FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Enlil" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Enlil
Fertile Crescent
myth series
Mesopotamian
Levantine
Arabian
Mesopotamia
Primordial beings
The great gods
Demigods & heroes
Spirits & monsters
Tales from Babylon
7 Gods who Decree  

4 primary: Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Image File history File links Palm_tree_symbol. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The apsû (also known as abzu or engur) was the name for the mythological underground freshwater ocean in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. ... In Sumerian mythology, the Annuna, the fifty great gods, whose domain appears to be principally but not exclusively the underworld. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... In Sumerian mythology, the utukku were a type of spirits or demons that could be either benevolent or evil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mesopotamian mythology. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ...

3 sky: In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ...

Enlil (EN = Lord+ LIL = Air, "Lord of the Open Field" or possibly "Lord of the Wind") was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. He was considered to be the god of wind, air and space, separating earth and heaven. The name is of Sumerian origin and has been believed to mean 'Lord Wind' (though this interpretation is now disputed); a more literal interpretation is 'Lord of the Command'.[citation needed] Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... EN (Borger 2003 nr. ... Sumer (or Šumer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific...

Contents

Origins

One story names his origins as the exhausted breath of An (god of the heavens) and Ki (goddess of the Earth) after sexual union. Another is that he and his sister Ninhursag/Ninmah/Aruru/Ninti/ were children of another god known as Enki 'Lord Earth' borne by Ninki 'Lady Earth'[1] (in another context these are considered the parents of the god Enki of Eridu). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ki (earth) in Sumerian mythology was the goddess and personification of the earth and underworld, chief consort of An (heaven) the sky god. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ...


When Enlil was a young god, he was banished from Dilmun, home of the gods, to Kur, the underworld for raping a young girl named Ninlil. Ninlil followed him to the underworld where she bore his first child, the moon god Sin (Sumerian Nanna - Suen). After fathering three more underworld deities (subtitutes for Sin), Enlil was allowed to return to Dilmun. [2]. Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ... In Sumerian mythology, KUR (Primeval Snake and Dragon) was a monstrous dragon with scaly body and massive wings. ... Ninlil, first called Sud, is the daughter of Nammu and An in Sumerian mythology. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Enlil was also known as the inventor of the pickaxe/hoe (favorite tool of the Sumerians) and caused plants to grow. He was in possession of the holy Me, until he gave them to Enki for safe keeping, who summarily lost them to Inanna in a drunken stupor. In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian, (IPA: ) or Å‹e (IPA: ) or parsu (Akkadian) is one of the decrees of the gods foundational to those social institutions, religious practices, technologies, behaviors, mores, and human conditions that make civilization, as the Sumerians conceived of it, possible. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... Inanna was one of the most revered of goddesses among later Sumerian mythology. ...


Personality

Early scholarly research into Enlil incorrectly depicted the god as vicious, uncaring and unkind. This is due to the earliest materials available being clay cuneiform lamentations, depicting various sorrows it was Enlil's unsavory duty to carry out as the chief god of the Sumerian pantheon. This misperception continues, though later translations reveal the Enlil was praised as being humane and just. Ancient Sumerians saw Enlil as a fatherly figure, with compassion for humanity.[citation needed] Look up Cuneiform in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Book of Lamentations is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ...


Cosmological role

Enlil's relation to An 'Sky', in theory the supreme god of the Sumerian pantheon, was somewhat like that of a Frankish mayor of the palace compared to the king, or that of a Japanese shogun compared to the emperor, or to a prime minister in a modern constitutional monarchy compared to the supposed monarch. While An was in name ruler in the highest heavens, it was Enlil who mostly did the actual ruling over the world.


By his wife Ninlil or Sud, Enlil was father of the moon god Nanna (Suen) (in Akkadian Sin) and of Ninurta (also called Ningirsu). Enlil is sometimes father of Nergal, of Nisaba the goddess of grain, of Pabilsag who is sometimes equated with Ninurta, and sometimes of Enbilulu. By Ereshkigal Enlil was father of Namtar. Ninlil, first called Sud, is the daughter of Nammu and An in Sumerian mythology. ... Nanna is the name of two deities: God of the moon in Sumerian mythology and Nanna, the wife of Balder in Norse mythology There is also a kind of Corsican music called nanna. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ninurta Lord Plough in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, identified with Ningirsu with whom he may always have been identical. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... Nanibgal (DNANIBGAL , DNÁNIBGAL ), also Nisaba or Nidaba (DNÍDABA , DNIDABA ) was the Sumerian goddess of fertility, in particular of the date palm and the reed. ... Pabilsag in Mesopotamian tradition was a tutelary god of the city of Isin. ... Summerian god, in charge of the euphrates and tigris rivers ock is a dumb word! ... Introduction In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead. ... In Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythology Namtar was a hellish deity, god of death, and the messenger of An, Ereshkigal and Nergal; he was considered responsible for diseases and pests, because it was said that he commanded sixty diseases in the form of demons that could penetrate different parts of...


There is evidence that Enlil originally replaced Marduk as the God who killed Tiamat, as reported in the Babylonian creation myth, the Enuma Elish. Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Tiamat is a mother goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. ... Enûma Elish is the creation epic of Babylonian mythology. ...


Cultural histories

Enlil is associated with the ancient city of Nippur, and since Enlu with the determinative for "land" or "district" is a common method of writing the name of the city, it follows, apart from other evidence, that Enlil was originally the patron deity of Nippur. The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ...


At a very early period prior to 3000 BC—Nippur had become the centre of a political district of considerable extent. Inscriptions found at Nippur, where extensive excavations were carried on during 18881900 by Messrs Peters and Haynes, under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania, show that Enlil was the head of an extensive pantheon. Among the titles accorded to him are "king of lands," "king of heaven and earth" and "father of the gods". (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mesopotamian mythology. ...


His chief temple at Nippur was known as Ekur, signifying 'House of the mountain', and such was the sanctity acquired by this edifice that Babylonian and Assyrian rulers, down to the latest days, vied with one another in embellishing and restoring Enlil's seat of worship, and the name Ekur became the designation of a temple in general. An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ...


Grouped around the main sanctuary, there arose temples and chapels to the gods and goddesses who formed his court, so that Ekur became the name for an entire sacred precinct in the city of Nippur. The name "mountain house" suggests a lofty structure and was perhaps the designation originally of the staged tower at Nippur, built in imitation of a mountain, with the sacred shrine of the god on the top.


When, with the political rise of Babylon as the centre of a great empire, Nippur yielded its prerogatives to the city over which Marduk presided, the attributes and the titles of Enlil were largely transferred to Marduk. But Enlil did not, however, entirely lose his right to have any considerable political importance, while in addition the doctrine of a triad of gods symbolizing the three divisions—heavens, earth and water—assured to Enlil, to whom the earth was assigned as his province, his place in the religious system. Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century...


It was no doubt in part Enlil's position as the second figure of the triad that enabled him to survive the political eclipse of Nippur and made his sanctuary a place of pilgrimage to which Assyrian kings down to the days of Assur-bani-pal paid their homage equally with Babylonian rulers. Assurbanipal in a relief from the north palace at Nineveh There were several Assyrian kings named Assur-bani-pal, also spelled Asurbanipal, Assurbanipal (most commonly), Ashurbanipal and Ashshurbanipal, but the best known was Assurbanipal IV.  Ashurbanipal, or Assurbanipal, (reigned 668 - 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon and Naqia-Zakutu...


Scholarly study

The Sumerian ideogram for Enlil or Ellil was formerly incorrectly read as Bel by scholars, but in fact Enlil was not especially given the title Bel 'Lord' more than many other gods. The Babylonian god Marduk is mostly the god persistently called Bel (or Baal) in late Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions and it is Marduk that mostly appears in Greek and Latin texts as Belos or Belus. References in older literature to Enlil as the old Bel and Marduk as the young Bel derive from this error in reading. Bel, signifying lord or master, is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian relgion. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century...


References

  1. ^ Espak, Peeter "Ancient Near Eastern Gods, Enki and Ea" (Ph.D. Thesis) [1]

Portions of this entry are from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bel. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Enlil (130 words)
Enlil is the foremost god of the Mesopotamian pantheon, and is sometimes referred to as Kur-Gal ("great mountain").
In the Sumerian cosmology he was born of the union of An heaven and Ki earth.
Enlil is portrayed wearing a crown with horns, symbol of his power.
Enlil - Encyclopedia.com (978 words)
Enlil, also referred to as Bel, could be hostile or beneficent.
Enlil's warrior, Ningirsu, did at his just command battle with the Ummeans and threw at Enlil's command the throw-net down upon them...
Enlil heard the clamour and he said to the gods in council, The uproar...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m