FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Enlightenment in Poland
Culture of Poland

Young Poland
Interwar period
Second World War
Socialist realism
Modern Download high resolution version (800x609, 132 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Culture of Poland is closely connected to its intricate 1000 years of history. ... Romanticism in Poland was eventually followed with the period known as positivism in Poland. ... For other meanings of positivism, see Positivism. ... Young Poland (Polish Młoda Polska) is a modernist period in Polish art, literature and music, covering roughly the years between 1890 and 1918. ...


Theater Poland — Polish literature Writers and novelists Main article: List of Polish language authors Writers in chronological order of birth: Jan Potocki (1761–1815) Józef Ignacy Kraszewski (1812–1887) Eliza Orzeszkowa (1841–1910) Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846–1916) Bolesław Prus (1847–1912) Stefan Żeromski (1864–1925) Władysław Reymont (1867–1925) Zofia Nałkowska... Poland has a lively and diverse music scene and even its own music genres like the sung poetry and disco polo. ... Prominent figures in Polish theater are: Wojciech Boguslawski Adam Hanuszkiewicz Konrad Swinarski Tadeusz Kantor Tadeusz Lomnicki Kazimierz Dejmek Krystian Lupa Helena Modrzejewska Leon Kruczkowski Jerzy Grotowski See also: List of famous Poles Categories: Polish culture ...


Poets List of Polish language authors Notable Polish writers and novelists in chronological order of birth: Jan Potocki (1761–1815) Józef Ignacy Kraszewski (1812–1887) Eliza Orzeszkowa (1841–1910) Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846–1916) Bolesław Prus (1847–1912) Stefan Żeromski (1864–1925) Władysław Reymont (1867–1925) Zofia Nałkowska (1885–1954) Maria Dąbrowska... List of Polish composers: // 15th century MikoÅ‚aj Radomski (fl. ... This is an alphabetical listing of Polish painters. ... Poets who have written much of their poetry in the Polish language. ...

The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later then in the Western Europe, as Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth political system (Golden Freedoms) were in deep crisis. The period of Polish Elightenment started in 1730s/1740s, reached its height during the reign of last of Polish kings, Stanisław August Poniatowski (second half of the 18th century), started declining with the destruction of Poland in the final third partition of Poland (1795) and ended in 1822, replaced by Romanticism. The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... Bourgeoisie () in modern use refers to the wealthy or propertied social class in a capitalist society. ... Polish szlachcic. ... Sarmatism was the prevalent mentality and ideology of szlachta in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 16th century to 19th century. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A political system is a social system of politics and government. ... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: ZÅ‚ota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after the Union of... Events and Trends The Great Awakening - A Protestant religious movement active in the British colonies of North America Sextant invented (probably around 1730) independently by John Hadley in Great Britain and Thomas Godfrey in the American colonies World leaders Louis XV King of France (king from 1715 to 1774) George... Events and Trends The War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) rages. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1822 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Romanticism in Poland was eventually followed with the period known as positivism in Poland. ...

Polish Enligtenment, while sharing many common qualities with the classical Enlightenments movements of the Western Europe, also differed from them in many important aspects, forming an interesting counterpoint. Much of the thought of the Western Enlightenment evolved under the opressive absolute monarchies and was dedicated towards fighting for more freedom. Western thinkers desired Montesquieu's separation and balance of powers to restrict the nearly unlimited power of their monarchs. Polish Enlightenment, on the contrary, developed in a very different background. Polish political system was the almost the opposite of the absolute monarchy: Polish king's were elected and their position was very weak, with most of the powers in the hands of the parliament (Sejm). Polish reformes desired the elimination of laws that transformed their system into a near-anarchy, resulting from abuse of consensus voting in Sejm (liberum veto) that paralyzed the Commownealth, especially during the times of the Wettin dynasty, reducing Poland from a major European player to the puppet of its neighbours. Thus while men of the Enlightenment in France and Prussia wrote about the need for more checks and balances on their kings, Polish Enlightenment was geared towards fighting the abuses stemming from too much freedom. Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... Personal Liberty is one of the meanings of freedom. Statue of Liberty - Societal Liberty is one of the meanings of freedom. For proper-noun uses of Freedom, see Freedom (disambiguation). ... Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (January 18, 1689 – February 10, 1755) was a French political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment and is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted... Separation of powers is the idea that the powers of a sovereign government should be split between two or more strongly independent entities, preventing any one person or group from gaining too much power. ... A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state, whose titles and ascent are often inherited, not earned, and who represents a larger monarchical system which has established rules and customs regarding succession, duties, and powers. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... Anarchy can refer to several different things: The word anarchy, referring to an absence of government. ... For other uses, see Consensus (disambiguation). ... For the Finno-Ugric people, see Votes. ... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ...

The differences did not end there. Townsfolk and burgeoise dominated Western Enlightenment movement, while in the Commonwealth most of the reformers came from szlachta (nobility). Strongly hierarchical and dominated by aristocracy West was starved for equality, the very notion of which was often considered treasonus (as can be seen in the unequal fight between Denis Diderot attempts to publish his Encyclopédie in France). But Commonwealth szlachta (forming the 10% of its population) considered the idea of equality to be one of the fundations of its culture, and reformers wanted fought to expand it towards other social classes. Religious tolerance, cause of many European wars, was another nearly untouchable fundation of the szlachta liberites. And while the West was being influenced by the Industrial Revolution and fought for overseas colonies, the mostly land-locked Commonwealth sunk into the dephts of the second serfdom. Polish szlachcic. ... The Ancient Greek term aristocracy meant a system of government with rule by the best. This is the first definition given in most dictionaries. ... EQUAL is a popular artificial sweetener Equal (sweetener) Equality can mean several things: Mathematical equality Social equality Racial equality Sexual equality Equality of outcome Equality, a town in Illinois See also Equity Egalitarianism Equals sign This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Fig. ... Polish szlachcic. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... The Industrial Revolution was the major technological, socioeconomic and cultural change in the late 18th and early 19th century resulting from the replacement of an economy based on manual labor to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture. ... Evan is so hot, sexy, and cool! Remember that. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ...

Ideas of that period led eventualy to one of the greates achievements of Poland, the Constitution of the 3rd May (second oldest world constitution) and other reforms (like the creation of the Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, first ministry of education in the worold) which attempted to transform the Commonwealth into a modern constitutional monarchy. Although attempts of political reform were thwarted by the civil war (Targowica Confederation) and military intervention of the Commonwealth neigbour, ending in the partitions of Poland, the cultural impact of that period perserved Polish culture for many years. Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (KEN, Polish for Commission of National Education) was the central educational authority in Poland, created by the Sejm and king Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773. ... Several countries have government departments named the Ministry of Education Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Japan) Ministry of Education (India) Ministry of Education (New Zealand) Ministry of Education (Israel) Ministry of Education (Malaysia) Ministry of Education (Singapore) See also: Minister of Education, Department of Education This is... A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... Reform can refer to: Reform (think tank) Reform, Alabama Reform Judaism Reform movement Reform of an individual, from conditions stemming from crime, drugs, or physical maladies. ... A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ... Categories: Stub | Polish confederations ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski, Lithuanian Padalijimas) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Important institutions of the Polish Enlightenment

  • Arts
  • Education
    • Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (Commission of National Education)
      • Towarzystwo do Ksiąg Elementarnych (Society for Elementary Books)
    • Szkoła Rycerska (Knight's School)
  • Sciences
    • Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk (Society of Friends of Science)
  • Newspapers
    • Monitor
    • Zabawy Przyjemne i Pożyteczne (Games Friendly and Useful)

Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (KEN, Polish for Commission of National Education) was the central educational authority in Poland, created by the Sejm and king Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773. ... SzkoÅ‚a Rycerska SzkoÅ‚a Rycerska, Full name: Akademia Szlachecka Korpusu Kadetów (English: Knight School) was the first state school in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth established in 1765 in Warsaw, by King StanisÅ‚aw August Poniatowski. ...

Important people of Polish Enlightenment

  • Wojciech Bogusławski - father of Polish theater
  • Franciszek Bohomolec - poet, writer, publisher, teacher
  • Tadeusz Czacki - education, economy, founder of Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk and Liceum Krzemienieckie
  • Jakub Jasiński - poet, general, radical supporter of revolution
  • Franciszek Salezy Jezierski - writer, political activist
  • Franciszek Karpiński - poet
  • Franciszek Kniaźnin (Franciszek Dionizy Kniażin) - poet, writer
  • Hugo Kołłątaj - priest, social and political activist, political thinker, historian and philosopher
  • Stanisław Konarski - precursor of education reform, author of O skutecznym rad sposobie
  • Onufry Kopczyński - teacher, precursor of Polish grammar
  • Ignacy Krasicki - one of Poland's greatests poets, writer, bishop, co-organiser of Thursday's dinners
  • Stanisław Leszczyński - king of Poland, political activist, writer )Głos wolny wolność ubezpieczający)
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde - chairman of Towarzystwo do Ksiąg Elementarnych, creator of Słownik Języka Polskiego
  • Adam Naruszewicz - poet, translator, historian
  • Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz - poet, playwright, independence activist
  • Jan Piotr Norblin - painter
  • Józef Maksymilian Ossoliński - writer, social, science and cultural activist, founder of Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich
  • Grzegorz Piramowicz - writer, philosopher, educational activist
  • Stanisław August Poniatowski - king, co-organiser of Thursday's dinners, great supporter of arts and sciences in Poland,
  • Stanisław Staszic - writer, economist
  • Jan Śniadecki - astronom, mathematician, philosopher
  • Jędrzej Śniadecki - chemist
  • Stanisław Trembecki - poet (Classicism style)
  • Tomasz Kajetan Węgierski - poet, explorer
  • Józef Wybicki - political activist, author of the words of Mazurek Dąbrowskiego, Polish national anthem
  • Franciszek Zabłocki - poet, comedy writer, secretary of Towarzystwo do Ksiąg Elementarnych
  • Andrzej i Józef Załuski - founders of first Polish public library, Biblioteka Załuskich

  Results from FactBites:
Poland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3576 words)
The Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska) is a country located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north.
Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I, was baptized in 966, adopting Catholic Christianity as the country's new official religion, to which the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next century.
The Enlightenment in Poland fostered a growing national movement to repair the state, resulting in what is claimed to be the first modern written constitution in Europe, the Constitution of May 3 in 1791.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m