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Encyclopedia > Enki
Fertile Crescent
myth series
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4 primary: Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from μυολογείν mythologein to relate myths, from μύος mythos, meaning a narrative, and λόγος logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Image File history File links Palm_tree_symbol. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The apsû (also known as abzu or engur) was the name for the mythological underground freshwater ocean in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. ... In Sumerian mythology, the Annuna, the fifty great gods, whose domain appears to be principally but not exclusively the underworld. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... In Sumerian mythology, the utukku were a type of spirits or demons that could be either benevolent or evil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mesopotamian mythology. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ...

3 sky: In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ...

Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. He was the deity of crafts (= gašam), water (=a, ab ), intelligence (= gestú(literally = "ear")) and creation (Nudimmud, from dim mud, "to engender", "to shape"). Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mesopotamian mythology. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Most of todays monotheistic religions, especially Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, hold the belief that the universe was created by a Supreme Being. ...


The exact meaning of his name is not sure: the common translation is "Lord of the Earth": the Sumerian en is translated as a title equivalent to "lord"; it was originally a title given to the High Priest; ki means "earth"; but there are theories that ki in this name has another origin, possibly kig of unknown meaning, or kur meaning "mound". The name Ea is allegedly Hurrian in origin while others[citation needed] claim that it is possibly of Semitic origin and may be a derivation from the West-Semitic root *hyy meaning "life" in this case used for "spring", "running water." Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ...

Contents

His early history

The temple of Enki in the historic period, at Eridu, was the last of 18 temples, built on the same site. The smallest was the oldest, a small room resting on clean sand, dating to 5,000 years BC, and contained all of the features of later Mesopotamian temples; a niche, a forecourt, an altar, two platforms, an offering table, an external oven, and an Abzu or sacred pool of water. The remains of bones of freshwater fish suggest that a god of the fresh water was worshipped at the site from the beginning. Joan Oates, for instance has commented "It is extremely difficult to believe that the location of the temple, its cult, and even its architecture would have continued in an unbroken tradition from al-Ubaid, to Sumerian times if there had been at any time in this period a major change."[1]. Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Florentine Renaissance painter Filippo Lippi placed his Madonna of the 1440s within a simulated shell-headed niche The niche in classical architecture is an exedra or an apse that has been reduced in size, retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse. ... In architecture a forecourt is an open area in front of a structures entrance. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... The tell (mound) of Ubaid near Ur in southern Iraq has given its name to the prehistoric culture which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies...


Whether the divinity worshipped here was Enki, or merely a precursor (possibly the god Abzu) having similar attributes, is not now known. However, the title En, as used to refer to a high priest or priestess, does appear at the transition from the fourth to the third millennium BC, during the Jemdet Nasr period,[2] and it is very probable that the god was referred to by his later name at least from this period onwards. In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Jemdet Nasr is an archaeological site in modern Iraq. ...

Enki as portrayed in various cylinder seals, courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum

Image File history File links Enki4. ... Image File history File links Enki4. ... Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal impression from Ur III, with oldest type of pictographic cuneiform The Cylinder seals in ancient times, were used to put an impression in clay. ... The British Museum in London is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...

His attributes

Enki was the deity of crafts (= gašam), water (=a, ab ), intelligence (= gestú(literally = "ear")) and creation (Nudimmud, from dim mud, "to engender", "to shape"). Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Most of todays monotheistic religions, especially Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, hold the belief that the universe was created by a Supreme Being. ...


The main temple of Enki was called é-engur-a, the "house of the lord of deep waters"; or é-abzu, the "house of Abzu", the underground area of sweet waters (most probably the Sumerians' explanation of groundwater). It was in Eridu, which was then in the wetlands of the Euphrates valley not far from the Persian Gulf. He was the keeper of the holy powers called Me, the gifts of civilised living. Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian, (IPA: ) or Å‹e (IPA: ) or parsu (Akkadian) is one of the decrees of the gods foundational to those social institutions, religious practices, technologies, behaviors, mores, and human conditions that make civilization, as the Sumerians conceived of it, possible. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ...


Enki is also the master shaper of the world, god of wisdom and of all magic. He is the lord of the Apsu (Akkadian, Abzu in Sumerian, hence perhaps the Greek and English word "abyss"), the freshwater ocean of groundwater under the earth. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... An abyss (Greek: a-, privative, bussos, bottom) is a bottomless depth; hence any deep place. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ...


Early royal inscriptions from the third millennium speak of "the reeds of Enki". Reeds were an important local building material, used for baskets and containers, and collected outside the city walls, where the dead or sick were often carried. This links Enki to the kur or underworld of Sumerian mythology. (2nd millennium – 3rd millennium – 4th millennium – other millennia) The third millennium is the third period of one thousand years in the Common Era. ... Reed can refer to: // Reed (plant), grass-like plant growing in shallow water or on marshy ground (see also Thatching) Reed (instrument), a thin strip of cane or similar material which vibrates in wind instruments Reed, Gloppen in the county Sogn og Fjordane in Norway. ... // In the study of mythology and religion, the underworld is a generic term approximately equivalent to the lay term afterlife, referring to any place to which newly dead souls go. ... Chaldean mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies, although Chaldea did not comprehend the whole territory inhabited by those peoples. ...


His symbols included a goat and a fish, symbols at the opposite ends of the year (Pisces and Capricorn) which later combined into a single beast, the Capricorn, which became one of the signs of the zodiac. Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold-blooded; covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Symbol of Pisces Pisces is an astrological sign, which is associated with the constellation Pisces. ... Capricornus ( or , Unicode: ♑), a name meaning Horned Goat or That which has horns like a goats in Latin, is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ... Capricorn may refer to: The constellation Capricornus, one of the constellations of the zodiac The astrological sign Capricorn represented by this constellation The Tropic of Capricorn Tropic of Capricorn is also the name of a novel by Henry Miller Capricorn, a character and villain of the Ink trilogy by Cornelia... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


Enki in Sumerian astronomy also represented the planet Mercury, known for its ability to shift rapidly, and its proximity to the Sun, Sumerian Utu, Akkadian Shamash, the god of Justice. This article is about the planet. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ...


Enki's symbol is the caduceus (2 serpents on an eagle winged stick), one of the most ancient of symbols. The Caduceus Two caduceuses without wings as decoration of door portal in Ztracená street in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ...


The caduceus connects Enki with Hermes in Greek mythology (and Poseidon in many ways); Moses (Numbers 21:8, 9) and Jesus Christ (who becomes The Caduceus - anyone who looks upon Him is healed, John 3:14). Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles, found at the Heraion, Olympia, 1877 Hermes (Greek, , IPA: ), in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators and wit, of literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Enki, the creator of Humankind

In Sumerian myth, Enki lay asleep in the depths of the primeval ocean, unable to hear the lament of the gods as they complained about the difficulty of cultivating wheat and making bread. Eventually the primeval sea, Nammu brought the gods' tears to Enki. Enki, as the god of wisdom, was expected to devise a solution, so he solicited Nammu and the birth-goddess Ninmah to use clay to form the first men, who would toil and farm so that the gods could relax. [7] Chaldean mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies, although Chaldea did not comprehend the whole territory inhabited by those peoples. ... In Sumerian mythology, Nammu is probably the first of the ancient deities of Sumer — at least in the process of creation, if not in actual chronology. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ...


In later Akkadian or Babylonian Cosmology there were six generations of gods that led to the creation of the younger (Igigi) divinities of the Anunaki. In the seventh generation (Akkadian "Shappatu" hence the Hebrew Shabbath => English Sabbath), the younger gods went on strike, put down their tools and refused to keep the creation working. In the Babylonian creation myth the Enuma Elish, Abzu, the water lord, threatens to take back the creation with a universal flood, but Enki averts the threat by imprisoning Abzu beneath the Earth. Kingu, his son, informs his mother, Abzu's wife, the serpentine Tiamat (Ti = Life, Ama = mother, Biblical tehwom = the deeps), and in anger she threatens to take back the whole of creation. The gods gather in terror, but Enlil (his place in the Enuma Elish is later taken by Enki's son Marduk) subdues and slays Tiamat with the arrows of his winds which he shoots down her throat. Marduk, Enki's son, (earlier Enlil, Enki's half-brother), takes from Tiamat the Tablet of Destinies. Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... Igigi was a Babylonian King who ruled from 2257 to (unknown) BCE. He fought for the power in Akkad after the death of Shar-kali-sharri. ... Divinity has a number of related uses in the field of religious belief and study. ... The Anunaki, from Anu = Heaven/Sky, na = and, Ki = Earth, was the name given to the Sumerian, and later Babylonian pantheon. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ... Enûma Elish is the creation epic of Babylonian mythology. ... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ... Tiamat is a mother goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. ... Tehwom in the Bible means the depths or the deeps. It is cognate with Babylonian Tiamat, the creatrix Goddess of Salt Water, who with her freshwater partner Apsu/Abzu, was the original creators of the Babylonian cosmos, mother and father of Lahm and Lahmu. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... In Mesopotamian mythology, the Tablet of Destinies (not, as frequently misquoted in general works, the Tablets of Destiny) was envisaged as a clay tablet inscribed with cuneiform writing, also impressed with cylinder seals, which, as a permanent legal document, conferred upon the god Enlil his supreme authority as ruler of...


In the Sumerian poem 'Ninurta and the Turtle'[8] it is the god Enki, rather than Enlil, who holds the tablet.[3] Both this poem and the Akkadian Anzû poem concern the theft of the tablet by the bird Imdugud (Sumerian) or Anzû (Akkadian).[4][5] Supposedly, whoever possessed the tablets ruled the universe.[6] Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... In Akkadian mythology, Zu (called Anzu in Persia and Sumer) was a lesser god, the son of the bird goddess Siris. ...


The tablet can be compared with the concept of the Me, divine decrees that are the special attribute of Enki. In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian, (IPA: ) or Å‹e (IPA: ) or parsu (Akkadian) is one of the decrees of the gods foundational to those social institutions, religious practices, technologies, behaviors, mores, and human conditions that make civilization, as the Sumerians conceived of it, possible. ...


But the problem created by the "strike of the gods" remains, how is creation to continue? Enki proposes that the gods make humankind as their servant, and give humans the task of keeping creation going. It is agreed, and Enki forms humanity out of the red earth (Hebrew Adamah), mingled with the red blood of the god Kingu, slain for his part in Tiamat's attack. Enlil fills his lungs with air (Hebrew ruach, Greek pneuma, Latin spiritus), and humans are alive. In this way, Humanity is given the task of maintaining the balance of nature and keeping the created order in place. i love ms hope ... In Rabelais Pantagruel, Ruach is the Isle of Winds. ... Pneumatology refers to the study of spiritual beings and phenomena, especially the interactions between humans and God. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as...


Another myth, "Enki and Adapa", tells of how humanity loses the chance at immortality. Adapa U-an (Berossus' Oannes), who is Abgallu (Ab = Water, Gal = Great, Lu = Man) (Akkadian Apkallu), Enki's advisor, to the first king of Eridu, Allulim, inadvertently breaks the wings of the South Wind, Ninlil (See Lilith) (Nin = Lady, Lil = Air), daughter of Anu (the Heavens) and wife to Enlil, king of the gods. In terror at the thought of their retribution, Adapa seeks the advice of Enki. Enki advises that Adapa make a deep and sincere atonement, but advises Adapa to eat nothing given to him by the gods, as he will probably be given the food of death, out of their anger at his deeds. Adapa takes Enki's advice, but the gods, so impressed by the sincerity of Adapa's sorrow and grief as to what he did, offered instead the fruit of immortality. Adapa remembering Enki's words, refuses, and so misses out on the chance of eternal life. Adapa was an Ancient Sumerian king. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Abgal, or (Apkallu) is the name of a groups of spirits from Sumerian mythology. ... GAL (Borger 2003 nr. ... Abgal, or (Apkallu) is the name of a groups of spirits from Sumerian mythology. ... Ninlil, first called Sud, is the daughter of Nammu and An in Sumerian mythology. ... “Lilitu” redirects here. ... NIN = EREŠ is the sign for lady. NIN.DINGIR (Akkadian entu) divine lady, lady of [a] god is a priestess. ...


Enki, restorer of balance

Enki was not perfect, as god of water he had a penchant for beer and as god of semen he had a string of incestuous affairs. In the epic Enki and Ninhursag, he and his consort Ninhursag had a daughter Ninsar. When Ninhursag left him he came upon and then had intercourse with Ninsar (Lady Greenery) who gave birth to Ninkurra (Lady Fruitfulness or Lady Pasture). Beer in the glass Schlenkerla Rauchbier direct from the cask Beer is the worlds oldest[1] and most popular[2] alcoholic beverage. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... Ninmu, The goddess of plants. ... In Sumerian mythology a minor mother goddess, daughter of Enki and Ninsar. ...


A second time, he had intercourse with Ninkurra, who gave birth to Uttu (= Weaver or Spider). In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ...


A third time Enki succumbs to temptation, and attempts seduction of Uttu. Upset about Enki's reputation, Uttu consults Ninhursag, who, upset at the promiscuous nature of her spouse, advises Uttu to avoid the riverbanks. In another version of this myth Ninhursag takes Enki's semen and plants it in the earth where seven plants rapidly germinate. With his two-faced servant and steward Isimud, Enki finds the plants and immediately starts consuming their fruit. Unaccountably he falls ill in his jaw, his teeth, his mouth, his throat, his limbs and his rib. The gods are at a loss to know what to do, until Ninhursag's sacred fox fetches the goddess. Isimud (also Isinu; Usumu (Akkadian)) is a minor god, the messenger of the god Enki. ...


Ninhursag relents and takes Enki's Ab (water, or semen) into her body, and gives birth to gods of healing of each part of the body. The last one - Ninti, Sumerian = Lady Rib, is also a pun on Lady Life, a title of Ninhursag herself. The story symbolically reflects the way in which life is brought forth through the addition of water to the land, and once it grows, water is required to bring plants to fruit. It also counsels balance and responsibility, nothing to excess.


Ninti, is given the title of the mother of all living, and was a title given to the later Hurrian goddess Kheba. This is also the title given to Eve (= Hebrew Chavvah), the Aramaic Hawwah, who was supposedly made from the Rib of Adam, in a strange reflection of the Sumerian myth. The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... The mother goddess of the Hurrians. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Eve, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Eve from the side of Adam. ...


Enki confuses Earth's languages

In the Sumerian epic entitled Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, in a speech of Enmerkar, an incantation is pronounced that has a mythical introduction. Kramer's translation is as follows[7]: Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta is a legendary Sumerian account of the greatest antiquity, possibly based on genuine events of the 3rd millennium BC. It is one of a series of accounts describing the conflicts between Enmerkar, king of Unug-Kulaba (Uruk), and the unnamed king of Aratta (probably... Enmerkar, according to the Sumerian king list, was the builder of Uruk, and was said to have reigned for 420 years. It adds that he brought the official kingship with him from the city of Eana, after his father Mesh-ki-ag-gasher, son of Utu, had entered the sea...


Once upon a time there was no snake, there was no scorpion,
There was no hyena, there was no lion,
There was no wild dog, no wolf,
There was no fear, no terror,
Man had no rival.


In those days, the lands of Subur (and) Hamazi,
Harmony-tongued Sumer, the great land of the decrees of princeship,
Uri, the land having all that is appropriate,
The land Martu, resting in security,
The whole universe, the people in unison
To Enlil in one tongue [spoke]. The land of Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Å ubur) or Subartu (Akkadian Å ubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Å ubarri) was situated at the Tigris, north of Babylonia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ...


(Then) Enki, the lord of abundance (whose) commands are trustworthy,
The lord of wisdom, who understands the land,
The leader of the gods,
Endowed with wisdom, the lord of Eridu
Changed the speech in their mouths, [brought] contention into it,
Into the speech of man that (until then) had been one. Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ...

Enki, Champion of Humankind

According to Sumerian mythology, Enki also assisted humanity to survive the Deluge designed to kill them. In the Legend of Atrahasis, Enlil, the jealous king of the gods, sets out to eliminate humanity, whose noise is offensive to his ears. He successively sends drought, famine and plague to eliminate humanity, but Enki thwarts his half-brother's plans by teaching Atrahasis irrigation, granaries and medicine. Humans again proliferate a fourth time. Enraged Enlil, convenes a Council of Deities and gets them to promise not to tell humankind that he plans their total annihilation. Enki, doesn't tell Atrahasis, but tells of Enlil's plan to the walls of Atrahasis' reed hut, thus covertly rescuing the man Atrahasis, or Ziusudra by either instructing him to build some kind of a boat for his family, or by bringing him into the heavens in a magic boat. After the seven day Deluge, the flood hero, Utnapishtim, Atrahasis or Ziusudra frees a swallow, a raven and a dove in an effort to find if the flood waters have receded. On the boat landing, a sacrifice is organized to the gods. Enlil is angry his will has been thwarted yet again, and Enki is named as the culprit. As the god of what we would call ecology, Enki explains that Enlil is unfair to punish the guiltless Atrahasis for the sins of his fellows, and secures a promise that the gods will not eliminate humankind if they practice birth control and live within the means of the natural world. The threat is made, however, that if humans do not honour their side of the covenant the gods will be free to wreak havoc once again. This is apparently the oldest surviving source of the Noah's Ark biblical tale and other parallel Middle Eastern Deluge myths. The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim (also known as the Sumerian character Ziusudra) is the wise king of the Sumerian city state of Shuruppak who, along with his wife, whose name was not mentioned in the story, survived a great flood sent by Enlil to drown every living thing on... In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim (also known as the Sumerian character Ziusudra) is the wise king of the Sumerian city state of Shuruppak who, along with his wife, whose name was not mentioned in the story, survived a great flood sent by Enlil to drown every living thing on... The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... Utnapishtim, whose name means he found life or he who saw life, is also known as Atrahasis, meaning the exceptional wise one. In the Akkadian sources, a wise citizen of Shurrupak on the banks of the Euphrates, or Ziusudra in the Sumerian poems. ... Covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn and bilateral promise to do or not do something specified. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in myths. ...


Enki and Inanna

In his connections with Inanna Enki shows other aspects of his non-Patriarchal nature. The myth Enki and Inanna[8][9] tells the story of the young goddess of the É-anna temple of Uruk, who visits the senior god of Eridu, and is entertained by him in a feast. The seductive god plies her with beer, and the young goddess maintains her virtue, whilst Enki proceeds to get drunk. In generosity he gives her all the gifts of his Me, the gifts of civilised life. Next morning, with a hangover, he asks his servant Isimud for his Me to be informed that he has given them to Inanna. Upset at his actions he sends Galla demons to recover them. Inanna escapes her pursuers to arrive safely back at the quay at Uruk. Enki realises that he has been tricked in his hubris and accepts a peace treaty forever with Uruk. Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian, (IPA: ) or Å‹e (IPA: ) or parsu (Akkadian) is one of the decrees of the gods foundational to those social institutions, religious practices, technologies, behaviors, mores, and human conditions that make civilization, as the Sumerians conceived of it, possible. ... Isimud (also Isinu; Usumu (Akkadian)) is a minor god, the messenger of the god Enki. ...


Politically, this myth would seem to indicate events of an early period where political authority passed from Enki's city of Eridu to Inanna's Uruk.


In the myth of Inanna's descent,[10] Inanna to console her grieving sister Ereshkigal, mourning the death of her husband Gugalana (Gu=Bull, Gal=Great, Ana=Heaven), slain by Gilgamesh and Enkidu, sets out to visit her sister. She tells her servant Ninshubur (Nin=Lady, Shubur=Evening}, a reference to Inanna's role as the evening star, that if she doesn't return in three days to get help from her father Anu, Enlil, king of the gods, or Enki. When she doesn't return, Ninshubur approaches Anu only to be told that he understands that his daughter is strong and can take care of herself. Enlil tells Ninshubur he is much too busy running the cosmos. Enki immediately expresses concern and dispatches his Galla demons, Galaturra or Kurgarra, sexless beings created from the dirt from beneath the god's finger-nails, to recover the young goddess. These beings may be the origin of the Greco-Roman Galli, androgynous beings of the third sex, similar to the American Indian berdache, who played an important part in early religious ritual.[11] Introduction In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead. ... Gugalana, the Sumerian Great Bull of Heaven, a reference to the constellation Taurus, (from Sumerian Gu=Bull, Gal=Great, Ana,An,Anu=Heaven, Sky). ... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. He is also the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which says that his mother was Ninsun, (whom some call Rimat... Enkidu and Gilgamesh, cylinder seal from Ur III Enkidu (𒂗𒆠𒆕 EN.KI.DU3 Enkis creation) appears in Sumerian mythology as a mythical wild-person raised by animals; his beast-like ways are finally tamed by a courtesan named Shamhat. ... Evening Star may be: Venus as a brilliant Evening Star as seen near the cresent moon The planet Venus BR 92220 Evening Star, a BR standard class 9F locomotive and the last steam locomotive to be built by British Railways. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ...


In the story Inanna and Skukaletuda,[12] Shukaletuda, the gardener, set by Enki to care for the date palm he had created, finds Inanna sleeping under the palm tree and rapes the goddess in her sleep. Awaking she discovers that she has been violated without her permission and seeks to punish the miscreant. Shukaletuda seeks protection from Enki whom Bottero[13] believes to be his father. In classic Enkian fashion, the father advises Shukaletuda to hide in the city where Inanna will not be able to find him. Enki as the protector whoever comes to seek his help, and as the empowerer of Inanna, here challenges the young impetuous goddess to control her anger so as to be better able to function as a great judge.


Eventually after cooling her anger, she too seeks the help of Enki, as spokesperson of the "assembly of the gods", the Igigi and the Anunnaki. After presenting her case Enki sees that justice needs to be done and promises help, delivering knowledge of where the miscreant is hiding.


His portrayal

Enki was considered a god of life and replenishment, and was often depicted with two streams of water emanating from his shoulders, one the Tigris, the other the Euphrates. Alongside him were trees symbolising the male and female aspects of nature, each holding the male and female aspects of the 'Life Essence', which he, as apparent alchemist of the gods, would masterfully mix to create several beings that would live upon the face of the earth.


In character Enki is not a joker or trickster god, he is never a cheat, although fooled he is not a fool. Enki uses his magic for the good of others when called upon to help either a god, a goddess or a human. Enki is always true to his own essence as a masculine nurturer. He is fundamentally a trouble-shooter god, and avoids or disarms those who bring conflict and death to the world. He is the mediator whose compassion and sense of humour breaks and disarms the wrath of his stern half-brother, Enlil, king of the gods. He is the Challenger who tests the limits of Inanna in the myth Enki and Inanna and the Me and then concedes graciously his defeat by the young goddess of Love and War, by strengthening the bonds between Eridu and her city of Uruk. So he becomes the Empowerer of Inanna. Joker card, lower left. ... The trickster figure Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 childrens book by Michel Rodange. ... Look up cheat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A fool can refer to: Look up fool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up masculine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Idiot compassion be merged into this article or section. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... Inanna was one of the most revered of goddesses among later Sumerian mythology. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... EmPower is a line of products by Astronics Advanced Electronic Systems for providing power to aircraft seats. ...


He is the lord of the Apsu (Akkadian, Abzu in Sumerian, hence Greek and English Abyss) , the fresh-water ocean of groundwater under the earth. In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ...


Enki has been said to be:

"The most complete and modern mirror of masculine wholeness in Mesopotamia and world religion. His values and attributes are timeless, and it is not surprising to see that He is one of the most beloved gods of Mesopotamia. How can He be so whole? Because in Him the passionate and joyous Lover, the Mystic, the Strategist, the Sorcerer, the Divine Manager, the Keeper of World Order and Rescuer of Humankind and Gods alike are all One.
Enki is ... the gallant, impetuous, energetic Lord of Wisdom, the Seeker after truth, and Master Adept in sorcery, enchantment and seduction." [9]

Enki's Influence

Enki and later Ea were apparently depicted, sometimes, like Adapa, as a man covered with the skin of a fish, and this representation, as likewise the name of his temple E-apsu, "house of the watery deep", points decidedly to his original character as a god of the waters (see Oannes). Of his cult at Eridu, which goes back to the oldest period of Mesopotamian history, nothing definite is known except that his temple was also associated with Ninhursag's temple which was called Esaggila = "the lofty sacred house" (E = house, Sag = sacred, Ila = High (or (Akkadian) = Ila (goddess))), a name shared with Marduk's temple in Babylon, pointing to a staged tower or ziggurat (as with the temple of Enlil at Nippur, which was known as Ekur ("Kur" = mountain "E" = house), and that incantations, involving ceremonial rites in which water as a sacred element played a prominent part, formed a feature of his worship. This seems also implicated in the epic of the hieros gamos or sacred marriage of Enki and Ninhursag, which seems an etiological myth of the fertilisation of the dry ground by the coming of irrigation water (from Sumerian = 'A, Ab' = water, or semen). The early inscriptions of Urukagina in fact go so far as to suggest that the divine pair, Enki and Ninki, were the progenators of seven pairs of gods, including Enki as god of Eridu, Enlil of Nippur and Su'en (or Sin) of Ur, and were themselves the children of An (sky, heaven) and Ki (earth) [10]. The pool of the Abzu at the front of his temple, was adopted also at the temple to Nanna (Akkadian Sin) the Moon, at Ur, and spread throughout the Middle East. It remains, as the sacred pool at Mosques, and as the Baptismal font in Christian Churches. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original sense of religious practice; for that usage see Cult (religious practice). ... É[1] is the Sumerian for house or temple, written ideographically with the cuneiform sign (Borger nr. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... Jupiter and Juno, by Agostino Carracci Hieros Gamos (Greek ιερός γάμος, holy wedding) or Hierogamy (Greek ιερογαμία, again holy wedding) means a coupling (sometimes marriage) of a god and a man or a woman, often having a symbolic meaning and generally conducted in the spring. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Nanna is the name of two deities: God of the moon in Sumerian mythology and Nanna, the wife of Balder in Norse mythology There is also a kind of Corsican music called nanna. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Baptismal font in Magdeburg Cathedral, Germany A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for the baptism of children and adults. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ...


Whether Eridu at one time also played an important political role in Sumerian affairs is not certain, though not improbable. At all events the prominence of "Ea" led, as in the case of Nippur, to the survival of Eridu as a sacred city, long after it had ceased to have any significance as a political centre. Myths in which Ea figures prominently have been found in Assurbanipal's library, and in the Hattusas archive in Hittite Anatolia. As Ea, Enki had a wide influence outside of Sumeria, being equated with El (at Ugarit) and possibly Yah (at Ebla) in the Canaanite 'ilhm pantheon, he is also found in Hurrian and Hittite mythology, as a god of contracts, and is particularly favourable to humankind. Amongst the Western Semites it is thought that Ea was equated to the term *hyy (Life)[11], referring to Enki's waters as life giving. Enki/Ea is essentially a god of civilization, wisdom and culture. He was also the creator and protector of man, and of the world in general. Traces of this view appear in the Marduk epic celebrating the achievements of this god and the close connection between the Ea cult at Eridu and that of Marduk. The correlation between the two rise from two other important connections: (1) that the name of Marduk's sanctuary at Babylon bears the same name, Esaggila, as that of a temple in Eridu, and (2) that Marduk is generally termed the son of Ea, who derives his powers from the voluntary abdication of the father in favour of his son. Accordingly, the incantations originally composed for the Ea cult were re-edited by the priests of Babylon and adapted to the worship of Marduk, and, similarly, the hymns to Marduk betray traces of the transfer of attributes to Marduk which originally belonged to Ea. Assurbanipal in a relief from the north palace at Nineveh There were several Assyrian kings named Assur-bani-pal, also spelled Asurbanipal, Assurbanipal (most commonly), Ashurbanipal and Ashshurbanipal, but the best known was Assurbanipal IV.  Ashurbanipal, or Assurbanipal, (reigned 668 - 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon and Naqia-Zakutu... Hattusa (also known as Hattusas or Hattush) was the capital of the Hittite Empire. ... An archive refers to a collection of records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; in Arabic) 35°35´ N; 35°45´E) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... In Egyptian mythology, Iah was a lunar deity. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Canaanite mythology are the myths and god tales of ancient Canaan. ... Elohim (אֱלוֹהִים , אלהים) is a Hebrew word which expresses concepts of divinity. ... A pantheon (in Greek, παν – pan — all + θεός – theos — god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century...


It is, however, as the third figure in the triad (the two other members of which were Anu and Enlil) that Ea acquires his permanent place in the pantheon. To him was assigned the control of the watery element, and in this capacity he becomes the 'shar apsi', i.e. king of the Apsu or "the deep." The Apsu was figured as the abyss of water beneath the earth, and since the gathering place of the dead, known as Aralu, was situated near the confines of the Apsu, he was also designated as En-Ki, i.e. "lord of that which is below", in contrast to Anu, who was the lord of the "above" or the heavens. The cult of Ea extended throughout Babylonia and Assyria. We find temples and shrines erected in his honour, e.g. at Nippur, Girsu, Ur, Babylon, Sippar and Nineveh, and the numerous epithets given to him, as well as the various forms under which the god appears, alike bear witness to the popularity which he enjoyed from the earliest to the latest period of Babylonian-Assyrian history. The consort of Ea, known as Ninhursag, Ki, Uriash Damkina, "lady of that which is below," or Damgalnunna, "great lady of the waters," originally was fully equal with Ea but in more patriarchal Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian times plays a part merely in association with her lord. Generally, however, Enki seems to be a reflection of pre-patriarchal times, in which relations between the sexes were characterised by a situation of greater gender equality. In his character, he prefers persuasion to conflict, which he seeks to avoid if possible. In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Baal. ... EN (Borger 2003 nr. ... Enki was a god in the Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


"Ea" and West Semitic deities

In 1964, a team of Italian archaeologists under the direction of Paolo Matthiae of the University of Rome La Sapienza performed a series of excavations of material from the third-millennium BCE city of Ebla. Much of the written material found in these digs was later translated by Dr. Giovanni Pettinato.[14] Among other conclusions, he found a tendency among the inhabitants of Ebla to replace the name of El, king of the gods of the Canaanite Pantheon (found in names such as Mikael), with Yah (as in Mikiah). Jean Bottero[15] and many others have suggested that Yah in this case is a West Semitic (Canaanite) way of saying Ea, Enki's Akkadian name. Paolo Matthiae is Professor of Archaeology and History of Art of the Ancient Near East in the University of Rome La Sapienza; he has been Director of the Ebla Expedition since 1963 -in fact its discoverer-, and has published many articles and books about Ebla, and about the History of... University of Rome La Sapienza (Università della Sapienza) is the most ancient university of Rome, Italy. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... A pantheon (in Greek, παν – pan — all + θεός – theos — god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ...


Yah, Yahu, or Yaw becomes the god of the Waters, of Yamm (the Sea) and Nahar (the Rivers) in Levantine Mythology, contesting with the god Hadad, the storm god (the Canaanite divinity equivalent to Enlil), for supreme power. It has been suggested that this god - Canaanite Yah (Ea/Enki), unified with the Aramaic "Mother of all Living" - the goddess Hawwah (Akkadian Ninhursag), into a single androgynous creator divinity, may be the origin of the Tetragrammaton YHWH (Yahweh, from Yah and Hawwah). This would explain Yahweh's (and Jesus Christ's, in the later teachings of Christianity) role as creator, the god who made humankind, the god who confounded humanity's languages, and the god who saved Noah from the Great Flood, the god associated with the serpent on the pole, all attributes of Enki. Thus it may be that behind Yahweh himself, lies the nature and character of the earlier Sumerian god. Yamm was the god of oceans, seas, rivers and lakes in several old semitic religions, for instance in Phoenicia, Ancient Egypt and for the Canaanites. ... The Nahar is the name of the currency that Chechen separatists planned for Chechen Republic. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Phoenician silver drachm from ca. ... Look up eve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Some of this article was originally from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...


Enki in popular culture

  • In the science fiction book Snow Crash, by Neal Stephenson, Enki is portrayed as a proto-hacker or as Stephenson puts it "a neurolinguistic hacker"; his ability to manipulate people through language culminated in him introducing sentience to mankind.
  • According to Zecharia Sitchin (q.v.), Enki was an alien genetic engineer responsible for the creation of mankind. His theories are not accepted by the majority of historians, mythologists and scientists.
  • Norwegian black metal band Burzum wrote a song called "Ea, Lord of the Depths".
  • Norwegian black metal band 1349 wrote a song called "From the Deeps" which is about Ea or Enki.
  • In the Outlanders series novel Dragoneye by Mark Ellis aka James Axler, Enki appears as a crippled reptilian, the last of the Anunnaki.
  • In the show and book Talking Cock, comedian Richard Herring describes Enki in detail, and repeatedly refers to him throughout.
  • The largest Plumbing & Irrigation chain in Australia, Reece ,have introduced a range of irrigation products called "Enki", with the outlook of water saving.
  • In the Doctor Who Virgin New Adventures novel Timewyrm: Genesys by John Peel, the Doctor takes the identity of Enki after being mistaken for the god by Gilgamesh.

Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A chained book in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University A book is a set or collection of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other material, usually fastened together to hinge at one side, and within protective covers. ... Snow Crash is Neal Stephensons third science fiction novel, published in 1992. ... Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Neurolinguistics is the science concerned with the human brain mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production, and abstract knowledge of language, be it spoken, signed, or written. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zecharia Sitchins photograph from The 12th Planet Zecharia Sitchin (born 1922)[1] is a best-selling author of books promoting the ancient astronaut theory for human origins. ... Black metal is an extreme metal subgenre. ... Cover of Hvis Lyset Tar Oss (en:If the light takes us) Burzum began in 1987 as a prominent Norwegian black metal solo project of Varg Vikernes (born Kristian Vikernes). ... Black metal is an extreme metal subgenre. ... Outlanders is a series of science-fiction novels published by Gold Eagle, an imprint of Harlequin Enterprises. ... Mark Ellis can refer to different people: Mark Ellis: a record producer Mark Ellis: a Major League Baseball player Mark Ellis: a writer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... James Axler is a pseudonym used by the publishing company Gold Eagle Books, a division of Harlequin Enterprises . ... Ancient Sumerian cylinder seal impression depicting the Annunaki. ... Print version of the Coxford Singlish Dictionary Talking Cock is a Singaporean satirical and humour website. ... Richard Herring performing his show Someone Likes Yoghurt at the Pleasance Theatre, Edinburgh, during the 2005 Edinburgh Festival Fringe Richard Keith Herring (born July 12, 1967) is a British comedian and writer formerly best known as part of Lee and Herring, a double act with Stewart Lee. ... Doctor Who is a long-running British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC, (and a 1996 television movie). ... The Virgin New Adventures (often referred to simply as NAs within fandom) were a series of novels from Virgin Publishing based on the British science-fiction television series Doctor Who, which had been cancelled in 1989, continuing the story of the series from where the television programme had left off. ... John Peel (born 1954) is a British writer, best known for his books connected to several television series. ... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. He is also the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which says that his mother was Ninsun, (whom some call Rimat...

Works cited

  1. ^ Oates, Joan, (1960)"Ur and Eridu: the Prehistory" Iraq 20, p.45
  2. ^ De Shong Meador, Betty (2006)"Inanna: Lady of the Largest Heart: Poems of the Sumerian High Priestess Enheduanna" (Texas Press)
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ cf.[2]
  5. ^ J. Black and A. Green, gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary, London: British Museum Press 1992, s.v. "Tablet of Destinies"
  6. ^ [3]
  7. ^ Another translation describes 'Hamazi, the many-tongued' and instead calls on Enki to change the languages of mankind into one.
  8. ^ [4]
  9. ^ Wolkstein, Diana and Noah Kramer, Samuel "Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth"
  10. ^ Wolkstein, Diana and Noah Kramer, Samuel "Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth"
  11. ^ De Shong Meador, Betty, (2006)"Inanna: Lady of the Largest Heart: Poems of the Sumerian High Priestess Enheduanna" (Texas Press)
  12. ^ "enki and Shukaletuda" [5]
  13. ^ Bottéro, Jean (1992) "Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning and the Gods" (University of Chicago Press)
  14. ^ Cornwell, Jim A., The Alpha and the Omega - Volume III Copyright © 1/25/1999 ([6])
  15. ^ Bottero, Jean (2004) "Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia" (University Of Chicago Press) ISBN 0-226-06718-1

References

  • Jacobsen, Thorkild (1976) "Treasures of Darkness; A History of Mesopotamian Religion", (Yale University Press, London, New Heaven) ISBN 0-300-02291-3
  • Bottero, Jean (2004) "Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia" (University Of Chicago Press) ISBN 0-226-06718-1
  • Kramer, Samuel Noah (1998) "Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C." (University of Pennsylvania Press; Revised edition) ISBN 0-8122-1047-6
  • Kramer, S.N. and Maier, J.R. (1989) "Myths of Enki, the Crafty God" (Oxford)
  • Galter, H.D. (1981) "Der Gott Ea/Enki in der akkadischen Überlieferung" (Graz)

See also

Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Capricornus ( or , Unicode: ♑), a name meaning Horned Goat or That which has horns like a goats in Latin, is one of the constellations of the zodiac. ...

External links

AncientNearEast.Net http://www.ancientneareast.net/religion_mesopotamian/gods/enki_ea.html


Peeter Espak, Ancient Near Eastern gods Enki and Ea: Diachronical Analysis of Texts and Images from the Earliest Sources to the Neo-Sumerian Period : master's thesis / http://www.utlib.ee/ekollekt/diss/mag/2006/b18272897/espakpeeter.pdf


  Results from FactBites:
 
Enki - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2769 words)
Enki was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology.
Enki, doesn't tell Atrahasis, but tells of Enlil's plan to the walls of Atrahasis' reed hut, thus covertly rescuing the man Atrahasis, or Ziusudra by either instructing him to build some kind of a boat for his family, or by bringing him into the heavens in a magic boat.
Enki was considered a god of life and replenishment, and was often depicted with two streams of water emanating from his shoulders, one the Tigris, the other the Euphrates.
Enki or Ea (282 words)
Enki's central position was as a creator, either of the world or of man. He is normally represented as half goat-half fish.
Enki was in earlier religions the local god of Eridu, but developed into a major god.
In the myths Enki is said to have fixed national boundaries, and to have given each god his or her role.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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