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Encyclopedia > Enharmonic

In music, an enharmonic is a note which is the equivalent of some other note, but spelled differently. For example, in twelve-tone equal temperament (the normal system of musical tuning in the west), the notes C sharp and D flat are enharmonically equivalent - that is, they are represented by the same key (on a musical keyboard, for example), and thus are identical in pitch, although they have different names and diatonic functionality. Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Music Look up Music in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikicities has a wiki about Music: Music Music City : a collaborative music database All Music Guide: includes a comprehensive and flexible Genre and Style system MusicWiki: A Collaborative Music-related encyclopedia Science... In mathematics, an equivalence relation on a set X is a binary relation on X that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive, i. ... Equal temperament is a scheme of musical tuning in which the octave is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... This page is about musical systems of tuning, for the musical process of tuning see tuning. ... Roland EXR-3 Keyboard Three-year-old girl playing with a keyboard The musical keyboard, also known as the piano keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which produce notes. ... See also: function and functional. ...


This is in contrast to just intonation—in which, when singing or playing on a fretless stringed instrument such as the violin—the enharmonic equivalents actually do differ slightly in pitch. For example, consider G sharp and A flat. Call middle C's frequency x. Then high C has a frequency of 2x. Perfect major thirds need to have frequency ratios of exactly 4 to 5. Just intonation is any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by whole number ratios. ... The musical interval of a Major third is the relationship between the first note (the root or tonic) and the third note in a major scale. ...


In order to form a perfect major third with the C above it, A flat and high C need to be in the ratio 4 to 5, so A flat needs to have the frequency

In order to form a perfect major third above E, however, G sharp needs to form the ratio 5 to 4 with E, which, in turn, needs to form the ratio 5 to 4 with C. Thus the frequency of G sharp is

Thus, G sharp and A flat are not the same note; G sharp is, in fact 41 "cents" lower in pitch (41% of a semitone, not quite a quarter of a tone). On a piano, both would be played by striking the same key, with a frequency Such small differences in pitch can escape notice when presented as melodic intervals. However, when they are sounded as chords, the difference between just intonation and equal-tempered intonation is quite noticeable, even to untrained ears. The cent is a unit in a logarithmic scale of relative pitch or intervals. ...


The reason that — despite, in almost all western music, Ab is exactly the same pitch as G# — we label them differently is that in tonal music notes are named for their harmonic function. This is called diatonic functionality. Also, there is one way of labeling enharmonically equivalent pitches with one and only one name, sometimes called integer notation, often used in serialism, twelve tone music, and other atonal music theory such as musical set theory. Tonality is the character of music written with hierarchical relationships of pitches, rhythms, and chords to a center or tonic. ... See also: function and functional. ... Music notation is a system of writing for music. ... Serialism is the term used in the music theory of European classical music to describe a set of methods for composing and analyzing works of music based on structuring those works around the parameterization of parts of music: that is, ordering pitch, dynamics, instrumentation, rhythm, and on occasion other elements... Twelve-tone technique is a system of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... Atonality describes music which departs from the system of tonal hierarchies that characterizes the sound of classical European music between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. ... Musical set theory is a atonal or post-tonal method of musical analysis and composition which is based on explaining and proving musical phenomena, taken as sets and subsets, using mathematical rules and notation and using that information to gain insight to compositions or their creation. ...


An enharmonic is also one of the three Greek genera in music, in which the tetrachords are divided (descending) as a ditone plus two microtones. The ditone can be anywhere from 16/13 to 9/7 (3.55 to 4.35 semitones) and the microtones can be anything smaller than 1 semitone. Some examples of enharmonic genera are In ancient Greek music there were three genera (singular: genus) for classifying musical scales: diatonic chromatic enharmonic, diatonic being the simplest and enharmonic the most complex. ... In musical theory, a tetrachord is a series of four diatonic tones encompassing the interval of a perfect fourth. ... The musical interval of a Major third is the relationship between the first note (the root or tonic) and the third note in a major scale. ... Microtonal music is music using microtones -- intervals of less than a semitone, or as Charles Ives put it, the notes between the cracks of the piano. ... The musical interval of a half step, semitone, or minor second is the relationship between the leading tone and the first note (the root or tonic) in a major scale. ...

1. 1/1 36/35 16/15 4/3
2. 1/1 28/27 16/15 4/3
3. 1/1 64/63 28/27 4/3
4. 1/1 49/48 28/27 4/3
5. 1/1 25/24 13/12 4/3

In Byzantine music, enharmonic describes a kind of tetrachord and the echoi that contain them. As in the Greek system, enharmonic tetrachords are distinct from diatonic and chromatic. However Byzantine enharmonic tetrachords bear no resemblance to Greek enharmonic tetrachords. Their largest division is between a whole-tone and a tone-and-a-quarter in size, and their smallest is between a quarter-tone and a semitone. These are called "improper diatonic" tetrachords in modern western usage. Strictly speaking, Byzantine music is the medieval sacred chant of Christian Churches following the Orthodox rite. ... In musical theory, a tetrachord is a series of four diatonic tones encompassing the interval of a perfect fourth. ... In the theory of byzantine music echos is the concept most akin to that of mode or maqam. ... In Music theory, the diatonic major scale (also known as the Guido scale), from the Greek diatonikos or to stretch out, is a fundamental building block of the European-influenced musical tradition. ... In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... The musical interval of a major second — also called a whole-tone — is the relationship between the first note (the root or tonic) and the second note in a major scale (and also a minor scale). ... A quarter tone is an interval half as wide (aurally, or logarithmically) as a semitone, which is half a whole tone. ... The musical interval of a half step, semitone, or minor second is the relationship between the leading tone and the first note (the root or tonic) in a major scale. ...


See also

enharmonic scale, music theory, music notation, accidental , octave equivalence, transpositional equivalence, inversional equivalence. An enharmonic scale is a musical scale in which there is no exact equivalence between a sharpened note and the flattened note it is enharmonically related to. ... Music theory is the name for a branch of study that includes many different methods for analyzing, classifying, and composing music and the elements of music. ... Music notation is a system of writing for music. ... An accidental is a musical notation symbol used to raise or lower the pitch of a note. ... In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve or 8va) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double the frequency. ... In music transposition is moving a note or collection of notes (or pitches) up or down in pitch by a constant interval. ... For non-musical meanings of inversion, see inversion. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Enharmonic (230 words)
The 'Key of A minor' and the 'Key of C major' are in reality enharmonic which means they are the same thing, Both 'scales' contain the exact same tones and the mere ordering of them should not be a factor.
Here are two formulas that are 'Enharmonic', If you are playing in the Key of C then just play C# instead of C...
The original description of 'enharmonic' is not in the same category as our examples of enharmonic, The tone "C" can also be called 'B#' because if you sharpen the B then you end up on the C so...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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