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Encyclopedia > Engrish
An example of Engrish on a sign in Sasebo, Japan.
An example of Engrish on a sign in Sasebo, Japan.
An example of Engrish.
Sign in a toilet in Shanghai, instructing people to put used paper napkins in the wastebin
Sign in a toilet in Shanghai, instructing people to put used paper napkins in the wastebin

Engrish refers to grammatically incorrect variations of English, often found in East Asian countries. While the term may refer to spoken English, it is more often used to describe written English, for which problems are easier to identify and publicize. Engrish has been found on everything from poorly translated signs, menus, and instruction manuals to bizarrely worded advertisements and strange t-shirt slogans. Usage of the term ranges from the humorous to the slightly pejorative. Country-specific terms, such as Japlish or Janglish for Japan, Konglish for Korea, and Chinglish for China also exist. Although Filipino pronunciation of English words sometimes qualifies as Engrish, the communication style commonly known as Taglish refers instead to the widespread habit of mixing English and Tagalog words and phrases, often using both in one sentence in a process known as code-switching. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 791 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,576 × 1,952 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 791 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,576 × 1,952 pixels, file size: 1. ... Sasebo (佐世保市; -shi) is a city located in Nagasaki, Japan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x652, 148 KB) Engrish, as seen on a sweatshirt in Japan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x652, 148 KB) Engrish, as seen on a sweatshirt in Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 243 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Engrish User:Benol Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 243 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Engrish User:Benol Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... This article discusses humour in terms of comedy and laughter. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... An example of Engrish noted in Tokyo in the year 2000 Engrish is a slang term which, in its purest form, refers to poor-quality attempts by professional Japanese writers to create English words and phrases; whether in mistranslation of an original English text, or in an attempt to create... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... An example of written chinglish on a signpost. ... Taglish, a portmanteau of the words Tagalog and English, is an informal dialect of Tagalog in the Philippines that infuses English terms. ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ...

Contents

History

The term originates from the fact that Japanese (as well as several other East Asian languages) does not have separate sounds for R and L. In Japanese the R sound is pronounced as an alveolar lateral flap (ɺ), articulated with the tongue flapped against the hard palate behind the front teeth, so that it sounds like a Spanish soft R. Because Japanese does not have a separate equivalent for the English L, native Japanese speakers not fluent in English often mispronounce English words containing the letter L. While the term mocks the accent, it is used mainly without malice in reference to humorous misuses, puns, and double entendres within written English, not difficulties in pronunciation. For example, "election" might be pronounced "erection". The alveolar lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... A double entendre or innuendo is a figure of speech similar to the pun, in which a spoken phrase can be understood in either of two ways. ...


Note that even though the "L" and "R" error is often attributed to Chinese, in reality, there are distinct "L" and "R" sounds in standard spoken Chinese (Mandarin). Various dialects of the Chinese languages, however do not have such clear separation with a general pattern being the further south in the country one travels, the more likely one is to see the "L" and "N" sounds confused (central China) or even the "L", "N" and "R" sounds freely alternated (south of the Yangtze River/Changjiang).


Some TV programs make Engrish one of the humorous attractions, such as Banzai and The Simpsons. Some words heard in these shows are exaggerated Engrish such as kukuru for cook,sumirunurofuru for Smirnoff Vodka, and "Misuta Supakoru" which is Mister Sparkle, a fictitious brand of detergent. Simpsons redirects here. ...


Learning Engrish

Although all Japanese people are taught English from the age of 12, the lack of native English speakers means that the education in spoken English is deficient and that there is little incentive to practice speaking the language outside school.[1] Because secondary schools in Japan place heavy emphasis on preparing students for university entrance exams, English classes in junior high and high schools focus more heavily on grammar and vocabulary, which are tested on the entrance exams.


While Japanese speakers may have problems differentiating L and R sounds, Korean, Thai and Chinese speakers have fewer problems in this respect since their languages have separate L and R sounds (though in Korean the separate sounds are allophones). However, in each of these three languages, there are phonotactic restrictions on these sounds. Chinese and Thai have no syllable-final L sound, so speakers tend to pronounce them as R and N respectively; Korean has no final R sound, and speakers would pronounce it as an L. In Quebec, an allophone (French or English. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Intentional Engrish

Engrish is usually accidental, but sometimes its use is deliberate. Foreign branding, for example, serves the same purpose it does in the West: exotic embellishment. For the same reasons that a Chinese character or a Japanese Kanji tattoo seems "exotic" to many in the West, Asians may appreciate English words or gibberish for its aesthetic appeal alone; straight lines, frequent symmetry, and the unembellished curves of Latinate letters may all appeal to Asian senses of aesthetics and balance.[citation needed] Foreign branding is an advertising and marketing term describing the implied cachet or superiority of domestic products with a foreign or foreign-sounding name. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ...


Some idiosyncratic usages of English among a community that is largely bilingual (Spanglish, Yinglish, Franglais, Konglish, Chinglish) have names with more neutral connotations, and are applied largely to people whose skills in English are more on par with those of the society in general. For the James L. Brooks motion picture, see Spanglish (film). ... Yinglish words are neologisms created by speakers of Yiddish in English-speaking countries, sometimes to describe things that were uncommon in the old country. ... Franglais (slang), a portmanteau combining the words français (French) and anglais (English), also called Frenglish, is a slang term for types of speech, although the word has different overtones in French and English. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An example of written chinglish on a signpost. ...


Japlish

United States propaganda poster during World War II, depicting Tojo, intentionally using Engrish to both discredit the Japanese as well as encourage United States citizens to produce.
United States propaganda poster during World War II, depicting Tojo, intentionally using Engrish to both discredit the Japanese as well as encourage United States citizens to produce.

Engrish can also refer to the Japanese pronunciation of English loanwords or a Japanese dialect with a number of English loanwords. Because Japanese has only five vowels, and few consonant clusters, English loanwords are often pronounced in a manner that sounds unusual and even humorous to English speakers. For example, in spoken Japanese, guitarist Eric Clapton becomes エリック・クラプトン Erikku Kuraputon, Australia becomes オーストラリア Ōsutoraria, and "McDonald's" becomes マクドナルド Makudonarudo, which is often further abbreviated to マクド Makudo or マック Makku. Japanese uses over 600 imported English words in common speech, sometimes in abbreviated form. Examples are ハンカチ hankachi for "handkerchief", フォーク fōku for "fork", テーブル tēburu for "table", プロレス puroresu for "pro wrestling", and so on. The more outlandish and humorous the pronunciation change is, the more likely it is to be considered Engrish. Even fairly logical English loanwords in Japanese will often sound foreign and unintelligible to an English speaker, such as the use of チーズ chīzu for "cheese" when taking a photograph. These pronunciation changes are linguistically systematic and are completely unrelated to the speaker's intelligence. Go Ahead, Please - Take Day Off!, 1941 - 1945. ... Go Ahead, Please - Take Day Off!, 1941 - 1945. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ... Eric Patrick Clapton CBE (born 30 March 1945), nicknamed Slowhand, is a Grammy Award winning English guitarist, singer, songwriter and composer. ... McDonalds Corporation (NYSE: MCD) is the worlds largest chain of fast-food restaurants, primarily selling hamburgers, chicken, french fries, milkshakes and soft drinks. ... Puroresu is Japanese professional wrestling, as seen in FMW, New Japan Pro Wrestling, and All Japan Pro Wrestling. ... For the video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


In Japanese, specifically, some words are carried over from English, but are used in a completely different context. For example, an electrical outlet in Japanese is referred to as コンセント (konsento), modeled after the archaic term "concentric plug" which actually refers to the connector that is inserted into the outlet. In another example, a small plastic water or soda bottle is referred to in Japan as a "petto bottoru," or "PET bottle"; "PET" is the abbreviation for polyethylene terephthalate, the type of plastic of which the bottles are made. This often causes confusion among listeners of native Japanese speakers, as the terms are not widely known in English. CEE 7/7 plug and socket Domestic AC power plugs and sockets allow a connection between the mains (domestic, usually single-phase, AC electrical power) and the appliances commonly used in homes. ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. ...


Engrish was once a frequent occurrence in consumer electronics product manuals, with phrases such as "to make speed up find up out document", or "Gas is maybe poison is" (for "Gases may be poisonous"), but it is less frequent today. Another source of poor translation is unchecked machine translation, such as that from the Babelfish service or Google Language Tools. Engrish is often created by using round-trip translation, wherein a phrase is translated using the Babelfish service or Google Language Tools into Japanese, then copying and pasting the Japanese text and translating it back into English. Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the acronym MT, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. ... // Babel Fish is a web-based application developed by AltaVista (now part of Yahoo!) which machine translates text or web pages from one of several languages into another. ... This article is about the corporation. ... A Round-Trip Translation is a recreational spin off of machine translation and computer-assisted translation software, such as Systrans and Altavista/Yahoos Babel Fish language translation tools. ... // Babel Fish is a web-based application developed by AltaVista (now part of Yahoo!) which machine translates text or web pages from one of several languages into another. ... This article is about the corporation. ...


Pop culture

Engrish features prominently in Japanese pop culture, as some young Japanese people consider the English language to be highly fashionable. Japanese has assimilated a great deal of vocabulary from the English language, and many popular Japanese songs and television themes feature disjointed phrases in English amongst the mostly Japanese lyrics. Japanese marketing firms helped to create this popularity, and have subsequently created an enormous array of advertisements, products, and clothing marked with English phrases that seem highly amusing or inexplicably bizarre to those proficient in English. These new English terms are generally short-lived, as they are used more fashionably than meaningfully. Many times English is just used in advertising or on products as an attempt to look modern and is not actually an attempt to communicate. Japanese culture and language Japans isolation until the arrival of the Black Ships and the Meiji era produced a culture distinctively different from any other, and echoes of this uniqueness persist today. ...


In contrast to Engrish, the term Nihonglish is occasionally heard, as well as the variant 英本語 Eihongo, a combination of 英語 Eigo, the Japanese word for the English language, and 日本語 Nihongo, the Japanese word for the Japanese language. It refers to the conceptual opposite of Engrish: badly pronounced and ungrammatical Japanese produced by a native English speaker. A typical example is the American English pronunciation of こんにちは konnichiwa ("hello", "good day"); rendered with an English stress pattern and phonetics as /kə.ˈni.tʃi.wɑ/ instead of the Japanese pronunciation /ko↑n.nʲi.tɕi.ɰɑ/. The term Nihonglish is often found among communities of Japanese language students where Japanese can be used sporadically in English conversation much as English is used among English students in Japan. The use of Nihonglish is usually intentional, and is done with a humorous or sarcastic intent. A heavy English accent is used, indicating supposed unfamiliarity with the rules of Japanese pronunciation. It is also known for being practiced occasionally by some non-Japanese fans of Japanese animation; in such cases it is also sometimes referred to as otakuism or Otaku-Speak. “Animé” redirects here. ... Otaku ) is a derisive Japanese term used to refer to people with obsessive interests in manga, anime or hentai. ...


Japanenglish

This is a term anime and manga fans use when using Japanese words and terms in English sentences. Instead of saying, "I drank water," the speaker would say, "I drank mizu." Or; "Hi, Lucy. Nice day, huh?" might be replaced with "Hi, Lucy-san. Nice day, ne?" Japanenglish is often used in fanfiction based on anime and manga, and usually only known by those who watch anime with English subtitles, and by those who read manga that uses Japanese honorifics, rather than omitting them in the English translation.


See also

Singlish is an English-based creole language native to Singapore. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Globish is a portmanteau neologism of the words Global and English. ... Taglish, a portmanteau of the words Tagalog and English, is an informal dialect of Tagalog in the Philippines that infuses English terms. ... 58. ... Wasei-eigo (和製英語 wasei eigo, lit. ... This article deals primarily with stereotypes of East Asians and Southeast Asians. ... Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes, and pronunciation rules from their mother tongue into their English speech. ... The phrase is a piece of subtitled dialogue from the introduction to Zero Wing. ...

References

  • Yardley, Jim. "No Spitting on the Road to Olympic Glory, Beijing Says", "The New York Times Online" April 16, 2007. Accessed April 17, 2007.
  1. ^ http://www.engrish.com/faq.php#Q4
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Engrish

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External links

  • Engrish generator - on pigeond.net

  Results from FactBites:
 
Urban Dictionary: Engrish (614 words)
Engrish english japanese all your base are belong to us fob japan zero wing 1337 translation japanglish language all your base azn ebonics internet japlish jrock leet accent asian ayb babelfish boshet bullshit gackt japanophile japperese kawaii konglish l33t meme n00b wapanese
ENGRISH is usually comprehendable and typos sure be accepted as normal text since this is part of the translation process.
ENGRISH can be found in many places, some of which are User's Manuals of imported goods, signs, menus, to bizarrely worded advertisements and strange t-shirt slogans and even some billboards in in English speaking cities in Asia like Hong Kong and Tokyo.
Engrish - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3432 words)
Engrish in its original sense of unintentional mistranslation is periodically found in translated live action Asian film and television and occasionally in translated Japanese anime.
Engrish is used a lot in some of the games on homestarrunner.com, expecially Stinkoman 20X6.
Engrish is often created by translating a phrase using the Babelfish service or Google Language Tools to translate something into Japanese, then copying and pasting the Japanese text and translating it back into English.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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