was the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who forced the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854, under the threat of military force. ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ... The Nagasaki Training Center, in Nagasaki, near Dejima. ... Tsukiji as seen from Shiodome Frozen tuna at Tsukiji Tuna auction at Tsukiji The Tokyo Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market, commonly known as the Tsukiji fish market (Japanese: 築地魚市場, Tsukiji uoichiba) is the biggest wholesale fish and seafood market, and one of the biggest markets of any kind in the world. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ... Edo (Japanese: 江戸, literally: bay-door, estuary), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


He returned to Japan onboard the Kaiyō Maru, a state-of-the-art steam warship purchased from the Netherlands by the Shogun government. Upon his return, Enomoto Takeaki was promoted to Kaigun Fukusosai (海軍副総裁), the second highest rank in the Tokugawa Shogunate Navy, at the age of 31. Kaiyō Maru (Japanese: 開陽丸) was one of Japans first modern warships, powered by both sails and steam. ...


During his stay in Europe, Enomoto had realised that the telegraph would be an important means of communication in the future, and started planning a system to connect Edo and Yokohama when he returned to Japan in 1867 on board the Kaiyō Maru. Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far and graphein = write) is the long-distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Japans tallest building, the Landmark Tower, is in the Minato Mirai 21 district of Yokohama. ... Kaiyō Maru (Japanese: 開陽丸) was one of Japans first modern warships, powered by both sails and steam. ...


"The last loyalist"

Part of the fleet of Enomoto Takeaki off Shinagawa. From right to left: Kaiten, Kaiyō, Kanrin, Chōgei, Mikaho. The Banryū and Chiyodagata are absent. 1868 photograph.
Part of the fleet of Enomoto Takeaki off Shinagawa. From right to left: Kaiten, Kaiyō, Kanrin, Chōgei, Mikaho. The Banryū and Chiyodagata are absent. 1868 photograph.

In 1868, when the Meiji government defeated the forces of the Shogun and occupied Edo, Enomoto refused to deliver his warships, and escaped to Hakodate with the whole Shogun fleet and a handful of French military advisers and their leader Jules Brunet. His fleet, made of eight steam warships, was the strongest in Japan at the time. Image File history File links EnomotoFleet. ... Image File history File links EnomotoFleet. ... Shinagawa (品川区; -ku) is a special ward located in Tokyo, Japan. ... Kaiyō Maru (Japanese: 開陽丸) was one of Japans first modern warships, powered by both sails and steam. ... Kanrin Maru (Japanese: 咸臨丸) was Japans first sail and screw-driven steam warship. ... The Chiyodagata (Jp:千代田形) was a gunboat of the Tokugawa Navy, and Japans first domestically-built steamboat. ... 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ... View of Hakodate from Mountain Hakodate (函館市; -shi) is a city and port located in Oshima, Hokkaido, Japan. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan. ...


They hoped to found a state under the rule of the Tokugawa family in Hokkaido, but the Meiji government refused their request. On December 25, they declared the foundation of the Republic of Ezo and elected Enomoto as president. Hokkaido   listen? (北海道 Hokkaidō, literal meaning: North Sea Route, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, is the second largest island of Japan. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... Enomoto Takeaki (front, right) and the leaders of his loyalist troops in Hokkaido, 1869. ...


The next year, the Meiji Governmental Army and Navy invaded Hokkaido and defeated the former Shogunate Army and Navy of the Republic. On 18 May 1869 the Republic gave in, and Hokkaido accepted the Meiji Emperor's rule. The Imperial Japanese Army (大日本帝國陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ...


The Meiji politician

Enomoto Takeaki during his later years.
Enomoto Takeaki during his later years.

Enomoto was imprisoned and accused of High Treason, but in 1872 he was pardoned by the new Meiji government. The Meiji leaders had realized that a man of Enomoto’s talents could be of use to them. Enomoto - under the protection of the Satsuma leader Kuroda Kiyotaka - rose astonishingly fast within the new ruling clique, faster and higher than any other member of the former Tokugawa clan. He was to become one of the few former Tokugawa retainers who could exert political influence in Meiji Japan as well, since politics in these days were dominated by the anti-Tokugawa clans from Choshu and Satsuma. Later Enomoto Takeaki. ... Later Enomoto Takeaki. ... 1872 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Satsuma is the name of a town in Japan, Satsuma, Kagoshima, the surrounding district, Satsuma District, Kagoshima, the former province, Satsuma Province, which is now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, a revolt, the Satsuma Rebellion. ... Kuroda Kiyotaka (黒田 清隆; October 16, 1840–August 25, 1900), also known as Ryōsuke, was a Japanese politician of the Meiji era, and the second Prime Minister of Japan from April 30, 1888 to October 25, 1889. ... A clique is an informal and restricted social group formed by a number of people who share common interests - formal social groups are referred to as societies or organisations. ... Nagato (Ja. ... Satsuma is the name of a town in Japan, Satsuma, Kagoshima, the surrounding district, Satsuma District, Kagoshima, the former province, Satsuma Province, which is now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, a revolt, the Satsuma Rebellion. ...


In 1874, Enomoto was appointed vice-admiral, and, as a special envoy, he was sent to Russia to negotiate the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (Treaty of exchange of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin), which was signed the next year. The conclusion of the treaty was very well received in Japan and further raised Enomoto’s prestige within the ruling circles. On the other hand, the appointment of Enomoto as envoy was seen as adding to the sense of national unity. 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... The Treaty of Saint Petersburg was signed in 1875 between Japan and Russia. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... Sakhalin is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N, in the Russian Far East. ...


In 1880, Enomoto rose as high as navy minister, and in 1885 he again showed his skills as a diplomat by assisting Ito Hirobumi in concluding the Tientsin Treaty with Qing China. Afterwards, Enomoto frequently held high posts in the Japanese government. He was Japan’s first minister of communications (1885-1888) after the introduction of the cabinet system in 1885. He was also minister of agriculture and commerce in 1888 and again from 1894 to 1897, minister for education in 1889-1890 and foreign minister in 1891-1892. In 1887, Enomoto was granted the rank of a viscount as well as membership in the Privy Council, one of Meiji Japan’s most prestigious institutions. 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Japanese Naval Ministry was established at the end of the 19th century, along with the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Born in Hagi, Yamaguchi, Prince Itō Hirobumi (伊藤 博文 Itō Hirobumi 16 October 1841–26 October 1909, also called Hirofumi/Hakubun and Shunsuke in his youth) was a Japanese politician and the countrys first Prime Minister (and the 5th, 7th and 10th). ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing... 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1889 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan is the politician responsible for Japanese foreign policy. ... 1891 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility, especially, as in the British peerage, ranking above a baron, below a (British) earl or (his continental equivalent) count. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, especially in a monarchy. ...


He successively held several ministry positions in the government, and was especially active in promoting Japanese expansionism through settler colonies in the Pacific Ocean and South and Central America. In 1891 he established - against the will of the cabinet of Matsukata Masayoshi - a 'section for emigration' in the foreign ministry, with the task of encouraging emigration and finding new potential territories for Japanese settlement overseas. Two years later, after leaving the government, Enomoto also helped to establish a private organization, the 'Colonial Association', to promote external trade and emigration. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Commonly, Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... Matsukata Masayoshi (松方 正義; February 25, 1835–July 2, 1924) was a Japanese politician and the 4th (May 6, 1891 - August 8, 1892) and 6th (September 18, 1896 - January 12, 1898) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle abroad. ...


He died in 1908 at the age of 71. 1908 (MCMVIII) is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


See also

The French military mission before its departure to Japan. ... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Battle of Hakodate was fought from 4-10 May 1869, at the beginning of the Meiji Restoration, in the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido, between the remnants of the Shoguns navy, consolidated into the armed forces of the rebel Ezo Republic, and the newly formed Imperial Japanese Navy. ...

References

  • End of the Bakufu and restoration in Hakodate (Japanese 函館の幕末・維新) ISBN 4120016994

  Results from FactBites:
 
Enomoto Takeaki Summary (1089 words)
Enomoto was subsequently appointed navy minister (1876–1882), minister to China (1882–1884), and he held cabinet posts in communications, education, foreign affairs, agriculture, and commerce He was made a viscount in 1887 and named adviser to the Privy Council in 1890.
Enomoto Takeaki (榎本 武揚 Enomoto Takeaki, August 25, 1836–August 26, 1908) was a Japanese Navy admiral faithful to the Tokugawa Shogunate, who fought against the new Meiji government until the end of the Boshin War, but later served in the government.
Enomoto was born as a member of a retainer family of the Tokugawa clan.
Enomoto Takeaki at AllExperts (901 words)
Enomoto Takeaki (榎本 武揚 Enomoto Takeaki, August 25, 1836–August 26, 1908) was a Japanese Navy admiral faithful to the Tokugawa Shogunate, who fought against the new Meiji government until the end of the Boshin War, but later served in the government.
Enomoto was born as a member of a retainer family of the Tokugawa clan.
Enomoto was imprisoned and accused of high treason, but in 1872 he was pardoned by the new Meiji government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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