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Encyclopedia > Engraving
Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham

Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold, steel or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper, which are called engravings. Engraving was a historically important method of producing images on paper, both in artistic printmaking, and also for commercial reproductions and illustrations for books and magazines. It has long been replaced by photography in its commercial applications and, partly because of the difficulty of learning the technique, is much less common in printmaking, where it has been largely replaced by etching and other techniques. Other terms often used for engravings are copper-plate engraving and Line engraving. These should all mean exactly the same, but especially in the past were often used very loosely to cover several printmaking techniques, so that many so-called engravings were in fact produced by totally different techniques, such as etching. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x650, 947 KB) The permission for use of this work has been archived in the Wikimedia OTRS system. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x650, 947 KB) The permission for use of this work has been archived in the Wikimedia OTRS system. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mythological creatures. ... Adam and Eve, 1543, 84 x 58 mm Fogg Art Museum. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the material. ... Intaglio printing. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used...

An assortment of hand engraving tools
(a) etching needle, (b) scraper, (c) and (d) burnishers, (e) graver, (f) scooper, (g) scraper for mezzotints, (h) stipple graver, (i) roulette for mezzotints, (j) shading tool for mezzotints, (k) roulette for mezzotints, (l) dry-point graver, (m) hammer, (n) dabber for applying the 'ground', (o) brushes for applying varnish (p) calliper compasses

Contents

Image File history File links Common hand gravers File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Common hand gravers File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

The engraving process

St Jerome by Albrecht Dürer 1514

Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate.[1] Gravers come in a variety of shapes and sizes that yield different line types. The burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line that is characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a slightly curved tip that is commonly used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, used to do fill work on larger areas. Flat gravers are used for doing fill work on letters, as well as most musical instrument engraving work. Round gravers are commonly used on silver to create bright cuts (also called bright-cut engraving), as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel. Burins are either square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines. Other tools such as mezzotint rockers, roulets and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (750x998, 153 KB) Description de: Der heilige Hiernoymus im Gehäus von Albrecht Dürer. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (750x998, 153 KB) Description de: Der heilige Hiernoymus im Gehäus von Albrecht Dürer. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the modern tool. ... Mezzotint is a printing process of the intaglio family, in which the surface of a metal plate is roughened evenly; the image is then brought out by smoothing the surface, creating the image by working from dark to light. ...


History and usage

For the printing process, see printmaking. For the Western art history of engraving prints, see old master print and line engraving Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In antiquity, the only engraving on metal that could be carried out is evident in the shallow grooves found in some jewelery after the beginning of the 1st Millennium B.C. The majority of so-called engraved designs on ancient gold rings or other items were produced by chasing or sometimes a combination of lost-wax casting and chasing. “Ancient” redirects here. ... Repoussé bracelet by Thomas Feeser, ©2005. ... Casting is a process by which a material is introduced into a mold while it is liquid, allowed to solidify in the shape inside the mold, and then removed producing a fabricated object, part, or casing. ...


However the use of engraving to cut decorative scenes or figures into glass vessels appears as early as the first century AD[1], continuing into the fourth century CE at urban centres such as Cologne and Rome[2], and appears to have ceased sometime in the fifth century. Decoration was first based on Greek mythology, before hunting and circus scenes became popular, as well as imagery drawn from the Old and New Testament[2]. It appears to have been used to mimic the appearance of precious metal wares during the same period, including the application of gold leaf, and could be cut free-hand or with lathes. As many as twenty separate stylistic workshops have been identified, and it seems likely that the engraver and vessel producer were separate craftsmen[1].


In the European Middle Ages goldsmiths used engraving to decorate and inscribe metalwork. It is thought that they began to print impressions of their designs to record them. From this grew the engraving of copper printing plates to produce artistic images on paper, known as old master prints in Germany in the 1430s. Italy soon followed. Many early engravers came from a goldsmithing background. The first and greatest period of the engraving was from about 1470 to 1530, with such masters as Martin Schongauer , Albrecht Dürer , and Lucas van Leiden. The term Old Master Print is used to describe works of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition (European or New World). ... c. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Lucas van Leyden (b. ...


Thereafter engraving tended to lose ground to etching, which was a much easier technique for the artist to learn. But many prints combined the two techniques - although Rembrandt's prints are generally all called etchings for convenience, many of them have some burin or drypoint work, and some have nothing else. By the nineteenth century, most engraving was for commercial illustration. Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... This article is about the Dutch artist. ...


Before the advent of photography, engraving was used to reproduce other forms of art, for example paintings. Engravings continued to be common in newspapers and many books into the early 20th century, as they were cheaper to use in printing than photographic images. Engraving has also always been used as a method of original artistic expression. Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ...

Sudarium of Saint Veronica by Claude Mellan (1649)

Traditionally, engravers created darker areas by making an area of many very thin parallel lines (called hatching). When two sets of parallel line hatchings intersected each other for higher density, the resulting pattern was known as cross-hatching. Claude Mellan is well-known for his technique of using parallel lines of varying thickness. One notable example is his Sudarium of Saint Veronica (1649), an engraving of the face of Jesus from a single spiraling line that starts at the tip of Jesus's nose. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (650x884, 104 KB) Summary The Sudarium of Saint Veronica (1649), engraving and etching by Claude Mellan. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (650x884, 104 KB) Summary The Sudarium of Saint Veronica (1649), engraving and etching by Claude Mellan. ... Sudarium of Saint Veronica, engraving by Claude Mellan, 1649 Claude Mellan (born 23 May 1598 in Abbeville, died 9 March 1688 in Paris) was a French engraver and painter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Modern commercial engraving

Because of the high level of microscopic detail that can be achieved by a master engraver, counterfeiting of engraved designs is well-nigh impossible, and modern banknotes are almost always engraved, as are plates for printing money, checks, bonds and other security sensitive papers. The engraving is so fine that a normal printer can not recreate the detail of hand engraved images, nor can it be scanned. In the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, more than one hand engraver will work on the same plate, making it nearly impossible for one person to duplicate all the engraving on a particular banknote or document. For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... The United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) is an agency in the United States Department of the Treasury that primarily prints Federal Reserve notes for the Federal Reserve, but also produces a variety of other government security documents. ...


Many classic postage stamps were engraved, although the practice is now mostly confined to particular countries, and/or used when a more "elegant" design is desired and a limited color range is acceptable. A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ...


The modern discipline of hand engraving, as it is called in a metalworking context, survives largely in a few specialized fields. The highest levels of the art are found on firearms and other metal weaponry, jewelry and musical instruments. In most industrial uses like production of intaglio plates for commercial applications hand engraving has been replaced with milling using CNC engraving/milling machines. Hand Engraving is the act of carving decorative or functional grooves into a substrate, usually a metal plate, using hand tools such as small chisels called burin or gravers. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... Endmills for a milling machine. ...


Another application of modern engraving is found in the printing industry. There, every day thousands of pages are mechanically engraved onto rotogravure cylinders, typically a steel base with a copper layer of about .1 mm in which the image is transferred. After engraving the image is protected with an approximately 6 µm chrome layer. Using this process the image will survive for over a million copies in high speed printing presses. For other uses, see Print. ... Diagram of rotogravure process Rotogravure (gravure for short) is a type of intaglio printing process, in that it involves engraving the image onto an image carrier. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


Typically the image is created in some PDF like format and enters a work flow where it is processed and automatically imposed to the huge printing cylinders. Today up to 192 pages can be engraved on the same cylinder. Since the cylinder serves to print one color, four cylinders are typically used to print one side of the substrate. Rotogravure has a major share in publication, packaging and decorative printing. Diagram of rotogravure process Rotogravure (gravure for short) is a type of intaglio printing process, in that it involves engraving the image onto an image carrier. ...


Engraving machines such as the K500 (packaging) or K6 (publication) by Hell Gravure Systems use a diamond stylus to cut cells. Each cell creates one printing dot later in the process. A K6 can have up to 18 engraving heads each cutting 8.000 cells per second to an accuracy of .1 µm and below. They are of course fully computer controlled and the whole process of cylinder making is fully automated.


The engraving process with diamonds is state of the art since the 1960s.


Today laser engraving machines are in development but as per today still the mechanical cutting has proven its strength in economical terms and quality. More than 4,000 engravers make approx. 8 Mio printing cylinders worldwide per year.


Biblical references

The earliest allusion to engraving in the Bible may be the reference to Judah’s seal ring. (Ge 38:18), followed by (Ex 39.30). Engraving was commonly done with pointed tools of iron or even with diamond points. (Jer 17:1). In Genesis (the first book of the Bible) Judah (יְהוּדָה Praise, Standard Hebrew YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew YÉ™hûḏāh) is the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, born in Padan-aram (Genesis xxix. ...


Each of the two onyx stones on the shoulder pieces of the high priest’s ephod was engraved with the names of six different tribes of Israel, and each of the 12 precious stones that adorned his breastpiece was engraved with the name of one of the tribes. The holy sign of dedication, the shining gold plate on the high priest’s turban, was engraved with the words: “Holiness belongs to Adonai.” Bezalel, along with Oholiab, was qualified to do this specialized engraving work as well as to train others.—Ex 35:30-35; 28:9-12; 39:6-14, 30. The ephod (pronounced either ē´fod or ef´od) was one of eight ritual garments worn by the Israelite and later the Jewish High Priest while serving in the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... Bezalel is the name of a personage from the Bible and is the name of Israels national school of art. ...


Noted engravers

The Farnese Hercules by Hendrik Goltzius 1591

Prints (see also List of Printmakers): Download high resolution version (450x625, 100 KB)Hendrick Goltzius 1558 - 1617, Farnese Hercules engraving published 1617 (dated) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Download high resolution version (450x625, 100 KB)Hendrick Goltzius 1558 - 1617, Farnese Hercules engraving published 1617 (dated) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... The Farnese Hercules, engraved by Hendrick Goltzius, 1591. ... A self portrait Hendrik Goltzius (1558 - January 1, 1617), Dutch painter and engraver, was born at Millebrecht, in the duchy of Julich. ... List of Printmakers Artists who engaged significantly in Printmaking. ...

Of gems: Jacopo de Barbari, sometimes known or referred to as: deBarbari, de Barberi, de Barbari, Barbaro, Barberino, Barbarigo or Barberigo etc. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Giulio Campagnola (born Padua c. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced /al. ... Delilah cutting Samsons hair, circa 1460 by Master E. S., a German printmaker Master E. S. (* ca. ... Maso Tommasoii Finiguerra (1426-1464), Florentine goldsmith, draftsman, and engraver, whose name is distinguished in the history of art and craftsmanship for reasons which are partly mythical. ... Johann Theodor de Bry (1528 – 1598) was a Flemish-born engraver, draftsman and book editor and publisher who became famous for his depictions of early European expeditions to the Americas. ... Hendrik Goltzius (1558 - January 1, 1617), Dutch painter and engraver, was born at Millebrecht, in the duchy of Julich. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Lucas van Leyden (b. ... The Agony in the Garden (1455) is the pinnacle of Mantegnas early style. ... Sudarium of Saint Veronica, engraving by Claude Mellan, 1649 Claude Mellan (born 23 May 1598 in Abbeville, died 9 March 1688 in Paris) was a French engraver and painter. ... Israhel van Meckenem (also known as Israhel van Meckenem the Younger) was a German printmaker and goldsmith. ... Matthäus Merian Matthäus Merian der Ältere (the Elder, or Sr. ... For the song by the Beastie Boys, see Paul Revere (song). ... Bertil H.W. Schmüll (b. ... c. ... Czesław Słania (pronounced CHESS-wav SWAN-ya) (22 October 1921–17 March 2005) was an accomplished postage stamp and banknote engraver. ... Dedication of Stemmatographia from Pavel Nenadović to Hristofor Zhefarovich Hristofor Zhefarovich (original Cyrillic Христофоръ Жефаровичъ; Bulgarian: Христофор Жеварович; Macedonian: Христофор Жефаровиќ; Serbian: Христофор Жефаровић and Hristofor Žefarović) was an 18th-century South Slavic painter, engraver, writer and poet and a figure of the Illyrian movement. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... Look up gem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Of guns: For the bishop, see Polycrates of Ephesus. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...

  • A. B. Bradshaw (Firearm Engraver)
  • Thierry Duguet
  • Geoffroy Gournet
  • Ken Hunt (engraver)
  • Harry Kell
  • Harry Morris (sometimes Henry Morris)
  • Jack Sumner

Harry Morris (Footballer) Prolific goalscorer who began his career at Vicar of Wakefield before moving to Fulham F.C.. Morris stay at Fulham was a short one and he moved to Brentford F.C. in 1921 where he scored 29 times in 59 games. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Engraving

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Ewer from the Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós (Height 23 cm, weight 733 g. ... Laser engraving is the practice of using lasers to engrave or mark an object (it is also sometimes incorrectly described as etching, which involves the use of acid or a similar chemical). ... Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate by scratching the surface with a hard, sharp metal (or diamond) point. ... Music engraving is the art of drawing music notation at high quality. ... Photogravure is a type of intaglio printing process used for reproducing monochromatic (black and white) images. ... Photoengraving also known as photo-chemical milling is a process of engraving using photographic techniques. ... Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. ... Steel engraving, an engraving technique, based on steel instead of copper or wood. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Thomas Bewick. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Caron, B., A Roman Figure-Engraved Glass Bowl. Metropolitan Museum Journal, 1993. 28: p. 47-55.
  2. ^ a b Fleming, S.J., Roman Glass; reflections on cultural change. 1999, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

References

  • A. M. Hind (1923, repr. 1963). History of Engraving and Etching. Dover.
  • A. Gross (1970). Etching, Engraving, and Intaglio Printing.
  • G. Duplessis (1989). Wonders of Engraving.

External links

  • Engraving from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Timeline of Art History
  • Links to thousands of museum online images of engravings from Bodkin Prints
  • Blog on Old Master Engravings and Etchings
  • Japanese traditional hand engravings on blades
Image File history File links Blacksmith-hammer-anvil-50x50. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Centrifugal casting or rotocasting is a casting technique which has application across a wide range of industrial and artistic applications: It is used as a means of casting small, detailed parts or jewelry. ... Cloisonné is a multi-step enamel process used to produce jewelry, vases, and other decorative items. ... doming blocks and punch The technique of doming (or dapping) is used to make spheres or hemispheres of metal. ... Draw plate front Draw plate back Draw plate top edge Draw plates are used to draw wire to make it thinner. ... Filigree (formerly written filigrann or filigrane) is a jewel work of a delicate kind made with twisted threads usually of gold and silver. ... Findings refers to jewellery components used to put together the jewelry. ... Fretwork is an interlaced decorative design that is either carved in low relief on a solid background, or cut out with a fretsaw, jigsaw or scrollsaw. ... Goldwork is a type of metalwork particularly concerned with gold and its use in jewellery and coinage. ... A lapidary (the word means concerned with stones) is an artisan who practices the craft of working, forming and finishing stone, mineral, gemstones, and other suitably durable materials (amber, shell, jet, pearl, copal, coral, horn and bone, glass and other synthetics) into functional and/or decorative, even wearable, items (e. ... Metal clay, is a clay-like medium used to make jewelry, beads and small sculpture. ... Millesimal fineness is a system of denoting the purity of platinum, gold and silver alloys by parts per thousand of pure metal in the alloy. ... An Omega chain is a pseudo-chain made by assembling metallic links on a wire or woven mesh. ... Persian weave is a methode of weave used in jewelry and other art forms. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... Repoussé bracelet by Thomas Feeser, ©2005. ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ... Vacuum casting is a means of casting small metal parts or jewelry that have fine detail or for casting various plastic materials. ... A water torch, sometimes called a water welder, is a device that produces a high-temperature directed flame and is used for precision welding, brazing, and cutting of metals typically employed in the making of jewelry,electronics boards and parts, and fiber optic applications. ... Wire wrap jewellery is a type of design and method of hand jewellery fabrication. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... a Cutting Tool, in the context of Metalworking is any tool that is used to remove metal from the workpiece by means of shear deformation. ... Drilling is the process of using a drill bit in a drill to produce holes. ... A typical steel fabrication shop Fabrication, when used as an industrial term, applies to the building of machines , structures, process equipment for chemical, fertilizer sector by cutting, shaping and assembling components made from raw materials. ... This article is about smithing. ... Rotating abrasive wheel on a bench grinder. ... For the Korean music group, see Jewelry (group). ... Center lathe with DRO and chuck guard. ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... A machine tool is a powered mechanical device, typically used to fabricate metal components of machines by the selective removal of metal. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Metalworking hand tools are hand tools that are used in the metalworking field. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Endmills for a milling machine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Smith (metalwork). ... Power press with a fixed barrier guard A press, or a machine press is a tool used to work metal (typically steel) by changing its shape and internal structure. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Engraving - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (505 words)
The result may be a decorative object in itself, as when silver or gold are engraved, or may provide an intaglio plate, when copper is engraved, or a relief print block when wood is engraved.
In antiquity, the only engraving that could be carried out is evident in the shallow grooves found in some jewellery after the beginning of the 1st Millennium B.C. The majority of so-called engraved designs on ancient gold rings or other items were produced by chasing or sometimes a combination of lost-wax casting and chasing.
Engravings continued to be common in newspapers and many books into the early 20th century, as they were long cheaper to mass reproduce than photo images.
Music engraving - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (554 words)
The term engraving is now used to refer to any high-quality method of drawing music notation, particularly on a computer ("computer engraving" or "computer setting") or by hand ("hand engraving").
Plate engraving was the traditional process of engraving music, directly onto a zinc or pewter plate in mirror image.
With the advent of the personal computer in the late 1980s and beyond, hand engraving has become a lost art, as all of the "drawing" of each note, symbol, staff, written instructions, can now be accomplished by computer software made especially for this purpose.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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