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Encyclopedia > Enoch Powell
The Rt Hon Enoch Powell MBE
Enoch Powell

In office
27 July 1960 – 20 October 1963
Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
Preceded by Derek Walker-Smith
Succeeded by Anthony Barber

In office
1957 – 1958
Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
Preceded by Henry Brooke
Succeeded by Jack Simon

In office
December 1955 – January 1957
Prime Minister Anthony Eden

Member of Parliament
for Wolverhampton South West
In office
23 February 1950 – 28 February 1974
Preceded by New Constituency
Succeeded by Nicholas Budgen

Member of Parliament
for South Down
In office
10 October 1974 – 11 June 1987
Preceded by Lawrence Orr
Succeeded by Eddie McGrady

Born 16 June 1912
Birmingham
Died 8 February 1998
London
Nationality British
Political party Conservative 1950-1974
Ulster Unionist 1974-1987

John Enoch Powell, MBE (June 16, 1912February 8, 1998) was a British politician, linguist, writer, academic, soldier and poet. He was a Conservative Party Member of Parliament (MP) between 1950 and February 1974, and an Ulster Unionist MP between October 1974 and 1987. He was controversial throughout his career, and his tenure in senior office was brief. He held strong and distinctive views on issues such as race, national identity, immigration, monetary policy, and the United Kingdom's entry into the European Economic Community, which later became the European Union. The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Minister of Health redirects here. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Derek Colclough Walker-Smith, Baron Broxbourne PC TD (13 April 1910 - 22 January 1992) was a Conservative politician. ... Anthony Barber, interviewed as the results of the 1970 general election are declared The Right Honourable Anthony Perrinott Lysberg Barber, Baron Barber, PC (4 July 1920 – 16 December 2005), was a British Conservative politician who served as a member of both the House of Commons and the House of Lords. ... Financial Secretary to the Treasury is a junior Ministerial post in the UK Treasury. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Henry Brooke, Baron Brooke of Cumnor CH (9 April 1903 – 29 March 1984) was a British Conservative Party politician. ... Jocelyn Edward Salis Simon, Baron Simon of Glaisdale, KC , DL , PC (15 January 1911 – 7 May 2006) was as a Law Lord in the United Kingdom, having been, by turns, a barrister, a commissioned officer in the British Army, a barrister again, a politician, a government minister, and a judge. ... In the parliamentary systems of several Commonwealth countries, such as Canada and Australia, it is customary for the prime minister to appoint parliamentary secretaries (in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, parliamentary assistants) from their caucus to assist cabinet ministers with their work. ... The Ministry of Housing and Local Government was a United Kingdom government department formed after the Second World War, covering the areas of housing and local government. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Wolverhampton South West is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Nicholas William Budgen (November 3, 1937–October 26, 1998) was a British politician. ... South Down is a Parliamentary Constituency in the House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Captain Lawrence Percy Story Orr (16 September 1918 - 11 July 1990) was a United Ulster Unionist Coalition politician in Northern Ireland. ... Edward Kevin McGrady (born June 3, 1935, Downpatrick) is a Northern Ireland nationalist politician. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the British city. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a political party in Northern Ireland representing the unionist community, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ...

Contents

Life

Early years

Powell was born in Stechford, Birmingham, England, and raised there, the only child of Albert Enoch Powell (1872–1956), elementary school headmaster, and his wife, Ellen Mary (1886–1953; daughter of Henry Breese, a Liverpool policeman, and his wife Eliza), who had given up her own teaching career after marrying. The Powells were of Welsh descent, though by the time of Enoch's birth they had lived in the Black Country for four generations, working first as miners and then in the iron trade.[1] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... The Black Country is a loosely-defined area of the English West Midlands conurbation, to the north and west of Birmingham, and to the south and east of Wolverhampton, around the South Staffordshire coalfield. ...


In 1918 Powell and his parents moved to the King's Norton area of Birmingham. From King Edward's School, Birmingham Powell became a student of classics, specifically Latin and Greek (which would later influence his 'Rivers of Blood' speech), and was one of the few pupils in the school's history to attain 100% in an end-of-year English examination. He completed his education at Trinity College, Cambridge (1930-1933), where he fell under the influence both of the poet A. E. Housman, then Professor of Latin at Cambridge, and of the writings of the German philosopher Nietzsche. He took no part in politics at university. After achieving a double starred first in Latin and Greek, he stayed on at Trinity College as a Fellow, spending much of his time studying ancient manuscripts in Rome and producing academic works in Greek and Welsh.[2] 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Kings Norton is an area of Birmingham, England . ... King Edwards School (KES) (grid reference SP052836) is an independent secondary school in Birmingham, England, founded by King Edward VI in 1552. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... Alfred Edward Housman (March 26, 1859 – April 30, 1936), usually known as A.E. Housman, was an English poet and classical scholar, now best known for his cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ...


In 1937 he was appointed Professor of Greek at Sydney University aged 25 (failing in his aim of beating Nietzsche's record of becoming a professor at 24). Amongst his pupils was the future Prime Minister of Australia Gough Whitlam. He revised Stuart-Jones's edition of Thucydides' Historiae for the Oxford University Press in 1938. His most lasting contribution to classical scholarship was his Lexicon to Herodotus (1938). Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Sydney, established in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia, and it is located in Sydney, the capital city of the state of New South Wales. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Tenth-century minuscule Manuscript of Thucydidess History The History of the Peloponnesian War is an account of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece, fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Athenian league (Athens). ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


As well as his education at Cambridge, Powell took a course in Urdu at the School of Oriental Studies, now the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, because he felt that his long-cherished ambition of becoming Viceroy of India would be unattainable without knowledge of an Indian language.[3] The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... The School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) is a constituent of the University of London specializing in the arts and humanities, languages and cultures, and the law and social sciences concerning Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. ... The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ...


On arrival in Sydney he stunned the vice-chancellor by informing him that war would soon break out in Europe, and that when it did he would be heading home to enlist in the army.[4] During his time there as a professor, he grew increasingly angry at the appeasement of Nazi Germany and what he saw as a betrayal of British national interests. In a letter to his parents in June 1939, before the outbreak of war, Powell wrote: Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

"It is the English, not their Government; for if they were not blind cowards, they would lynch Chamberlain and Halifax and all the other smarmy traitors".[5] This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article is about the British prime minister. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. ...

Immediately upon the outbreak of war, Powell returned to England, although not before buying a Russian dictionary, since he thought "Russia would hold the key to our survival and victory, as it had in 1812 and 1916".[6] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


War years

During World War II, Powell enlisted in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment, almost a month after returning home. Powell enlisted in the ranks as an Australian. In later years he recorded his promotion from private to lance-corporal in his "Who's Who" entry, on other occasions describing it as a greater promotion than entering the Cabinet. He was trained for a commission after, whilst working in a kitchen, answering the question of an inspecting officer with a Greek proverb. In October 1941 Powell was posted to Cairo. He was soon made a Major. He helped mastermind the attack on Rommel's supply lines. Powell was made a Lieutenant-Colonel in August 1942. In August 1943 he was posted to Delhi. Though he served in Africa with the Desert Rats, Powell never actually saw combat, serving for most of his military career as a staff officer. It was in Algiers that the seed of Powell's dislike of the United States was planted. After talking with some senior American officials, he became convinced that one of America's main war aims was to destroy the British Empire. Writing home on February 16, 1943, Powell said: "I see growing on the horizon the greater peril than Germany or Japan ever were...our terrible enemy, America...".[7] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Royal Warwickshire Regiment, also known as the Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers, was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Rommel is the family name of Eddie Rommel baseball pitcher; Erwin Rommel (German Field Marshal), and his son Manfred Rommel (former Mayor of Stuttgart). ... Lieutenant Colonel (Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grades spelling) is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine corps and air forces of the world, typically ranking above a Major and below a Colonel. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The 7th Armoured Division (The Desert Rats) of the British Army was the most famous unit of its type in British service during World War II. It was a regular division in the Middle East, designated the Mobile Division at first, renamed the Armoured Division (Egypt) in September 1939, and... “Alger” redirects here. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


Powell's conviction of the anti-Britishness of the Americans continued during the war. Powell cut out and retained all his life an article from the Statesman newspaper of November 13, 1943, in which the American Clare Boothe Luce said in a speech that Indian independence would mean that the "USA will really have won the greatest war in the world for democracy".[8] is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Clare Boothe Luce (April 10, 1903 – October 9, 1987) was an American editor, playwright, social activist, politician, journalist, and diplomat. ...


He desperately wanted to go to the Far East to help the fight against Japan because "the war in Europe is won now, and I want to see the Union Flag back in Singapore" before, Powell thought, the Americans beat Britain to it.[9] The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... “Union Jack” redirects here. ...


Powell began the war as the youngest Professor in the Commonwealth; he ended it as the youngest Brigadier in the British army, the only man in the entire war to go from Private to Brigadier. Powell felt guilty for having survived when many of those he had met during his journey through the ranks had not. When once asked how he would like to be remembered, he at first answered "Others will remember me as they will remember me", but when pressed he replied "I should like to have been killed in the war."[10] Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Conservative Party

Though he voted for the Labour Party in their 1945 landslide victory, because he wanted to punish the Conservative Party for the Munich agreement, after the war he joined the Conservatives and worked for the Conservative Research Department under R.A. Butler, where his colleagues included Iain Macleod and Reginald Maudling.[11] After unsuccessfully contesting the Labour Party's ultra-safe seat of Normanton at a by-election in 1947 (when the Labour majority was 62%),[12] he was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for Wolverhampton South West in the 1950 general election. The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... The Conservative Research Department (CRD) was an integral part of the central organisation of the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom. ... Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, KG, CH, PC, DL (9 December 1902 – 8 March 1982), who invariably signed his name R. A. Butler and was familiarly known as Rab, was a British Conservative politician. ... Iain Norman Macleod, PC (11 November 1913 – 20 July 1970) was a British Conservative Party politician and government minister. ... Rt. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... A safe seat is a seat in a legislature which is regarded as fully secured by a certain political party with very little chance of an election upset because of the nature of the electorate in the constituency concerned. ... Normanton is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Normanton by-election, 1947 was a parliamentary by-election held for the British House of Commons constituency of Normanton on 11 February 1947. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Wolverhampton South West is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom general election in 1950 was the first general election ever after a full term of a Labour government. ...


Powell's ambition to be Governor-General of India crumbled in February 1947, when Prime Minister Attlee announced that Indian independence was imminent. Powell was so shocked by the change of policy that he spent the whole night after it was announced walking the streets of London, trying to take it in.[13] He came to terms with it by becoming fiercely anti-imperialist, believing that once India had gone the whole empire should follow it. This logical absolutism explained his later indifference to the Suez crisis, his contempt for the Commonwealth, and his urging that Britain should scrap any remaining pretence that she was a world power. The Governor-Generals Flag (1885–1947) depicted the Star of India on a Union Flag. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


On January 2, 1952 he married Margaret Pamela Wilson (b January 28, 1926), a former colleague from Conservative Central Office, who provided him with the settled and happy family life essential to his political career. They had two daughters. is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Powell was a member of the Suez Group of MPs who were against the removal of British troops from the Suez Canal because such a move would demonstrate, Powell argued, that Britain could no longer maintain a position there and that any claim to the Suez Canal would therefore be illogical. However, after the troops had left in 1954 and the Egyptians nationalized the Canal in 1956, Powell opposed the British attempts to retake the Canal because he thought the British no longer had the resources to be a world power.[14] For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Suez Crisis, also known as the Suez War, Suez Campaign or Kadesh Operation was a war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. ...


In December 1955 he was made a junior Housing Minister and later became Financial Secretary to the Treasury, but in January 1958 he resigned, along with the Chancellor of the Exchequer Peter Thorneycroft and his Treasury colleague Nigel Birch, in protest at government plans for increased expenditure; he was a staunch deflationist, or in modern terms a monetarist, and a believer in market forces.[15] (Powell was also a member of the Mont Pelerin Society.) The by-product of this expenditure was the printing of extra money to pay for it all, which Powell believed to be a major cause of inflation, and in effect a form of taxation, as the holders of money find their money is worth less. Inflation rose to 2.5% - a high figure for the era, especially in peacetime. Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Financial Secretary to the Treasury is a junior Ministerial post in the UK Treasury. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Edward Peter Thorneycroft, Baron Thorneycroft (1909-1994) was a British Conservative politician. ... Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... The Mont Pelerin Society (MPS) is an international organization composed of economists, intellectuals, business leaders, and others who favour economic liberalism. ...


In the late 1950s Powell backed Deflation and in the 1960s was an advocate of free market policies which at the time were seen as extreme and unworkable, as well as unpopular. In many respects, Powell can be seen as a Thatcherite avant la lettre: he was calling for the privatisation of the Post Office and the telephone network as early as 1964, over 20 years before these changes actually took place;[16] and, like Mrs Thatcher later, he both scorned the idea of "consensus politics" and wanted the Conservative Party to become a modern businesslike party, freed from its old aristocratic and "old boy network" associations.[17] Perhaps most notably of all, in his 1958 resignation over public spending and what he saw as an inflationist economic policy, he anticipated almost exactly the views that in the 1980s came to be described as "monetarism". [18]. Deflation (economics) Deflation (data compression) Deflation is the removal of loose soil by eolian (wind) processes This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Powell returned to government in July 1960, when he was appointed Minister for Health,[19] albeit outside the Cabinet, but this changed in 1962.[20] In this post he was responsible for promoting an ambitious ten-year programme of general hospital building and for beginning the run-down of the huge psychiatric institutions. In his famous 1961 "Water Tower" speech, he said: Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Minister of Health redirects here. ... The term institutionalization is widely used in social theory to denote the process of making something (for example a concept, a social role, particular values and norms, or modes of behaviour) become embedded within an organization, social system, or society as an established custom or norm within that system. ...

"There they stand, isolated, majestic, imperious, brooded over by the gigantic water-tower and chimney combined, rising unmistakable and daunting out of the countryside - the asylums which our forefathers built with such immense solidity to express the notions of their day. Do not for a moment underestimate their powers of resistance to our assault. Let me describe some of the defences which we have to storm".[1]

The speech catalysed a debate that was one of several strands leading to the Care in the Community initiative of the 1980s. Care in the Community was a policy of the Margaret Thatcher government in the 1980s. ...


Later, he oversaw the employment of a large number of Commonwealth immigrants by the understaffed National Health Service.[21] Prior to this, many non-white immigrants who held full rights of citizenship in Britain were obliged to take the jobs that no one else wanted (eg. street cleaning, night-shift assembly production lines), often paid considerably less than their white counterparts. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... “NHS” redirects here. ...


Along with Iain Macleod, Powell refused to serve in the Cabinet following the appointment of Alec Douglas-Home as Prime Minister. This refusal was not based on antipathy to Home personally but was in protest against what Macleod and Powell saw as Macmillan's underhand manipulation of colleagues during the process of choosing a new leader.[22] Following the Conservatives' defeat in the 1964 general election, he agreed to return to the front bench as Transport spokesman. [23] In 1965 he stood in the first-ever party leadership election, but came a distant third to Edward Heath, who appointed him Shadow Secretary of State for Defence.[24] Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel,[1] KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995) 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October... The United Kingdom general election of 1964 result was a very slim majority for the Labour Party, of 4, and led to their first government since 1951. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ...


In a controversial speech on May 26, 1967, Powell criticised Britain's post-war world role: is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...

"In our imagination the vanishing last vestiges ... of Britain's once vast Indian Empire have transformed themselves into a peacekeeping role on which the sun never sets. Under God's good providence and in partnership with the United States, we keep the peace of the world and rush hither and thither containing Communism, putting out brush fires and coping with subversion. It is difficult to describe, without using terms derived from psychiatry, a notion having so few points of contact with reality".[25] The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...

Rivers of Blood speech

Powell was noted for his oratorical skills, and for being a maverick who cared little about what harm he did to his party - or himself. On Saturday April 20, 1968 he made a controversial speech in Birmingham, in which he warned his audience of what he believed would be the consequences of continued unchecked immigration from the Commonwealth to Britain. Because of its allusion to Virgil saying that the Tiber would foam with blood, Powell's warning was dubbed the "Rivers of Blood speech" by the press, and the name stuck.[26] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Tiber River in Rome. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The central political issue addressed by the speech was not immigration as such, however. It was instead the introduction by the Labour Government of anti-discrimination legislation which would prohibit discrimination on the grounds of race in certain areas of British life, particularly housing. Powell found this legislation offensive and immoral.


One feature of his speech was the extensive quotation of a letter he had received detailing the experiences of one of his constituents in Wolverhampton. The writer described the fate of an elderly woman who was supposedly the last white person living in her street. She had repeatedly refused applications from non-whites requiring rooms-to-let, which resulted in her being called a racist outside her home and receiving excreta through her letterbox. Despite combing the electoral register and other sources, the editor of the local newspaper Clem Jones (a close friend of Powell's, who broke off relations with him over the controversy) and his journalists failed to identify the woman. Powell refused to name her because he felt he had to respect her confidentiality, even to the point of withdrawing from a libel action against a national newspaper (see below). After Powell's death Kenneth Nock, a Wolverhampton solicitor, wrote to the Express and Star in April 1998 to claim that his firm had acted for the woman in question and to confirm that she existed but that he could not name her due to rules concerning client confidentiality.[27] In January 2007 the BBC Radio Four programme Document, followed by the Daily Mail, identified the lady as Druscilla Cotterill, who had died in 1978.[28] The speech was delivered while the 1968 Race Relations Bill (later Act) was making its way through Parliament, which was to make racial discrimination in housing illegal. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Daily Mail is a British newspaper and the oldest tabloid, first published in 1896. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Heath sacked Powell from his Shadow Cabinet the day after the speech, and Powell never held another senior political post. Powell received almost 120,000 (predominantly positive) letters and a Gallup poll at the end of April showed that 74% of those asked agreed with what Powell had said in his speech. The Sunday Times received a libel writ from Powell for branding his speeches "racialist", but also gained a court order for disclosure of the letters he had received to demonstrate the validity of their defence. Powell dropped the libel action as a consequence of the court order. The Shadow Cabinet (also called the Shadow Front Bench) is a senior group of opposition spokespeople in the Westminster system of government who together under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition (or the leader of other smaller opposition parties) form an alternative cabinet to the governments, whose... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ...


Some suspected that Powell was set up - TV cameras were not known to turn up at meetings of the West Midlands branch of the Conservative Political Centre, and some believe that Heath wanted Powell to take the blame for his party taking a tougher line on immigration later that year. Conversely, Powell had issued an advance copy of his speech to the media and their appearance at the speech may have been due to the fact that they realised the content was explosive. [29] The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ...


Senior figures in the Conservative Party, such as Lord Baker, have disclosed that Powell told them that he regretted giving the speech, for it ended his political career. However, it can be argued that Powell gave the speech to increase his profile and popularity both amongst parts of the Parliamentary Conservative Party and in the country at large. In July 1965 he came a distant third in the Conservative Party leadership contest, obtaining only 15 votes. After the speech, however, Powell was transformed into a national public figure and won huge support across Britain. Three days after the speech, on 23 April, as the Race Relations Bill was being debated in the House of Commons 1,000 dockers marched on Westminster protesting against Powell's "victimisation", and the next day 400 meat porters from Smithfield market handed in a 92-page petition in support of Powell. Probably many of these workers would normally have been staunch Labour voters. Lord Baker can refer to several people: John Baker, Baron Baker (1901)-(1985), British scientist and civil engineer Kenneth Baker (b. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups...


Powell's popularity appeared to contribute to the Conservatives' surprise General Election win in 1970, which showed a late surge in Conservative support in the West Midlands, near Powell's constituency. In "exhaustive research" on the election, the American pollster Douglas Schoen and University of Oxford academic R.W. Johnson believed it "beyond dispute" that Enoch Powell had attracted 2.5 million votes to the Conservatives. Johnson later wrote that "It became clear that Powell had won the 1970 election for the Tories...of all those who had switched their vote from one party to another in the election, 50 per cent were working class Powellites. Not only had 18 per cent of Labour Powellites switched to the Tories but so had 24 per cent of Liberal Powellites". Johnson further believed that the votes Powell brought to the Conservatives were "quite possibly four or five million".[30] The United Kingdom general election of 1970 was held on June 18, 1970, and resulted in a surprise loss of power for Labour under Harold Wilson, who was replaced as Prime Minister by the Conservative leader, Edward Heath. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ...


A Daily Express poll in 1972 showed Powell being the most popular politician in the country. For other uses, see Daily Express (disambiguation). ...


Slogan: "Enoch was right"

In the United Kingdom, particularly in England, "Enoch was right" became a phrase of political rhetoric throughout the 1970s, employed generally by the far right, inviting comparison of aspects of contemporary English society with predictions made by Powell in the Rivers of Blood speech. The phrase implies opposition to immigration and multiculturalism. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ...


An unusual Conservative?

Powell had voted against the Schuman plan in 1950 and had supported entry only because he believed that the Common Market was simply a means to secure free trade. In March 1969 he turned forcefully against Britain's joining the European Economic Community. Opposition to entry had thitherto been confined largely to the Labour Party but now, he said, it was clear to him that the sovereignty of Parliament was in question, as was Britain's very survival as a nation. This nationalist analysis attracted millions of grass-roots Conservatives and others, and as much as anything else made Powell the implacable enemy of Heath, a fervent pro-European, but there was already a deep emnity between the two. The Schuman Declaration is the name of the May 9, 1950 public appeal by Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, to place Frances and West Germanys coal and steel industries under joint management. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


The Conservatives had promised at the 1970 election that in relation to the Common Market "Our sole commitment is to negotiate; no more, no less". When Powell saw Heath sign an accession treaty before Parliament had even debated the issue, when the second reading of the Bill to put the Treaty into law passed by just eight votes on second reading, and when it became clear that the British people would have no further say in the matter, he declared open war on his party's line. He voted against the government on every one of the 104 divisions in the course of the European Communities Bill. When finally he lost this battle, he decided he could no longer sit in a parliament that was not sovereign. In summer 1972 he prepared to resign, and changed his mind only because of fears of a renewed wave of immigration from Uganda following the rise of Idi Amin. Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ...


In February 1974 Powell left the Conservative Party, mainly because it had taken the UK into the European Common Market, and advised the electorate to vote Labour, who promised a referendum on whether or not the UK should remain in the EEC, as the only way to save the UK's sovereignty. Given the close nature of the election (it resulted in a hung Parliament), it is possible that Powell's comments contributed to Heath's defeat. He repeated this line in the October 1974 General Election, and the referendum was held in 1975. However the result was a clear vote to remain in "the Common Market" (as it was called on the ballot paper). In a March 1977 no-confidence vote, he voted to keep the Labour government in power. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The UK general election of October 1974 took place on October 10, 1974. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


Powell's Euroscepticism was fuelled by a belief that the Cold War was a sham because the Soviet Union was not intent on invading the West - so dependent was the USSR on receiving US and European grain surpluses for next to nothing - and so he did not see the need to maintain the Western alliance as other Conservatives did. He also opposed the UK's "independent nuclear deterrent" because he felt that, as it could not rationally be used, it was pointless. He believed that American interest in Britain was an attempt to undermine Britain and give the United States a greater world role. Powell also pointed out that American governments had always wanted European states, including Britain, to join the European Economic Community because it was the 'political arm' of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and therefore fitted into America's grand strategy against the Soviet Union. Euroscepticism (a portmanteau of European and scepticism) has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ...


Ulster Unionist Party

Since 1968 Powell had been an increasingly frequent visitor to Northern Ireland, and in keeping with his general British nationalist viewpoint he sided strongly with the Ulster Unionists in their desire to maintain British rule. From early 1971 he opposed, with increasing vehemence, Heath's approach to Ulster, the greatest breach with his party coming over the imposition of direct rule in 1972.


In a sudden general election later in 1974, Powell returned to Parliament as Ulster Unionist MP for South Down, having rejected an offer to stand as a candidate for the National Front. He was a strong believer in the United Kingdom, and he believed that it would survive only if the Unionists strove to integrate fully with the United Kingdom by abandoning the devolved rule that Northern Ireland had until recently enjoyed. He refused point-blank to join the Orange Institution - the first Ulster Unionist MP at Westminster never to be a member (and to date only one of three, the others being the former UDR member Ken Maginnis, and Lady Hermon), and he was an outspoken opponent of the more extremist Unionism espoused by the Reverend Ian Paisley and his supporters. The UK general election of October 1974 took place on October 10, 1974. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... The British National Front (most commonly called the National Front) is a British far right political party whose major political activities were during the 1970s and 1980s. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Kenneth Wiggins Maginnis, Baron Maginnis of Drumglass (born January 21, 1938) is a Northern Irish Ulster Unionist politician. ... Lady Sylvia Hermon (born 11 August 1955) is a Northern Ireland unionist politician. ... Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (born 6 April 1926), styled The Revd and Rt Hon. ...


Powell claimed that the only way to stop the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) was for Northern Ireland to be an integral part of the United Kingdom, treated no differently from any other of its constituent parts. He claimed the ambiguous nature of the province's status, with its own parliament and prime minister, gave hope to the PIRA that it could be detached from the rest of the UK: The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The Parliament Building of Northern Ireland, known as Stormont because of its location in the Stormont area of Belfast, served as the seat of the Parliament of Northern Ireland and successive Northern Ireland assemblies and conventions. ... The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was the head of the Government of Northern Ireland, appointed by the Governor of Northern Ireland under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. ...

"Every word or act which holds out the prospect that their unity with the rest of the United Kingdom might be negotiable is itself, consciously or unconsciously, a contributory cause to the continuation of violence in Northern Ireland".[31]

During 1983 his local agent was Jeffrey Donaldson, later an Ulster Unionist MP before defecting to the DUP. Jeffrey Mark Donaldson (born 7 December 1962) is a Northern Irish politician and Member of Parliament for Lagan Valley. ...


In Powell's later career as an Ulster Unionist MP he continued to criticise the United States, and claimed that the Americans were trying to persuade the British to push Northern Ireland into an all-Ireland state because the condition for Irish membership of NATO, Powell claimed, was Northern Ireland. The Americans wanted to close the 'yawning gap' in NATO defence that was the southern Irish coast to northern Spain. Powell claimed he had a copy of a State Department Policy Statement from 15 August 1950 in which the American government allegedly said that the 'agitation' caused by partition in Ireland "lessens the usefulness of Ireland in international organisations and complicates strategic planning for Europe". "It is desirable", the document continued, "that Ireland should be integrated into the defense planning of the North Atlantic area, for its strategic position and present lack of defensive capacity are matters of significance".[32] Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1984, Powell also claimed that the Central Intelligence Agency had murdered Lord Louis Mountbatten and that the deaths of the MPs Airey Neave and Robert Bradford were carried out by the USA in order to stop Neave's policy of integration for Northern Ireland.[33] Then in 1986 he again argued that Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) had not killed Airey Neave but that "MI6 and their friends" were responsible instead.[34] “CIA” redirects here. ... Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Airey Neave in his German escape uniform. ... The Reverend Robert Bradford (1941–1981) was an Ulster Unionist Member of Parliament for the South Belfast constituency in Northern Ireland. ... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ...


In February 1975, after winning the Conservative Party leadership election, Margaret Thatcher refused to offer Powell a Shadow Cabinet place because "he turned his back on his own people" by leaving the Conservative Party exactly 12 months earlier. Powell replied she was correct to do that, as he was no longer a member of the Conservative Party. Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Powell did not welcome the election victory of Margaret Thatcher in May 1979. This was partly because Powell did not believe a woman was capable of fulfilling the role, partly because Mrs Thatcher supported Europe, but mainly because he felt that anyone who had served under Edward Heath was tainted and would, like Heath, soon buckle under pressure. "Grim" was Powell's response when he was asked what he thought of Thatcher's victory. Powell later came to appreciate and praise Thatcher's patience and tenacity in getting her own way, and although he was on supposedly good terms with Thatcher (she claimed her own monetarist policies stemmed from Powell's, to which he remarked drily, "A pity she did not understand them!"), he remained at odds with Thatcher over her pro-American foreign policy. Thatcher also dismissed Powell's arguments over Airey Neave's murder, and he came into conflict with her in 1985 because of her support for the Anglo-Irish Agreement, resigning his seat in protest and then regaining it at the ensuing by-election. Powell (in a result that devastated him) lost his seat in the 1987 general election to the Social Democratic Labour Party's Eddie McGrady, mainly due to demographic and boundary changes which resulted in there being many more Catholics in the constituency than before. Ironically, the boundary changes had arisen due to his own campaign for the number of MPs representing Northern Ireland to be increased to the equivalent proportion for the rest of the United Kingdom, as part of the steps towards greater integration. He was offered a life peerage, which was regarded as his right as a former cabinet minister, but declined it. He argued that, as he had opposed the Life Peerages Act 1958, it would be hypocritical for him to take one. Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article is about the year. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... Margaret Thatcher David Steel Election 1987 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1987 was held on 11 June 1987 and was the third consecutive victory for the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher. ... Social Democratic Labour Party (in Dutch: Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiders Partij), a political party which existed between 1894 and 1945. ... Edward Kevin McGrady (born June 3, 1935, Downpatrick) is a Northern Ireland nationalist politician. ... The Life Peerages Act 1958 established the modern standards for the creation of Life Peers by the monarch of the United Kingdom, and granted them non-hereditary voting status in the House of Lords. ...


After Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990, Powell claimed that, because Britain was not an ally of Kuwait in the "formal sense" and because the balance of power in the Middle East had ceased to be a British concern after the end of the British Empire, Britain should not go to war. Powell claimed that "Saddam Hussein has a long way to go yet before his troops come storming up the beaches of Kent or Sussex"; after Britain claimed to be defending small nations from attack, Powell said "I sometimes wonder if, when we shed our power, we omitted to shed our arrogance".[35] is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Balance of power in international relations is a central concept in realist theory. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ...


When German reunification was on the agenda in 1990, Powell claimed that Britain urgently needed to create an alliance with the Soviet Union in view of Germany's effect on the balance of power in Europe. This part of Powell's analysis was taken seriously by the Atlanticist Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who tried to persuade the then Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to halt unification, but failed. German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Atlanticism is a philosophy of cooperation among European and North American nations regarding political, economic, and defense issues. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


After Mrs Thatcher's Bruges Speech in 1988 and her increasing hostility to the abolition of the pound sterling in the last years of her premiership, Powell made many speeches publicly supporting her attitude to Europe. When she was challenged by Michael Heseltine for the leadership of the Conservative party in November 1990, Powell said he would rejoin the party - which he had left in 1974 over the issue of Europe - if Mrs Thatcher won, and would urge the public to support both her and, in Powell's view, national independence.[36] As it turned out she resigned, and Powell never rejoined the Conservative party. Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ... The 1990 Conservative Party leadership election in the United Kingdom took place in November 1990 following the decision of former Trade and Industry Secretary Michael Heseltine to stand against the incumbent Conservative leader and Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


His Ulster Unionism did not block his capacity for independent thought; he was critical of the Special Air Service (SAS) shootings of three unarmed Provisional Irish Republican Army members in Gibraltar in March 1988. The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... Operation Flavius was the name of an operation by a Special Air Service team in Gibraltar on 6 March 1988. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Last years

In autumn 1992, Enoch Powell was diagnosed as suffering from Parkinson's Disease. He fought the affliction with his customary resolution, despite mounting incapacity. In 1994 he published the St. Mathew's Gospel. During the final years of his life he managed occasional pieces of journalism and co-operated in a BBC documentary about his life in 1995. When Labour won the 1997 General Election Powell told his wife that the electorate had voted to break up the United Kingdom. By this time Powell had been hospitalised several times as a result sustained because of falls. Powell began, but did not complete, work on a study of the Gospel of John. It was unfinished at the time of his death, aged 85, at 4:30am on 8 February 1998 at the King Edward VII Hospital for Officers in London. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... (Redirected from 1997 general election) The 1 May 1997 UK general election brought the first change in UK Government for 18 years. ... For other uses, see Gospel of John (disambiguation). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... There are several hospitals in the world named King Edward VII Hospital: UK King Edward VII Hospital, London King Edward VII Hospital, Midhurst King Edward VII Hospital, Windsor Bermuda King Edward VII Memorial Hospital, Bermuda All of these hospitals are named after King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. ...


Dressed in his brigadier's uniform, Enoch Powell was buried in his regiment's plot in Warwick Cemetery, Warwickshire, ten days later, after a family requiem at Westminster Abbey and a public service at St Margaret's, Westminster. He was survived by his wife and two daughters. A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced // or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ...


Personality

Despite his earlier militant atheism Powell became a devout Anglican, having thought in 1949 "that he heard the bells of St Peter's Wolverhampton calling him" (Heffer p. 130) while walking to his flat in his (then future) constituency. Subsequently, he became a churchwarden of St Margaret's, Westminster. He spent much of his later life trying to prove, with close textual reading, that Christ had not been crucified but stoned to death. “Atheist” redirects here. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Anglican church of St. ... Religious depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus typically show him supported by nails through the palms. ...


Powell was reading Greek by the age of five, learning it from his mother. At age 70 he began learning his 12th and final language, Hebrew.


In August 2002 Powell appeared in the List of 100 Greatest Britons of all time (voted for by the public in a BBC nationwide poll). Also see: 2002 (number). ... // In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to determine whom the general public considers the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Powell had remarked that "all political lives end in failure" and did not hesitate to agree that this maxim applied to his own. Like Tony Benn (a personal friend from a different political background, whom Powell had helped to renounce his peerage and so remain an elected Member of Parliament), he was seen by supporters as putting conscience and duty to his constituents before loyalty to his party or the sake of his career. Anthony Tony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925), formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British socialist politician. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ...


Powell's rhetorical gifts were also employed, with success, beyond politics. He was a poet of some accomplishment, with four published collections to his name: First Poems; Casting Off; Dancer's End; and The Wedding Gift. His Collected Poems appeared in 1990. He translated Herodotus (The History of Herodotus) and published many other works of classical scholarship. He published a biography of Joseph Chamberlain, which treated the split with Gladstone over Irish Home Rule in 1886 as the pivotal point of his career, rather than the adoption of Tariff Reform, and which contained the famous line that "all political careers, unless they are cut off at some happy juncture, end in failure". Powell published many books on political matters too, which were often annotated collections of his speeches. His political publications were often as critical of his own party as they were of Labour, often making fun of what he saw as logical fallacies in reasoning or action. His book Freedom & Reality contained many quotes from Labour party manifestos or by Harold Wilson which he regarded as nonsensical. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... The Rt. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ...


Criticism

Powell said "I have and always will set my face like flint against making any difference between one citizen of this country and another on grounds of his origins."[37] The public tend to agree with this statement. The Trial of Enoch Powell, a Channel 4 television broadcast in April 1998, on the thirtieth anniversary of his Birmingham speech (and two months after his death), saw a vote of the studio audience yielded a 64% 'not a racist' result. However, many in the church did not: upon his death the Bishop of Croydon stated "Enoch Powell gave a certificate of respectability to white racist views which otherwise decent people were ashamed to acknowledge."[38] This article is about the British television station. ...


Powell's detractors often assert that he was 'far-right', 'proto-fascist' or 'racist'. The first two charges clash with his voting record on most social issues, such as homosexual law reform - he was actually co-sponsor of a Bill on this issue in May 1965 - and the abolition of the death penalty, both liberal reforms which had limited support in the Conservative Party at the time, although he did little to call public attention to his stance on these non-party "issues of conscience".[39] Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Capital punishment in the United Kingdom refers to the use of capital punishment in the United Kingdom and its constituent countries, predating the formation of the United Kingdom itself. ...


He voted against the return of the death penalty in 1969, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1983 and 1987. Although substantial sections of the public supported Powell on the issues for which he was better known, most of the "liberal intelligentsia" tended to denounce him as a racist. For some, this charge seems unconvincing in the light of Powell's pre-political actions, and it was not until the late 1960s that he made speeches that addressed the issues of race and immigration. On this view, he is perhaps better classified as a romantic British nationalist than any sort of fascist: like Michael Foot from the other end of the political spectrum (with whom he joined forces on constitutional issues such as defeating House of Lords reform[40] and opposing Britain's entry to the European Community), he was an ardent constitutionalist, worshipping Parliament as the cradle of democracy, whereas most actual fascists want to abolish the democratic institutions. Michael Mackintosh Foot (born 23 July 1913) is an English politician and writer. ...


Powell's speeches and TV interviews throughout his political life displayed a suspicion towards "The Establishment" in general, and by the 1980s there was a regular expectation that he would make some sort of speech or act in a way designed to upset the government and ensure he would not be offered a Life Peerage (and thus be transferred to the House of Lords), which he had no intention of accepting so long as Edward Heath sat in the Commons. (Heath remained in the Commons until after Powell's death.) He had opposed the 1958 Life Peerages Act and felt it would be hypocritical to accept a life peerage himself, while no Prime Minister was ever willing to offer him a hereditary peerage. In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-06-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Powell in popular culture

The South African-born British musician Manfred Mann released an instrumental track entitled "Konekuf" in the 1970s, indicating his opinion of Powell. The title is designed to be read backwards. John Cale's "Graham Greene" also mentions Powell, although the context is more obscure, and in 1970 ska and reggae singer Millie sang "Enoch Power" against Powell. The song began with the German national anthem. The Beatles' song "Get Back" was originally conceived as a critical commentary of Powell's "Rivers of Blood" speech. Earlier versions of the song, titled "Commonwealth" and "No Pakistanis," the latter of which very closely resembles the finished product, are circulated with bootlegs of the Let It Be sessions. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Manfred Mann (real name Manfred Sepse Lubowitz[1]) was born on 21 October 1940 in Johannesburg, South Africa and is a professional keyboard player, best known as the founder member of Manfred Mann and Manfred Manns Earth Band. ... Not to be confused with J.J. Cale. ... Millie may mean: Millie (pejorative), a pejorative used in Belfast, Northern Ireland Millie (dog), dog owned by Barbara and George H. W. Bush Millie (singer), best known for My Boy Lollipop Millie the Model, a comic book series and its titular character Millie the Echidna, one of the three official... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Music sample Get Back ( file info) Problems? See media help. ... “Let It Be” redirects here. ...


Arthur Wise's 1970 novel Who Killed Enoch Powell? examines what the consequences might be for the United Kingdom if Powell were to be the victim of a political assassination. The novel was a runner-up for the MWA's Edgar award in the category of Best Mystery Novel. Mystery Writers of America is an organization for mystery writers, based in New York. ... The Edgar Allan Poe Awards (popularly called the Edgars), named after Edgar Allan Poe, are presented every year by the Mystery Writers of America. ...


Powell's name was mentioned in some of the more daring BBC comedies of the 1960s and 1970s, e.g. in several Monty Python's Flying Circus skits, including "Travel Agent" and "Election Special". In a Christmas episode of Steptoe and Son, the elder Steptoe sings "Enoch's Dreaming of a White Christmas," (after the fashion of the Bing Crosby song "White Christmas") as he prepares Christmas decorations at the table. Powell is also referred to approvingly by Alf Garnett a number of times in episodes of Till Death Us Do Part, as for example in an episode about a power cut, when he says "It's a pity old Enoch ain't in charge. He'd sort them out. He'd put the coons down the pits, he would," as a black technician comes into the room behind him to fix the family's broken television. This article is about the television series. ... Steptoe and Son is a British sitcom written by Ray Galton and Alan Simpson about two rag and bone men living in Oil Drum Lane, a fictional street in Shepherds Bush, London. ... Harry Lillis Bing Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer and actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alf Garnett was a fictional character on the BBC television sitcom Till Death Us Do Part, the ITV sitcom Till Death. ... This article is about the BBC TV series. ...


In 1976, a drunken Eric Clapton voiced his support of Powell onstage during a concert in Birmingham, also stating that England had "become overcrowded" and was in danger of becoming "a black colony". As a result, Clapton did not play in Birmingham again for a decade, and his remarks were a major factor in the eventual formation of Rock Against Racism. Eric Patrick Clapton CBE (born 30 March 1945), nicknamed Slowhand, is a Grammy Award winning English guitarist, singer, songwriter and composer. ... Rock Against Racism (RAR) was a campaign set up by Red Saunders, Roger Huddle and others in winter 1976. ...


The main character in Moses Ascending, a novel about immigrants in London by Sam Selvon, writes Powell a letter. The scene is highly ironic. Samuel Selvon (1923–1994) was a Trinidad-born writer of mixed Indo-Trinidadian and European descent. ...


He is also mentioned in White Teeth (written by Zadie Smith), in the film East is East, the novel The Buddha of Suburbia, and in many other films and novels associated with Britain's ethnic minorities. White Teeth is a 2000 novel by the British author Zadie Smith. ... Zadie Smith (born October 27, 1975) is an English novelist. ... East is East is a BAFTA award-winning British comedy film released in 1999. ... Buddha of Suburbia is a soundtrack to a BBC series based on a book by Hanif Kureishi of the same name. ...


In the musical version of "Acorn Antiques" John The Director's ill-fated operetta of "Acorn Antiques" is rehearsed in the "Enoch Powell Performing Arts Centre and Leisure Complex". Clifford, Berta, Mrs O and Babs, as played by Duncan Preston, Victoria Wood, Julie Walters and Celia Imrie Acorn Antiques is a parodic soap opera written by Victoria Wood as a regular feature in the two seasons of Victoria Wood - As Seen On TV, which ran from 1985 to 1987. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Andrew Roth, Enoch Powell: Tory Tribune, London, 1970, pp. 10-11. SBN 356 03150 0
  2. ^ Roth, op. cit, pp. 18-20.
  3. ^ Simon Heffer, Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell, London, 1999
  4. ^ Roth, op. cit., p. 29.
  5. ^ Simon Heffer, Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell, London, 1999, p. 53.
  6. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 55.
  7. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 75.
  8. ^ Heffer, op. cit., pp. 86-87.
  9. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 76.
  10. ^ Desert Island Discs, BBC Radio, February 19, 1989.
  11. ^ Roth, op. cit., pp. 51-53.
  12. ^ Craig, F. W. S. [1969] (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949, 3rd edition, Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. 
  13. ^ Roth, op. cit., p. 51.
  14. ^ Roth, op. cit., pp. 99-100.
  15. ^ Roth, op. cit., pp. 180-189.
  16. ^ Roth, op. cit., p.318.
  17. ^ Roth, op. cit., p.319.
  18. ^ "'One per cent not a triviality': Mr. Powell tells of dilemma", The Times, London, 10 January 1958, p.8.
  19. ^ Roth, op. cit., pp.229 ff.
  20. ^ Roth, op. cit., p.270.
  21. ^ Roth, op. cit., p.255.
  22. ^ Roth, op. cit., pp.302-303 and p.315.
  23. ^ Roth, op. cit., p.316.
  24. ^ Roth, op. cit., pp.327 ff.
  25. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 431.
  26. ^ Roth, op. cit., pp.349 ff.
  27. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 460.
  28. ^ Daily Mail, London, February 3, 2007, pp 50-51.
  29. ^ Simon Heffer's biography, Like The Roman, discusses the pre-publicity on page 449. Powell is quoted as remarking to Clem Jones, editor of the local newspaper, that his speech was "going to go up 'fizz' like a rocket". The cameras were from ATV, whose news editor had received an early copy.
  30. ^ Simon Heffer, op cit., p. 568.
  31. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 543.
  32. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 635.
  33. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 881.
  34. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 906.
  35. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 933.
  36. ^ Heffer, op. cit., p. 934.
  37. ^ Letter from Enoch Powell in the Wolverhampton Express and Star, October 1964, quoted in Humphry Berkeley, "Mr Powell: still Yesterday's Man", The Times, London, 5 September 1972, p.12.
  38. ^ "Bishops criticise Abbey over Powell honour", Irish Times, Dublin, 16 February 1998, p.14.
  39. ^ Roth, op. cit., p.318.
  40. ^ Roth, op. cit., p.369

Andrew Roth (born April 23, 1919, NYC) is an American journalist. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Frederick Walter Scott Craig (1929 - March 23, 1989) was a British psephologist and compiler of reference books. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

Bibliography

  • Obituary of Enoch Powell, Daily Telegraph, London, 9 February 1998.
  • Paul Foot, The Rise of Enoch Powell, London, 1969.
  • Simon Heffer Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell, London, 1998. ISBN 0-297-84286-2
  • Andrew Roth, Enoch Powell: Tory Tribune, London, 1970. SBN 356 03150 0
  • Robert Shepherd, Enoch Powell, London, 1998. ISBN 0-09-179208-8
  • Tom Stacey, Immigration and Enoch Powell, London, 1970. OCLC 151226

is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Andrew Roth (born April 23, 1919, NYC) is an American journalist. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

Powell's writings

  • Enoch Powell (1936) The Rendel Harris Papyri
  • Enoch Powell (1937) First Poems
  • Enoch Powell (1938) A Lexicon to Herodotus
  • Enoch Powell (1939) The History of Herodotus
  • Enoch Powell (1939) Casting-off, and other poems
  • Enoch Powell (1939) Herodotus, Book VIII
  • Enoch Powell (1942) Llyfr Blegywryd
  • Enoch Powell (1942) Thucydidis Historia
  • Enoch Powell (1949) (translation) Herodotus
  • Enoch Powell (1950) (jointly) One Nation
  • Enoch Powell (1951) (poems) Dancer's End and The Wedding Gift
  • Enoch Powell (1952) The Social Services, Needs and Means
  • Enoch Powell (1954) Change is our Ally
  • Enoch Powell (1955, second edition 1970) (with Angus Maude) Biography of a Nation, London, ISBN 0212983733
  • Enoch Powell (1960) Great Parliamentary Occasions
  • Enoch Powell (1960) Saving in a Free Society
  • Enoch Powell (1965) A Nation not Afraid
  • Enoch Powell (1966, revised edition 1976) Medicine and Politics
  • Enoch Powell (1968) (with Keith Wallis) The House of Lords in the Middle Ages
  • Enoch Powell (1969 [1999]) Freedom and Reality, Kingswood, ISBN 0-7160-0541-7 (this volume includes the text of the Rivers of Blood speech.)
  • Enoch Powell (1971) Common Market: The Case Against
  • Enoch Powell (1972) Still to Decide, Kingswood, ISBN 0716005662
  • Enoch Powell (1973) Common Market: Renegotiate or Come Out
  • Enoch Powell (1973) No Easy Answers, London, ISBN 0859690016
  • Enoch Powell (1977) Wrestling With the Angel, London, ISBN 0-85969-127-6
  • Enoch Powell (1977) Joseph Chamberlain, London, ISBN 0-500-01185-0
  • Enoch Powell (1978) (editor Richard Ritchie) A Nation or No Nation, London, ISBN 0713415428
  • Enoch Powell (1989) (editor Richard Ritchie) Enoch Powell on 1992, London, ISBN 1-85470-008-1
  • Enoch Powell (1991) (editor Rex Collings) Reflections of a Statesman, London, ISBN 0947792880
  • Enoch Powell (1990) Collected Poems
  • Enoch Powell (1994) The Evolution of the Gospel

The Right Honourable Angus Maude, Baron Maude of Stratford-upon-Avon, Kt, PC (1912-1993) Angus Maude was born on 8 September 1912. ...

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Enoch Powell

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Powellism is the name given to a set of political views along the lines of Conservative MP, Enoch Powell. ... Radio Enoch was a pirate radio station in the United Kingdom. ... On April 20, 1968, the British politician Enoch Powell made a controversial speech in Birmingham to the annual meeting of the West Midlands Conservative Political Centre, in which he warned his audience of what he believed would be the consequences of continued immigration from the Commonwealth to Britain. ...

External links

Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Enoch Powell
  • Obituary from The Guardian
  • Papers of Enoch Powell are held at Churchill Archives Centre in Cambridge and are accessible to the public.
  • Radio Interview on Immigration Powell interviewed shortly after his controversial "Rivers of Blood" speech. (Audio clip, 3:31 mins, Requires RealPlayer to listen)
  • Official portrait of Enoch Powell by David Griffiths
  • www.enochpowell.net
Parliament of the United Kingdom (1801–present)
Preceded by
(new constituency)
Member of Parliament for Wolverhampton South West
19501974
Succeeded by
Nicholas Budgen
Preceded by
Lawrence Orr
Member of Parliament for South Down
19741987
Succeeded by
Eddie McGrady
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Brooke
Financial Secretary to the Treasury
1957–1958
Succeeded by
Jocelyn Simon
Preceded by
Derek Walker-Smith
Secretary of State for Health
1960–1963
Succeeded by
Anthony Barber

  Results from FactBites:
 
Who Killed Enoch Powell? (755 words)
Powell has pretty much faded away altogether now from the popular consciousness, leaving hardly a stain behind him, but there was a time when he was not only the most popular politician in the country, but potentially the most powerful and significant.
Powell was sacked from his front-bench position by the then-Tory leader Ted Heath for those speeches, and never held any office again, but his power remained undiminished for some time to come.
Powell is speaking at a packed public meeting in Yorkshire when a bomb goes off, killing him outright.
Enoch Powell - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3693 words)
Powell was born and raised in Birmingham, the son of two schoolteachers.
Powell was a member of the Suez Group of MPs who were against the removal of British troops from the Suez Canal because such a move would demonstrate, Powell argued, that Britain could no longer maintain a position there and that any claim to the Suez Canal would therefore be illogical.
Enoch Powell died in 1998 from the effects caused by Parkinson's disease at the age of 85, and is interred in Warwick Cemetery, Warwickshire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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