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Encyclopedia > English Canadian
English Canadian
Total population

17.7 million (2001; English mother tongue, including multiple responses)[1] Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PearsonPDphotoportrait. ... Image File history File links Tommy. ... Image File history File links Atwood. ... Download high resolution version (581x612, 127 KB)Cropped CBC press photo of Terry Fox, details unknown, likely from the National Archives This work is copyrighted. ... Canadian astronaut Roberta Bondar (public domain image from NASA) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (581x844, 38 KB) Photo taken at the 47th Emmy Awards, 9/11/94 - Governors Ball Source: http://www. ... Government photo of the Prime Minister of Canada A photo of Kim Campbell Headline text Hi im kim campbell i would like to thank you all! File links The following pages link to this file: Kim Campbell Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/June Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/June 25 Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1532 × 2000 pixel, file size: 383 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The permission for use of this work has been archived in the Wikimedia OTRS system. ...

Regions with significant populations
Canada
Languages
English
Religions
Mainly Protestantism, Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh

English Canadian is a term that usually refers to the English-speaking majority population of Canada, most often contrasted with French Canadian. The more precise terms English-speaking Canadian and anglophone Canadian are also used. The term English Canadian may also refer specifically to those Canadians of English ancestry, in which case there is a good deal of overlap with the first meaning. (See Canadians of English descent.) The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... “Scot” redirects here. ... The Welsh (Cymry) are an ethnic group or nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The term Anglophone Canadian refers to anyone from Canada who speaks English as a native language. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... The number of Canadians who are of English descent is largely unknowable given the propensity of many Canadians to use the term English Canadian or English-Canadian to mean anglophone Canadian. ...


Although English-speaking Canadians predominantly trace their roots to the British Isles, they belong to a multitude of ethnicities. They or their ancestors came from various European, Asian, Caribbean, African, Latin American, and Pacific Island cultures, as well as French Canada and North American Aboriginal groups. The 2001 census[2] provides information about the ethnic makeup of Canada, but the data must be interpreted with care because of the latitude afforded respondents in describing their ethnic origins, and the large number of multiple responses. Furthermore, the data cited here are not disaggregated by mother tongue. The most common single responses were, in order, "Canadian", English, French, Scottish and Irish. Other responses corresponding to historically English-speaking groups (at least partially) were Welsh, American (USA), and "British", and, in much smaller numbers, Newfoundlander.[3] It can safely be assumed that the majority of the respondents who identified their ethnic origin as "Canadian" were, at least in part, of British Isles or French origin. The number of Canadians of British descent has, over time, diminished as a proportion of the whole. However, most descendants of recent immigrants to provinces other than Quebec, and some descendants of recent immigrants to Quebec, speak English (perhaps in addition to their ancestral language) rather than French, thus swelling the ranks of English Canadians. The number of Canadians who are of English descent is largely unknowable given the propensity of many Canadians to use the term English Canadian or English-Canadian to mean anglophone Canadian. ... Scottish-Canadians are Scottish people or people of Scottish descent living in Canada. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... According to the Canada 2001 Census, 250,005 Canadians reported American as being their ethnicity, at least partially. ... Newfoundlander - A resident of Newfoundland. ...


Striking a balance between "French" and "English" has been a political issue in Canada for quite some time. In the cabinet of the Prime Minister of Canada, for example it is often expected that the Prime Minister will have some degree of balance between the number of "French" and "English" cabinet ministers. Likewise, the office of the Governor General is said to alternate between "French" and "English" persons, but as the two most recent Governors General (Adrienne Clarkson, an English-speaking Chinese Canadian; and Michaëlle Jean, a French-speaking Haitian Canadian) show, this refers to language and not ethnicity. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is Canadas Head of State; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share a single... Adrienne Louise Clarkson (née Poy) (Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hakka: Ńg Pên-kî, Cantonese: Ng5 Bing1 zi1), PC, CC, CMM, COM, CD, LL.D (born February 10, 1939) is an accomplished Canadian journalist. ... A Chinese Canadian is a person of Chinese descent or origin who was born in or immigrated to Canada. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... People from Haiti began immigrating to Canada in the 1960s, settling predominantly (although not exclusively) in Montreal. ...

Contents

Geographic distribution

The following table shows the English-speaking population of Canada's provinces and territories. The data are from the 2001 Census of Canada.[4] Figures are given for the number of single responses "English" to the mother tongue question, as well as a total including multiple responses one of which is English.

Province or territory English,
single
responses
Percen-
tage
English,
single and
multiple
responses
Percen-
tage
Total
population
responding
CanadaTotal 17,352,315 58.5% 17,694,835 59.7% 29,639,030
British Columbia 2,825,780 73.0% 2,872,830 74.3% 3,868,875
Alberta 2,379,515 80.9% 2,412,195 82.0% 2,941,150
Saskatchewan 817,955 84.9% 827,350 85.9% 963,150
Manitoba 823,910 74.7% 839,765 76.1% 1,103,695
Ontario 7,965,225 70.6% 8,119,835 71.9% 11,285,550
Quebec 557,045 7.8% 627,510 8.8% 7,125,580
New Brunswick 465,170 64.6% 471,010 65.4% 719,710
Nova Scotia 832,660 92.8% 836,910 93.2% 897,570
Prince Edward Island 125,125 93.8% 125,650 94.2% 133,385
Newfoundland and Labrador 499,755 98.4% 500,405 98.5% 508,080
Nunavut 6,945 26.0% 7,395 27.7% 26,670
Northwest Territories 28,650 77.2% 29,075 78.4% 37,100
Yukon 24,590 86.2% 24,925 87.4% 28,520

In the cases of Quebec and New Brunswick, the vast majority of the non-Anglophone population speaks French, in the case of Nunavut — Inuktitut. Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [province]) Area Ranked... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked 7th... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The Small Protected By The Great) Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th - Total 5... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... Motto: none Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Official languages Chipewyan, Cree, English, French, Gwich’in, Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, North Slavey, South Slavey, TłįchÇ« [1] Government - Commissioner Tony Whitford - Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government (no party affiliations)) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 - Senate seats 1 Confederation 1870... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


History

Newfoundland

See also: Newfoundland

English-Canadian history starts with the attempts to establish English settlements in Newfoundland in the seventeenth century. The earliest of these was John Guy's failed settlement at Cuper's Cove on the Avalon Peninsula in 1610. Newfoundland's population was significantly influenced by Irish immigration, much of it as a result of the migratory fishery in the decades prior to the Irish Potato famine. Although the location of the earliest English settlement in what would eventually become Canada, Newfoundland itself would be the last province to enter Confederation in 1949. For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... John Gay (d. ... Cupers Cove on the southwest shore of Conception Bay on Newfoundlands Avalon Peninsula was an early English settlement in the New World, and the second one after the Jamestown Settlement to endure for longer than a year. ... An 1849 depiction of Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ...


Nova Scotia

See also: Nova Scotia

The area that forms the present day province of Nova Scotia was contested by the British and French in the eighteenth century. French settlments at Port Royal, Louisbourg and what is now Prince Edward Island were seized by the British (or by American Colonists, as in the case of Louisbourg). In 1749 Colonel Edward Cornwallis was given command of an expedition for the settlement of Chebucto by some three thousand persons, many of whom were Cockney. Cornwallis' settlement, Halifax, would become the provincial capital, the primary commercial centre for the Maritime provinces, a strategic British military and naval outpost and an important east coast cultural centre. Nova Scotia itself saw considerable immigration from Scotland, particularly to communities such as Pictou in the northern part of the province and to Cape Breton Island. Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... Fortress Louisbourg (fr. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The Small Protected By The Great) Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th - Total 5... Edward Cornwallis, (c 1713 – 14 January 1776), was a British military officer, known as “the Founder of Halifax”. He was born in London, the sixth son of Charles, fourth Baron Cornwallis, and Lady Charlotte Butler, daughter of the Earl of Arran2. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney refers to working-class inhabitants of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... This article is about the city of Halifax, specifically. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... Pictou is a small town on the northern coast of Nova Scotia, Canada, located in Pictou County. ... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ...


The Loyalists: New Brunswick and Ontario

See also: United Empire Loyalists

The history of English-Canadians is bound to the history of English settlement of North America, and particularly New England, because of the resettlement of many Loyalists following the American Revolution in areas that would form part of Canada. Many of the fifty thousand Loyalists who were resettled to the north of the United States after 1783 came from families that had already been settled for several generations in North America and were from prominent families in Boston, New York and other east coast towns. Although largely of British ancestry, these settlers had also intermarried with Huguenot and Dutch colonists and were accompanied by Loyalists of African descent. Dispossessed of their property at the end of the Revolutionary War, the Loyalists arrived as refugees to settle primarily along the shores of southern Nova Scotia, the Bay of Fundy and the Saint John River and in Quebec to the east and southwest of Montreal. The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... United Empire Loyalists is the name given to individuals who are descendants of British North American loyalists who, during the American War of Independence, left the 13 rebellious American colonies for the future Canada: the two British colonies of Quebec (including the Eastern Townships and modern-day Ontario) and Nova... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water...


The colony of New Brunswick was created from western part of Nova Scotia at the instigation of these new English-speaking settlers. The Loyalist settlements in southwestern Quebec formed the nucleus of what would become the province of Upper Canada and, after 1867, Ontario. Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative Assembly Historical... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th...


Ontario

See also: History of Ontario

Upper Canada was a primary destination for English, Scottish and Scots-Irish settlers to Canada in the nineteenth century, and was on the front lines in the War of 1812 between the British Empire and the United States. The province also received immigrants from non English-speaking sources such as Germans, many of whom settled around Kitchener (formerly called Berlin). Ontario would become the most populous province in the Dominion of Canada at the time of Confederation, and, together with Montreal, formed the country's industrial heartland and emerged as an important cultural and media centre for English Canada. Toronto is today the largest city in Canada, and, largely as a result of changing immigration patterns since the 1960s, is also one of the most multi-cultural cities in the world. Ontario came into being as a province of Canada in 1867. ... Scots-Irish (also called Scotch-Irish, primarily in the USA) is an Irish ethnic group which ultimately traces its roots back to Scotland. ... Combatants United States Britain Canadian militia Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Motto: Ex industria prosperitas (Latin: Prosperity through industry) Location of Kitchener in the Waterloo Region Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Government  - Mayor Carl Zehr Area  - Land 136. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ...


Quebec: English-Canadians as a minority

See also: Anglo-Quebecer

After the fall of Quebec to the British in 1759, a British community established itself at Quebec City. Larger numbers of English-speaking settlers arrived in the Eastern Townships and Montreal after the American Revolution. These immigrants were supplemented by other Europeans, including Jews, who assimilated to a large degree into the anglophone community. Montreal was for many years the largest city in Canada. The English-speaking population was largely in control of the business community, and founded hospitals and universities such as McGill University. The economic dominance of the anglophone community in Montreal and its failure to integrate with the francophone majority contributed to the frustrations felt by many French-speaking Quebecers, giving rise to the 1837 Rebellion of the Patriotes and the Quebec sovereignty movement of more recent times. Some English-Canadian Montrealers left Quebec following the election of the Parti Québécois in 1976; many who have remained have learned French in order to function within the dominant Francophone society. Anglo-Quebecers (also Anglo-Quebeckers) are English-speaking (anglophone) residents of the primarily French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec. ... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... Anglo-Quebecers (also Anglo-Quebeckers) are English-speaking (anglophone) residents of the primarily French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Eastern Townships (in French les Cantons de lest) is a region in south central Quebec, lying between the Saint Lawrence River and the US border. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... (Redirected from 1837 Rebellion) The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict. ... The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ...


British Columbia

See also: History of British Columbia

As in much of western Canada, many of the earliest communities in British Columbia began as outposts of the Hudson's Bay Company, founded in London in 1670 to carry on the fur trade via Hudson's Bay. Broader settlement of the province began in earnest with the founding of Fort Victoria in 1843 and the Cariboo Gold Rush of 1858. The capital, Victoria developed during the height of the British Empire and long self-identified as being "more English than the English". British Columbia is the western-most province in Canada. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... Fort Victoria was a single tier battery with defensible barracks west of Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, England, built in the 1850s, later used as a submarine mining centre and training area for military purposes. ... The Cariboo Gold Rush is the most famous of the gold rushes in British Columbia and is erroneously sometimes mentioned as the reason for the creation of the Colony of British Columbia. ... Victoria is the capital city of British Columbia, the westernmost Canadian province. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The colony of British Columbia was established on the mainland in 1858 by Governor James Douglas as a means of asserting British sovereignty in the face of a massive influx of gold miners, many of whom were American. Despite the enormous distances that separated the Pacific colony from Central Canada, British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871, choosing to become Canadian partly as a means of resisting possible absorption into the United States. Chinese workers, brought in to labour on the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, established sizeable populations in many B.C. communities, particularly Vancouver which quickly became the province's economic and cultural centre after the railway's completion in 1886. Like Ontario, British Columbia has received immigrants from a broad range of countries including large numbers of Germans, Scandinavians, Italians, Sikhs from India and Chinese from Hong Kong, Taiwan and in more recent years, the People's Republic, and the ongoing influx of Europeans from Europe continues. Over half of people with British ancestry in British Columbia have direct family ties within two generations (i.e. grandparent or parent) to the British Isles, rather than via British ethnic stock from Central Canada or the Maritimes (unlike the Prairies where Canadian-British stock is more common). Europeans of non-British stock have been more common, also, in British Columbia than in any other part of Canada, although certain ethnicities such as Ukrainians and Scandinavians are more concentrated in the Prairies. Except for the Italians and more recent European immigrants, earlier waves of Europeans of all origins are near-entirely assimilated, although any number of accents are common in families and communities nearly anywhere in the province, as has also been the case since colonial times. Interethnic and interracial marriages and were also more common in British Columbia than in other provinces since colonial times . James Douglas can refer to: James Douglas (the Good, the Black) an early-14th century Lord of Douglas and champion of Robert the Bruce James Douglas a mid-19th century governor of Vancouver Island James Buster Douglas, a boxer James Douglas, 4th Duke of Hamilton James Douglas, 4th Earl of... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Vancouver (pronounced: ) is a city in south-western British Columbia, Canada. ...


Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta

See also: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta

The French-English tensions that marked the establishment of the earliest English-speaking settlements in Nova Scotia were echoed on the Prairies in the late nineteenth century. The earliest British settlement in Assiniboia (part of present-day Manitoba) involved some 300 largely Scottish colonists under the sponsorship of Lord Selkirk in 1811. The early attempts at introducing English-speaking settlers into an area already occupied by French-speaking Métis sparked the Red River Rebellion and the later Northwest Rebellion.[citation needed] These conflicts created a rift between Ontario, (English-speaking and at the time largely Protestant), and Quebec. The suppression of the rebellions allowed the government of Canada to proceed with a settlement of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta that was to create provinces that identified generally with English Canada in culture and outlook, although immigration included large numbers of people from non English-speaking European backgrounds, especially Scandinavians and Ukrainians. Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked 7th... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [province]) Area Ranked... Assiniboia refers to a number of different locations and administrative jurisdictions in Canada. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English and French, per mandate of the Constitution Act 1982 Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th... Categories: People stubs | 1771 births | 1820 deaths | Peers ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mestizo. ... The Métis provisional government The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance are the names given to the events surrounding the actions of a provisional government established by Métis leader Louis Riel in 1869 at the Red River Settlement in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba. ... The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) was a brief and unsuccessful attempt by the Métis people of Saskatchewan to establish their own sovereign nation independent of the Dominion of Canada. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked 7th... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [province]) Area Ranked...


The twentieth century

Although Canada has long prided itself on its relatively peaceful history, war has played a significant role in the formation of an English-Canadian identity. As part of the British Empire, Canada found itself at war against the Central Powers in 1914. In the main, English-Canadians enlisted for service with an initial enthusiastic and genuine sense of loyalty and duty. The sacrifices and accomplishments of Canadians at battles such as Vimy Ridge and the Dieppe Raid in France are well known and respected among English-Canadians and helped forge a more common sense of nationality. In World War II, Canada made its own separate declaration of war and played a critical role in supporting the Allied war effort. Again, support for the war effort to defend the United Kingdom and liberate continental Europe from Axis domination was particularly strong among English-Canadians. In the post war era, although Canada was committed to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, English-Canadians took considerable pride in the Nobel Prize for Peace awarded to Lester Pearson for his role in resolving the Suez Crisis and have been determined supporters of the peacekeeping activities of the United Nations. European military alliances in 1914. ... The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British campaign known as the Battle of Arras. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts  ? Strength 6086 1500 Casualties Canada: 907 dead, 2340 captured; United Kingdom: 555+; United States:3+; Germany: 311 dead, 280 missing The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe or Operation Jubilee, during World War II, was an... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (where Nobel is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable) is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Mike Pearson (April 23, 1897 - December 27, 1972) was the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada from April 22, 1963, to April 20, 1968, and also a 1957 Nobel Laureate. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


In the late twentieth century, increasing American cultural influence combined with diminishing British influence, and political and constitutional crises driven by the exigencies of dealing with the Quebec sovereignty movement and Western alienation contributed to something of an identity crisis for English-Canadians. George Grant's Lament for a Nation is still seen as an important work relating to the stresses and vulnerabilities affecting English-Canada. However, the period of the 1960s through to the present have also seen tremendous accomplishments in English-Canadian literature. Writers from English-speaking Canada such as Margaret Atwood, Margaret Laurence, Robertson Davies, Timothy Findley, and Carol Shields dissected the experience of English-Canadians (or of life in English-Canadian society) and assumed a place among the world's best-known English-language literary figures. Journalist Pierre Berton wrote a number of books popularizing Canadian history which had a particular resonance among English-speaking Canadians, while critics and philosophers such as Northrop Frye and John Ralston Saul have attempted to analyze the Canadian experience. The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Western Canada, defined politically Political map of Canada Western Alienation refers to the concept in Canadian politics of the Western provinces, namely British Columbia (B.C.), Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, being alienated, and in extreme cases excluded, from mainstream political affairs within the greater Canadian system, in favour of especially... The George Grant Reader. ... Margaret Eleanor Atwood, OC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian writer. ... Margaret Laurence (July 18, 1926–January 5, 1987) was a Canadian novelist. ... William Robertson Davies, CC, FRSC, FRSL (born August 28, 1913 at Thamesville, Ontario, and died December 2, 1995 at Orangeville, Ontario) was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. ... Timothy Irving Frederick Findley, OC , O. Ont. ... Carol Shields, CC , OM , D.Litt. ... Pierre Francis Berton, CC, O.Ont, BA, D.Litt (July 12, 1920 – November 30, 2004) was a noted Canadian author of non-fiction, especially Canadiana and Canadian history, and was a well-known television personality and journalist. ... Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ... Image:Bigphotojonralstonsaulcc. ...


Symbols

The Canadian flag flying at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, located at Halifax, Nova Scotia
The Canadian flag flying at the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, located at Halifax, Nova Scotia
1957 version of the Canadian Red Ensign that had evolved as the de facto national flag until 1965.
1957 version of the Canadian Red Ensign that had evolved as the de facto national flag until 1965.

English-speaking Canadians have not adopted symbols specific to themselves. Although English-Canadians are attached to the Canadian Flag, it is the national flag and intended to be a symbol for all Canadians, regardless of ethnicity or language. Among older and more traditionalist English-Canadians there remains a lingering attachment to the Canadian Red Ensign, previously flown as the flag of Canada prior to the adoption of the maple leaf in 1965. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1014 KB) Canadian flag outside the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic on September 4th, 2004 at approximately 16:43:08 (AST). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1014 KB) Canadian flag outside the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic on September 4th, 2004 at approximately 16:43:08 (AST). ... The Maritime Museum of the Atlantic is a maritime museum located in Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) Logo: Location City Information Established: April 1, 1996 Area: (former city) 79. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 (1965-Present) The National Flag of Canada (), popularly known as the Maple Leaf Flag (French: lUnifoli the one-leaved), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre, featuring a red stylized 11-pointed maple leaf. ... The Canadian Red Ensign, this design was used from 1957 until 1965. ...


The maple leaf itself, as a symbol, was used as early as 1834 in what is now Quebec as a symbol of the Société St. Jean Baptiste but was adopted for use shortly afterwards by the English-speaking community in Canada. The Maple Leaf Forever, penned in 1867 at the time of Confederation is sometimes regarded as an informal anthem for English-Canadians, but English-speaking Canadians are attached to the official national anthem, O Canada, by Calixa Lavallée. The Maple Leaf Forever was written in 1867 by Alexander Muir (1830-1906), the same year as Canadas Confederation. ... O Canada is the national anthem of Canada. ... A sketch of Lavallée from 1873 Calixa Lavallée, (28 December 1842 – January 21, 1891), a French-Canadian musician, composed the music for the Canadian national anthem O Canada. He was born at Verchères, Quebec. ...


The beaver is sometimes seen as another Canadian symbol, but is not necessarily specific to English-Canadians. It too was used originally in connection with the Société St. Jean Baptiste before coming into currency as a more general Canadian symbol. In the 1973 political satire by Stanley Burke, Frog Fables & Beaver Tales, a spoof on Canadian politics of the Trudeau era, English-Canadians are depicted in the main as well-meaning but not terribly clever beavers, (with other animals such as frogs, sea otters and gophers assigned to represent other linguistic and provincial populations). The historical relevance of the beaver stems from the early fur trade. It has been asserted that "[t]he fur trade in general and the Hudson's Bay Company in particular exercised a profound influence on the sculpting of the Canadian soul."[5] Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... Stanley Burke was a Canadian television journalist. ... Trudeau is a surname that is used primarily in Quebec. ...


The Crown has historically been an intangible but significant symbol for many English-Canadians. Loyalty to Great Britain created the initial fracture lines between the populations of the Thirteen Colonies and the populations of Nova Scotia and Quebec at the time of the American Revolution and forced the flight of the Loyalists after the end of the war. As such English-Canada developed in the nineteenth cenury along lines that continued to emphasize this historical attachment, evident in the naming of cities, parks and even whole provinces after members of the royal family, the retention of flags, badges and provincial mottos expressive of loyalty, and enthusiastic responses to royal visits. While such loyalty is no longer as powerful a unifying force as it once was among English-Canadians, it remains a real aspect of the culture. The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada, proclaimed by King George V, November 21, 1921. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...


Ethnic composition

Culture

See also: Canadian Culture

It has been said that Canadian culture rests solely in the effort to distinguish itself from its southern neighbour, the United States. ...

Language

Main article: Canadian English

In the 2001 Canadian census, 17, 572,170 Canadians indicated that they were English-speaking. As discussed in the Introduction, however, this does not mean that 17.5 million people in Canada would necessarily self-identify as being 'English-Canadian'. Canadian English (CaE) is a variety of English used in Canada. ... The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ...


Except in Newfoundland and the Maritime provinces, most Canadian English is only subtly different from English spoken in much of the mid-western and western United States. Spoken English in the Maritimes has some resemblance to English of some of the New England states. Newfoundland has the most distinct accent, with the spoken language influenced in particular by Irish immigration. There are a few pronunciations that are distinctive for most English-Canadians, such as 'zed' for the last letter of the alphabet. The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


English-Canadian spelling continues to favour some spellings of British English, including 'centre', 'theatre', 'colour' and 'labour', although usage is not universal. Other spellings such as 'gaol', 'catalogue' and 'programme' have disappeared entirely or are in retreat.


Vocabulary of Canadian English contains a few distinctive words and phrases. In British Columbia, for example, the Chinook word 'skookum' for, variously, 'good' or 'great' or 'reliable' or 'durable', has passed into common use, and the French word 'tuque' for a particular type of winter head covering is in quite widespread use throughout the country. Chinook Jargon was a trade language (or pidgin) of the Pacific Northwest, which spread quickly up the West Coast from Oregon, through Washington, British Columbia, and as far as Alaska. ... A Chinook jargon word that has come into general use in British Columbia, Yukon Territory, and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. ...


Languages besides English are spoken extensively within the provinces commonly considered to be English-speaking. Besides French (which is an official language of the province of New Brunswick and in the territory of Nunavut), indigenous languages, including Inuktitut and Cree are widely spoken and are in some instances influencing the language of English speakers, just as traditional First Nations art forms are influencing public art, architecture and symbology in English Canada. Immigrants to Canada from Asia and parts of Europe in particular have brought languages other than English and French to many communities, particularly Toronto, Vancouver and other larger centres. On the west coast, for example, Chinese and Punjabi are taught in some high schools; while on the east coast efforts have been made to preserve the Scots Gaelic language brought by early settlers to Nova Scotia. In the Prairie provinces, and to a lesser degree elsewhere, there are a large number of second-generation and more Ukrainian Canadians who have retained at least partial fluency in the Ukrainian language. Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Government - Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson - Premier Paul Okalik (Consensus government) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 1 (Nancy Karetak-Lindell) - Senate seats 1 (Willie Adams) Confederation... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in Gurmukhī, Panjābī in Shāhmukhī) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... A Ukrainian Canadian is a person of Ukrainian descent or origin who was born in or immigrated to Canada. ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ...


Religion

See also: Religion in Canada
Christ Church Cathedral, Fredericton, construction began in 1845

The population of the provinces other than Quebec in the 2001 Census is some 22,514,455. It is impossible to know with certainty how many of that number would self-identify as 'English-Canadians' under the broadest interpretation of the term. Persons self-identifying as 'English-Canadian' as part of the 2001 census totalled slightly less than 6,000,000 persons, but some Canadians who chose the designation 'Canadian', 'Scottish' or other ethnicities for the purpose of the census might identify as 'English-Canadian' in the broader cultural sense of 'English-speaking Canadians' and share cultural affinities with the group identifying itself as 'English-Canadian'. Canada has a wide mix of religions, but it has no official religion, and support for religious pluralism is an important part of Canadas political culture. ... view of Christhchurch Cathedral, Dublin. ... view of Christhchurch Cathedral, Dublin. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Of the total population of the Provinces outside Quebec the numbers provide an approximation of the ratio between Catholic and Protestant:

  • Protestant: 8,329,260
  • Catholic: 6,997,190

It is probably fair to assume that persons identifying themselves as Catholics outside Quebec would include a large percentage of Francophone populations[citation needed], in addition to Canadians of Irish (other than Scots-Irish who are not counted separately), Italian, Portuguese, Ukrainian (other than Orthodox Ukrainian), Polish, and Hispanic origin, some German-Canadians as well as Catholics who have immigrated from or whose ancestors immigrated from other countries.


Those claiming no religious affiliation in 2001 numbered 4,586,900.


Overall, it is probably reasonable to surmise that the largest number of English-Canadians would be Protestant, with sizable minorities of Catholics and persons claiming no religious affiliation, and smaller numbers of Jews, other Christians and persons of other religions.


For comparison purposes, other religious groups in the provinces other than Quebec in 2001:

  • Orthodox Christian: 379,245
  • Other Christian: 723,700
  • Muslim: 471,620
  • Jewish: 340,080
  • Hindu: 272,675
  • Sikh: 270,185
  • Buddhist: 258,965

Literature

See also: Canadian Literature

Humour, often ironic and self-deprecating, played an important role particularly in early Canadian literature in English, such as Thomas Chandler Haliburton and Stephen Leacock. Canadian literature may be divided into two parts, based on their separate roots: one stems from the culture and literature from France; the other from Britain. ... Thomas Chandler Haliburton Thomas Chandler Haliburton (December 17, 1796 - August 27, 1865) was one of the first major Canadian authors. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In Survival: A Thematic Guide to Canadian Literature, Margaret Atwood's seminal book on Canadian Literature published in 1973, the author argues that much of Canadian literature in both English and French is linked thematically to the notion of personal and collective survival. This theme continues to reappear in more recent literary works, such as Yann Martel's Life of Pi, winner of the 2002 Booker Prize. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Life of Pi is a novel by Canadian author Yann Martel. ... The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known as the Man Booker Prize, or simply the Man Booker, is one of the worlds most important literary prizes, and awarded each year for the best original novel written by a citizen of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland in...


In the 1970s authors such as Margaret Laurence in The Stone Angeland Robertson Davies in Fifth Business explored the changing worlds of small town Manitoba and Ontario respectively. Works of fiction such as these gave an entire generation of Canadians access to literature about themselves and helped shape a more general appreciation of the experiences of English-speaking Canadians in that era. Margaret Laurence (July 18, 1926–January 5, 1987) was a Canadian novelist. ... The Stone Angel, first published in 1964 by McClelland and Stewart, is perhaps the best-known of Margaret Laurences series of novels set in the fictitious town of Manawaka, Manitoba. ... William Robertson Davies, CC, FRSC, FRSL (born August 28, 1913 at Thamesville, Ontario, and died December 2, 1995 at Orangeville, Ontario) was a Canadian novelist, playwright, critic, journalist, and professor. ... Book cover Fifth Business is perhaps Robertson Davies best-known novel, and is widely considered his finest. ...


Arts

Jack Pine by Tom Thomson
See also: Group of Seven (artists) and Emily Carr

In the early years of the twentieth century painters in both central Canada and the west coast began applying post-impressionist style to Canadian landscape paintings. Painters such as Tom Thomson and the Group of Seven, which included painters such as A.Y. Jackson, captured images of the wilderness in ways that forced English-Canadians to discard their conservative and traditional views of art. In British Columbia, Emily Carr, born in Victoria in 1871, spent much of her life painting. Her early paintings of northwest coast aboriginal villages were critical to creating awareness and appreciation of First Nations cultures among English-Canadians. The arctic paintings of Lawren Harris, another member of the Group of Seven, are also highly iconic for English-Canadians. Jack Pine by Tom Thomson (1916), from http://national. ... Jack Pine by Tom Thomson (1916), from http://national. ... The Group of Seven was a group of Canadian landscape painters in the 1920s, originally consisting of Franklin Carmichael, Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Frank Johnston, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley. ... Headline text Bold text/,?,/<<< Emily Carr Emily Carr (December 13, 1871 – March 2, 1945) was a Canadian artist and writer. ... Tom Thomson Thomas John Thomson (August 5, 1877 – July 8, 1917) was an influential Canadian artist of the early 20th century. ... The Group of Seven was a group of Canadian landscape painters in the 1920s, originally consisting of Franklin Carmichael, Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Frank Johnston, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley. ... Alexander Young (A.Y.) Jackson (born October 3, 1882 in Montreal, Quebec, died April 5, 1974 in Kleinburg, Ontario) was a Canadian painter and founding member of the Group of Seven. ... Headline text Bold text/,?,/<<< Emily Carr Emily Carr (December 13, 1871 – March 2, 1945) was a Canadian artist and writer. ... Lawren Harris, 1926 Lawren Stewart Harris (October 23, 1885 – January 17, 1970) was a Canadian painter. ...


Heroes, heroines and national myths

Tommy Douglas during his earlier years.
Painting of Loyalist heroine Laura Secord by Mildred Peel
Terry Fox on his Marathon of Hope cross-country run.

Relatively few events have assumed the level of anything close to a national myth among English-Canadians. Image File history File links Tommy. ... Image File history File links Tommy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x768, 161 KB)1904 Painting by Mildred Peel, owned by the Government of Ontario Art Collection, 619796 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (620x768, 161 KB)1904 Painting by Mildred Peel, owned by the Government of Ontario Art Collection, 619796 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (581x612, 127 KB)Cropped CBC press photo of Terry Fox, details unknown, likely from the National Archives This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (581x612, 127 KB)Cropped CBC press photo of Terry Fox, details unknown, likely from the National Archives This work is copyrighted. ... Terry Fox The Marathon of Hope is a name given to the cross-Canada run undertaken by cancer patient Terry Fox in 1980. ...


From colonial times the arrival and settlement of the first pioneers, the fur trade empire established by the Northwest Company and the Hudson's Bay Company and the mass resettlement of refugee Loyalists are important starting points for some English-Canadians - although the fur company histories are more relevant to French Canadians, Metis and Scottish Canadians. The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in the city of Montreal in British North America. ... The Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ... This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Metis can refer to a number of things: Metis was a Titaness and the first wife of Zeus. ... Scottish-Canadians are Scottish people or people of Scottish descent living in Canada. ...


The War of 1812 produced one of the earliest national heroes, Laura Secord, who is credited with having made her way through American lines at night to carry a warning British troops of impending American plans and contributing to the victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, where the American advance into Upper Canada was turned back. Statue of Laura Secord at the Valiants Memorial in Ottawa Laura Secord (née Ingersoll) (September 13, 1775 – October 17, 1868) was a Canadian heroine of the War of 1812. ... Combatants Britain United States Commanders James FitzGibbon Charles G. Boerstler Strength 50 regulars 400 natives 575 regulars Casualties 25 killed and wounded 80 dead or wounded 462 captured The Battle of Beaver Dams was a small battle on June 24, 1813, during the War of 1812. ...


The War of 1812 also saw the capture and burning of Washington, D.C. by the British in August, 1814, an event still remembered in English-Canada. The War of 1812 itself, to which Canadian and aboriginal militia forces made important contributions, is viewed as the event that ensured the survival of the colonies that would become Canada, or, as termed by the critic Northrop Frye "in many respects a war of independence for Canada."[6] Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (=Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ...


There is an element of the heroic that attaches to Sir John A. Macdonald, the Scottish lawyer from Kingston, Ontario who became Canada's first Prime Minister. His weaknesses (such as an alleged fondness for alcohol, and the multifaceted corruption inherent in the Pacific Scandal) and the controversial events surrounding the rebellions in the west have not erased admiration for his accomplishments in nation building for English-Canadians. Macdonald's pragmatism laid the foundation of the national myth of the 'two founding nations' (English and French), which was to endure well into the twentieth century among English-Canadians and was eventually reflected in the official government policy that flowed from the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism in the 1960s. Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D was born on January 11, 1815 in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Murney Tower, Kingston The Fort Henry Guard performing an historical demonstration The Prince George Hotel. ... The Pacific scandal involves the allegations of bribes being taken by Canadas Conservative government of Sir John A. Macdonald. ... The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was a Canadian royal commission established on July 19, 1963, by the government of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson to inquire into and report upon the existing state of bilingualism and biculturalism in Canada and to recommend what steps should be taken to...


Macdonald was also instrumental in the founding of the Northwest Mounted Police in 1875, forerunners of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Canada's iconic national police force. The RCMP itself, established to "subdue the West", i.e. the newly-acquired Northwest Territories, formerly the HBC's Rupert's Land, as declared in the preamble to its charter. The RCMP, long since eulogized into a moral, symbolic image of Canadian authority, far from its true nature as a paramilitary force commissioned with bringing First Nations and Metis to heel, plays a role in English Canada's perception of itself as a nation of essentially law abiding citizens that confederated in 1867 for the purposes of establishing peace, order and good government. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP or Mounties; French, Gendarmerie royale du Canada, GRC) is both the federal police force and the national police of Canada. ... “Mountie” redirects here. ... Ruperts Land Ruperts Land was a territory in British North America, consisting of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, most of it now part of modern Canada. ... In Canada, the phrase peace, order and good government (in French, paix, ordre et bon gouvernement), called POGG for short, is often used to describe the principles upon which that countrys Confederation took place. ...


The Klondike Gold Rush of 1898 in the Yukon was another event that resonated in the English-Canadian imagination, with its stories of adventure and struggle in a harsh northern environment. The myth of the North itself, the forbidding landscape and difficult climate, peopled by the hardy Inuit is of central importance to English-Canadians. A typical gold mining operation, on Bonanza Creek. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


In the twentieth century Tommy Douglas, the politician from Saskatchewan who is credited with the creation of Canada's programme of universal health care has been recognized as the greatest Canadian in a contest sponsored by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canada's national public broadcaster. Lester B. Pearson, winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace and Prime Minister of Canada responsible for the adoption of the maple leaf flag, is widely regarded as an English-Canadian figure. Thomas Clement Douglas, PC, CC, SOM, MA, LL.D (hc) (October 20, 1904 – February 24, 1986) was a Scottish-born Baptist minister who became a prominent Canadian social democratic politician. ... Officially launched on April 5, 2004, The Greatest Canadian was a project by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) to find out who is considered the greatest Canadian of all time. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ...


Another person who had an enormous impact on English-Canadians was British Columbian Terry Fox whose 1981 attempt to run across Canada from St. John's, Newfoundland to the Pacific to raise money for cancer research. Although forced to discontinue the run near Thunder Bay due to a recurrence of his cancer, Terry Fox captured the imagination of millions of Canadians, particularly in the English-speaking provinces. This feat was followed by British Columbian Rick Hansen's successful Man in Motion tour shortly afterwards. For the baseball player, see: Terry Fox (baseball) Terry Fox on his Marathon of Hope cross-country run. ... St. ... Nickname: Lakehead; The Lakehead Motto: Superior by nature Location of Thunder Bay, Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Region Northwestern Ontario District Thunder Bay District CMA Thunder Bay Established 1970 (amalgamation between Fort William and Port Arthur) Incorporated as Towns Port Arthur in 1884, Fort William in 1892 Incorporated as... // Born in Port Alberni, British Columbia, Hansen grew up in Williams Lake, British Columbia. ... St. ...

Yvan Cournoyer (Canada) shooting towards Vladislav Tretiak (USSR) during a game of the Summit Series

Sports heroes include, among many others, the legendary Wayne Gretzky from Ontario who lead the Edmonton Oilers to successive Stanley Cup victories in the 1980s; the women's Olympic hockey team that won the Gold Medal in the 1992 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City and Team Canada that won the famed Canada-Russia hockey series in 1972. Image File history File links Tretiak_Cournoyer_1972. ... Image File history File links Tretiak_Cournoyer_1972. ... Yvan Cournoyer (born November 22, 1943 in Drummondville, Quebec) was a hockey player in the National Hockey League (NHL) who played for the Montreal Canadiens from 1963 to 1979. ... Vladislav Tretiak This article is about the goaltender. ... Wayne Douglas Gretzky, OC (born January 26, 1961) is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey player who is currently part-owner and head coach of the Phoenix Coyotes. ... The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... The Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup is the championship trophy of the National Hockey League (NHL), the major professional hockey league in Canada and the United States. ... Canadian National Team or Team Canada can mean various things: Canadian national mens hockey team Canadian national womens hockey team Canada mens national soccer team Canadian national mens basketball team Canadian national baseball team Canadian Olympic team. ... For other uses, see Summit Series (disambiguation). ...


Other significant figures include Nellie McClung (activist in politics and women's rights), Emily Carr (post-impressionist artist), Billy Bishop (World War I airman), Dr. Frederick Banting (co-discover of insulin) and Dr.Norman Bethune (doctor in China). Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, is often claimed by English Canada because of his residence on Cape Breton Island, although he was born in Scotland and later moved to the United States. Nellie McClung from The National Archives of Canada Nellie McClung, (October 20, 1873 - September 1, 1951) was a Canadian feminist, politician, and social activist. ... Headline text Bold text/,?,/<<< Emily Carr Emily Carr (December 13, 1871 – March 2, 1945) was a Canadian artist and writer. ... Air Marshal William Avery Billy Bishop VC CB DSO & Bar MC DFC ED (8 February 1894 – 11 September 1956) was a Canadian First World War flying ace, officially credited with 72 victories, the highest number for a British Empire pilot. ... Sir Frederick Banting (1891-1941) Sir Frederick Grant Banting, KBE , MC , MD , FRSC (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, doctor and Nobel laureate noted as one of the co-discovers of insulin. ... Dr. Norman Bethune 1922 Henry Norman Bethune, MD (March 3, 1890 – November 12, 1939) was a Canadian physician, medical innovator, and humanitarian. ... Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish scientist, inventor, and innovator. ... Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ...


The contribution of French-speaking Canadians to the culture of English Canada is significant. Many popular Canadian symbols such as the maple leaf and the beaver were first adopted by Francophones. Francophone sports figures (particularly in hockey and figure-skating) have always been highly regarded. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Prime Minister in the early 20th century, is viewed as an important statesman in English Canada. A more controversial figure is Pierre Trudeau, who is often praised for his handling of the October Crisis (also known as the FLQ Crisis) and the process of constitutional reform that implemented the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms but who also caused considerable Western Alienation and has been criticised for the critical failure to bring Quebec into the 1982 agreement on constitutional reform. Most recently, Haitian-born Francophone Michaëlle Jean, the current Governor-General, has overcome some initial misgivings regarding her appointment. The motto chosen for her arms, Briser les solitudes (break down the solitudes), echoes one of the significant works of early English-Canadian fiction, Hugh MacLennan's Two Solitudes which describes the sometimes painful separateness dividing Canada's English and French-speaking populations. Sir Wilfrid Laurier, PC, GCMG, KC, BCL, DCL, LLD, DLitt, baptized Henri-Charles-Wilfrid Laurier (November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada from July 11, 1896, to October 5, 1911. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... Military cordon in support of police taking surrender of terrorist Liberation cell, December 3, 1970 The October Crisis was a series of dramatic events triggered by two terrorist kidnappings by members of the Front de libération du Québec in the province of Quebec, Canada, in October 1970, which... The Front de libération du Québec (Québec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, was a left-wing terrorist group in Canada responsible for more than 200 bombings and the deaths of at least five people, which culminated in 1970 with what is known as the October... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... John Hugh MacLennan (March 20, 1907 - November 7, 1990) was a Canadian author and Professor of English at McGill University. ... Two Solitudes is a 1945 novel by Hugh MacLennan. ...


Canada's role in the First and Second World Wars played a large part in the political evolution of Canada and the identity of English-Canadians. After the fall of France in 1940 and prior to the entry of the United States into the war in 1942, Canada saw itself as Britain's principal ally against Adolf Hitler. The well-known poem In Flanders Fields, written during the First World War by John McCrae of Ontario, is associated with Remembrance Day. “The Great War” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hitler redirects here. ... A small portion of In Flanders Fields appeared alongside McCraes portrait on a Canadian stamp of 1968, issued to commemorate a half-century since his death. ... John McCrae Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae, MD (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) was a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist, soldier during World War I and a surgeon during the battle of Ypres. ... Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance Remembrance Day (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom), also known as Poppy Day (South Africa and Malta), and Armistice Day (United Kingdom, New Zealand and many other Commonwealth countries; and the original name of the holiday internationally) is a day to commemorate...


Popular culture

See also: Culture of Canada and Music of Canada

The RCMP "Mountie" has become a figure associated with Canada in the popular imagination of not only Canada, but other countries as well. Although it has many Francophone officers, in popular culture the mountie has been typically represented by an anglophone, such as Dudley Do-Right, Benton Fraser or Sergeant Preston of the Yukon. The myth of the stalwart (if somewhat rustic) heroic Canadian also appeared in the form of Johnny Canuck, a comic book figure of the mid-twentieth century. Bonhomme, mascot of the Quebec winter carnival. ... Canadian music includes pop and folk genres; the latter includes forms derived from England, France (particularly in Quebec), Ireland, Scotland, and various Inuit and Indian ethnic groups. ... Dudley Do-Right was the eponymous hero of a segment on The Rocky & Bullwinkle Show which parodied early 20th century melodrama and silent film. ... Constable Benton Fraser (born 1962) is a fictional character in the television series Due South. ... Sergeant Preston of the Yukon refers to both a television series that ran in the United States from 1955 to 1958, and the title of a song written and performed by Ray Stevens. ... Johnny Canuck was a Canadian cartoon hero and superhero who was created as a political cartoon in 1869 and then was re-invented in 1942 and 1975. ...


Anne of Green Gables by Lucy Maud Montgomery of Prince Edward Island is one of English-Canada's best known contribution to general popular culture. The themes of gentle slapstick and ironic but affectionate observation of small-town Canadian life that appeared in the work of Stephen Leacock carried forward into the later part of the twentieth century to reappear in the successful television sitcom The Beachcombers in the 1970s. Canadian humour took on an even broader form in the comedy of SCTV, in particular the Great White North sketches, the Red Green Show and more recently the Trailer Park Boys. Lucy Maud Montgomery Lucy Maud Montgomery, (always called Maud by family and friends) and publicly known as L. M. Montgomery, (November 30, 1874–April 24, 1942) was a Canadian author, best known for a series of novels beginning with Anne of Green Gables. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The Small Protected By The Great) Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman - Premier Pat Binns (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 4 - Senate seats 4 Confederation July 1, 1873 (7th) Area Ranked 13th - Total 5... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Beachcombers was a popular Canadian television program broadcast on CBC. The series ran from 1972 to 1989 and is the longest-running dramatic series ever made for Canadian television. ... SCTV can refer to a number of things, including the following: SCTV (Indonesia) from Surya Citra Television, headquartered in Indonesia. ... Bob & Doug McKenzie were a pair of fictional Canadian brothers who hosted The Great White North, a sketch which was introduced on Second City Television for the shows third season when it moved to the CBC in 1980. ... Red Green The Red Green Show is a television comedy that has aired on the CBC in Canada and on PBS in the United States from 1991 through the present (as of 2005). ... Trailer Park Boys is a popular Canadian mockumentary television series focusing on the misadventures of a group of ex-convicts living in fictional Sunnyvale Trailer Park, located near Cole Harbour, Nova Scotia. ...


Traditional music in much of English-speaking Canada has sources in the music of Scotland and Ireland, brought to Newfoundland and the Maritime provinces in the 19th century. In the late 20th Century, Maritime artists, particularly musicians from Cape Breton Island such as Rita MacNeil, the Rankin Family, Natalie MacMaster and Ashley MacIsaac and Great Big Sea from Newfoundland achieved substantial popularity and influence throughout English Canada. A Celtic influence is similarly felt in the work of musicians from other parts of Canada, such as Spirit of the West, from British Columbia, or Manitoba-born Loreena McKennitt. Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île du Cap-Breton, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Rita MacNeil (born May 28, 1944) is a Canadian country and folk singer from the community of Big Pond on Nova Scotias Cape Breton Island. ... The Rankin Family is a Canadian folk music family group from Mabou, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. ... Natalie MacMaster (born 1973) is an award-winning fiddler from the rural community of Troy in Inverness County, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Great Big Sea (often shortened to GBS) is a Canadian folk-rock band from Newfoundland and Labrador, best known for performing energetic rock interpretations of traditional Newfoundland folk songs including sea chanties, which draw from the islands 500-year-old Irish, English, and French heritage. ... Spirit of the West are a Canadian folk rock band, who were popular on the Canadian folk music scene in the 1980s before evolving a blend of hard rock, pop and Celtic folk influences which made them one of Canadas most successful alternative rock acts in the 1990s. ... Loreena McKennitt live on stage Loreena McKennitt, C.M. (b. ...


See also

This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ...

Notes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ [4][5]
  5. ^ Peter C. Newman, Company of Adventurer, 1985: Viking, page 18.
  6. ^ Northrop Frye, Divisions on a Ground: Essays on Canadian Culture, 1982: House of Anansi Press, p. 65.

References

  • Thomas H. Raddall, Halifax: Warden of the North, 1973: McLelland and Stewart
  • Margaret A. Ormsby, British Columbia: a History, 1958: The MacMillan Company of Canada
  • Terry Reksten, More English than the English: A Very Social History of Victoria, 1986: Orca Book Publishers

External links


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