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Encyclopedia > English speaking world

The term Anglosphere describes a certain group of English-speaking countries. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A country, a land, or a state, is a geographical area that connotes an independent political entity, with its own government, administration, laws, often a constitution, police, military, tax rules, and population, who are one anothers countrymen. ...


The term is usually attributed to science fiction writer Neal Stephenson, who used it in his 1995 novel The Diamond Age. It is used in several types of context, for utilitarian as well as political purposes. Its connotations may vary between specific usages; it should be treated with caution because of possible implicit content. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Neal Stephenson (b. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Diamond Age, or A Young Ladys Illustrated Primer is a 1995 cyberpunk or postcyberpunk novel by Neal Stephenson taking place in a world where nanotechnology is ubiquitous. ... In logic and in some branches of semantics, connotation is more or less synonymous with intension. ...

Contents

Membership

The Anglosphere is usually thought of as Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Other nations, particularly India, Ireland and South Africa, the Philippines and Singapore have been discussed as 'prospective members'.


Bonding qualities

Other than a common language, these nations also share many other common features, most of which come from their shared history of being former colonies of the United Kingdom. The shared features include: A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

Some exceptions to the above rules obviously apply, for example the United States has a republican system of government while the others have constitutional monarchies, Scotland does not use Common Law and so on. Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... An election is a process in which a vote is held to choose amongst candidates to fill an office, or amongst political parties offering a slate of potential office holders for a house of representatives. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ...


The Anglosphere nations also share many other similarities, including high economic prosperity, firmly established civil rights and personal freedoms, and high levels of global cultural influence. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Statue of Liberty - Liberty is one meaning of freedom. For proper-noun uses of Freedom, see Freedom (disambiguation). ...


These reasons and others make the Anglosphere different from other English-speaking international groups, notably the Commonwealth of Nations. Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is an association of independent sovereign states, most of which are former colonies once governed by the United Kingdom as part of the British Empire. ...


Co-operation and common ground

Anglosphere nations have a history of co-operation and close political ties. A network of varying military alliances as well as intelligence arrangements exists between all five nations, and some are in free trade areas with each other. The countries of the Anglosphere were military allies in major world conflicts in the 20th century. The United States, the UK, and Australia cooperated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, while other NATO allies of the United States did not participate. On the other hand, the group is in no sense a bloc. During the 1950s and 1960s the Suez crisis and Vietnam War caused divisions on how to approach regional conflicts. A Military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, and/or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... A Free Trade Area is a region in which obstacles to unrestricted trade have been reduced to a minimum. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The 2003 invasion of Iraq, also called simply the Iraq War or Operation: Iraqi Freedom, is a war that began March 20, 2003, fought between a group of troops consisting primarily of American and British, but also Polish, Australian and several other nations forces, and Iraq. ... The flag of NATO NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4, 1949. ... Bloc may stand for: The Eastern Bloc Countries: a former group of countries in Europe Bloc Québécois: a political party in Canada Bloc (or Block) voting: a form of elections Trade bloc This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... HM Ships Eagle, Bulwark, and Albion of the British Royal Navy. ... The Vietnam War was a war fought roughly from 1957 to 1975 after the North Vietnamese government secretly agreed to begin involvement in South Vietnam. ...


Polls have shown that most citizens of Anglosphere nations regard other Anglosphere countries as their closest "friends and allies". The United Kingdom and Canada are usually named as the United States' closest friends and allies, while the other nations routinely list the US and Britain at the top of their lists.


The Anglosphere nations freely interchange cultural materials. Certain actors, directors, movies, books, and TV shows enjoy high levels of popularity across the Anglosphere nations. Of course the USA is in any case the largest global exporter in film, television and music. On the other hand, sports vary considerably, from different forms of 'football', cricket/rugby and ice hockey/baseball having different popularities.


Proponents and critics

The term was popularised in its current meaning by James C. Bennett and the historian Robert Conquest, during the opening years of the 21st century. Andrew Sullivan, a journalist for the London Sunday Times, started to write about it in 2003. James Charles Bennett is an American businessman, with a background in technology companies and consultancy, and a writer on technology and international affairs. ... Dr Robert Conquest Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication in 1968 of his classic account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... (20th century - 21st century - 22nd century - other centuries) Decades: 2000s 2010s 2020s 2030s 2040s 2050s 2060s 2070s 2080s 2090s In calendars based on the Christian Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing, lasting from 2001-2100. ... Andrew Sullivan (born 10 August 1963) is an Anglo-American journalist and intellectual, known both for his heterodox personal-political identity (HIV-positive, gay, libertarian/conservative, and Catholic) and for his pioneering efforts in the field of weblog journalism. ... The Sunday Times is the name of several Sunday newspapers. ...


Its employment has been criticised, as an obvious and divisive application of ethnocentrism to diplomacy. Michael Ignatieff has written against the thoughtless use of the term. While it has certainly been used in a tendentious way, the coinage also fills a gap in the English vocabulary, corresponding closely to the French language phrase le monde anglo-saxon. Ethnocentrism (Greek ethnos nation + -centrism) is a set of beliefs or practices based on the view that ones own group is the center of everything. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Michael Ignatieff (born 1947) is a noted Canadian scholar and novelist. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ...


There is a clear connection with Atlanticism, a longer-recognised concept of international relations. Naturally, this is only a partial overlap, leaving out the Pacific position of Australia and New Zealand. Atlanticism is a philosophy of cooperation among European and North American nations regarding political, economic, and defense issues. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Opposition

Interest in and promotion of the Anglosphere is a minor factor, compared with some other political trends; but it has attracted some fierce opposition. The opposition is overlapping and not entirely well-defined, but there are four main, identifiable hostile schools of thought.


Regionalists

Some believe that the idea of cultural alliances is a distraction from that of a regionally-based union or alliance, such as NAFTA in America, the European Union for the United Kingdom or an Asian orientation for Australia and New Zealand. The North American Free Trade Agreement, known usually as NAFTA, is a comprehensive trade agreement linking Canada, the United States, and Mexico in a free trade sphere. ...


Regionalists tend to be on the left wing. In America they tend to favour immigration from South and Central America. In the UK and Australasia they see America as being an influence for cultural and economic conservatism. (Note that this implies that cultural conservatives may be fissiparous rather than unified politically.) In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... A national cultural conservatism is a strand of conservative thought that argues for the preservation of a nations domestic culture, usually in the face of external forces. ...


There is also unease that the argument towards cultural supremacy is a proxy for racism. However, in some countries (Canada, New Zealand) regionalism is feared by some, because the loss of economic and cultural ties with Britain and other nations has forced them into a closer, and possibly more dependent and disadvantaged, relationship with their relatively larger neighbours (the United States and Australia respectively). An African-American drinks out of a water cooler designated for use by colored patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. ...


Realists

Realism (from the German Realpolitik) is a defined school of thought on international relations, more interested in international affairs than culture. It sees power as the defining factor in a state's relations, and may conclude that culture is irrelevant (propaganda aside). Some of the most telling criticism of the Anglosphere has been from the realist side. The clash between realists and Anglospherists may be sharper than any clash with another school. Realpolitik (German for politics of reality) is foreign politics based on practical concerns rather than theory or ethics. ... The concept of power occurs in multiple areas. ...


Realists argue that it is dangerous for one power to see itself as having a permanent alliance with another power whose interests in a few years may be at odds with their own. Britain's and America's interests were opposed in the Suez crisis. HM Ships Eagle, Bulwark, and Albion of the British Royal Navy. ...


Autonomists

Autonomists criticise the Anglosphere concept from the cultural side. They argue that the culture of a particular society is either largely home grown, or consists of many more factors than simple heritage from the "Anglosphere". The Anglosphere concept tends generally to underestimate the non-English European cultures: such as the Scotch-Irish, Irish, German, Dutch and Quebecois cultures. There is wide variation in the supposed distinctive characteristics of the "Anglosphere", within each nation-state which is regarded as a member of it, and some of it comes from such contributions. Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... In Canadian English, a Québécois (IPA: ) is a native or resident of the province of Quebec, Canada, especially a French-speaking one. ...


For example, it is an oversimplification to depict a typically "southern British" individualist outlook on society as generally true of "Anglo-Saxon" society. There is also a "northern Britain"; that is, a strand of thinking more in tune with Scandinavian political thinking. American culture, in part at least, has been divorced from Britain for too long to be regarded as congruent. For judgements of value about collectivism and individualism, see individualism and collectivism. ... Scandinavia, Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. ... This article very generally discusses the customs and culture of the United States; for the culture of the United States, see arts and entertainment in the United States. ...


For example, Americans are more likely to be friendly to free enterprise, and the British to the mixed economy and welfare state. Since the American War of Independence American and British experiences have greatly diverged, Britain's experience of the Empire in India and Africa not being shared by Americans. Furthermore, the shared experiences of two World Wars were not at all the same experience, the particular British reaction being formative of much of the post-war culture. Capitalism generally refers to in philosophy and politics, a social system based on the principle of individual rights, including property rights. ... In economics and politics, a mixed economy is an economy that combines regulated capitalism, central planning (see planned economy and statism), as well as certain socialist measures and state ownership of some sectors of the economy, such as: social security roads and other transportation environmental regulation labor regulation product safety... Welfare state describes a nation where the government seeks to guarantee a set of social welfare benefits meant to ensure minimum quality of life standards for all citizens. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ...


In America autonomists tend to be natural cultural conservatives, while in Australasia they tend to the left. In Britain they fall across the political spectrum (see though Merry England). A national cultural conservatism is a strand of conservative thought that argues for the preservation of a nations domestic culture, usually in the face of external forces. ... The term Merry England, or in more jocular, half-timbered spelling Merrie England, refers to a semi-mythological, idyllic, and pastoral way of life that the lucky inhabitants of England allegedly enjoyed at some poorly-defined point between the Middle Ages and the completion of the Industrial Revolution. ...


Critics of Neo-Liberalism

Other critics treat the Anglosphere concept as political rhetoric, with aims they claim are identifiable. They ask who has introduced the term "Anglosphere", how it has been used, and in whose favour. This involves analysis of the contemporary political situation. Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). ...


They argue that Thatcherite and Reaganite apologists have used it to try to consolidate the political position they achieved during the 1980s and first half of the 1990s. Proponents of the Anglosphere argue that a characteristic of Anglo-Saxon dominated societies is that civil society, individualism and voluntarism all play a larger role than in other "cultural spheres". The Right Honourable Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) is a British politician and the first woman Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, a position she held from 1979 to 1990. ... Order: 40th President Term of Office: January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989 Preceded by: Jimmy Carter Succeeded by: George H.W. Bush Date of birth: February 6, 1911 Place of birth: Tampico, Illinois Date of death: June 5, 2004 Place of death: Los Angeles, California First Lady: Nancy Reagan Political... Civil society or civil institutions refers to the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations or institutions which form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system). ... Individualism is a political and social philosophy that emphasizes individual liberty, belief in the primary importance of the individual and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence. ... Voluntarism (lat. ...


Critics of this position call this a post hoc justification. Margaret Thatcher's administration was anti-corporatist. It was also centralising, in certain ways, with local government less autonomous and financially more constrained. Just to call some gaps left by the withdrawal of the older corporate forces "civil society" is not an analysis. As well some critics have argued that some of what has emerged as so-called "civil society" are forces that still serve corporatist aims. It also does not very clearly support analogies between the UK and the USA, which is a federal political system. Post hoc ergo propter hoc is Latin for after this, therefore because of this. ... The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ...


Historical perspectives

The United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are all former colonies of the United Kingdom, and were settled by migrants from the United Kingdom. The similarities of these countries, it is sometimes argued, manifest certain historical conditions which they have all faced. The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Anglosphere nations have a history of co-operation and close political ties. A network of varying military alliances as well as intelligence arrangements exists between all five nations, and some are in free trade areas with each other. The countries of the Anglosphere were military allies in the majority of major world conflicts in the 20th century. The United States, the UK, and Australia continued in this vein in their cooperation in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, a venture in which other close military allies of the United States did not participate. A Military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, and/or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... A Free Trade Area is a region in which obstacles to unrestricted trade have been reduced to a minimum. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The 2003 invasion of Iraq, also called simply the Iraq War or Operation: Iraqi Freedom, is a war that began March 20, 2003, fought between a group of troops consisting primarily of American and British, but also Polish, Australian and several other nations forces, and Iraq. ...


The United Kingdom and the 'continental' experience: culture

To note the distinctions between the Anglosphere and other countries of Europe ('the continent', as it is often called) comes down to drawing a line separating the United Kingdom from the larger countries of the EU. To say the Anglosphere is culturally different from the European standard assumes inter alia that there is a unified European culture; which itself is not supported by historical perspective.


Consider for example wine and beer: it may appear obvious that the English are natural beer drinkers, but in fact wine was imported many centuries ago, and beer is something in common with Belgian, Dutch and German culture. Tea- and coffee-drinking show a different pattern, but with coffee becoming more popular: convergence of the UK with both the USA and France. A glass of red wine This article is about the beverage. ... Larger quantities of beer foam than shown atop this glass caused a stir in 1990s England when people received less than a pint (568 ml) of beer for the price of a pint. ... A cup of tea A tea bush. ... Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ...


In the Middle Ages, England and France vied for dominance in Europe; following the Protestant Reformation, this conflict had a religious dimension. From the 17th century onward, as both countries conquered extensive empires, each country attempted to increase its colonial possessions and prevent the other from doing so. Although both countries have lost their empires and are now members of the European Union, some traces of Anglo-French rivalry remain, particularly among those Anglophones who advocate strong political and economic ties between English-speaking countries; this argument is often accompanied by attempts to draw a sharp distinction between Anglophone and Francophone cultures. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


However, such a distinction fails to recognise the profound influence that each of these cultural and linguistic spheres has had on the other. After the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, French remained the language of the English aristocracy for three hundred years; during that time and since, a large number of French words have entered the everyday vocabulary of the English language (e.g. agree, brave, carry, define, empire, etc.) More recently, many English words have entered the French language (bus, casting, fax, leader, missile, etc.). Globalisation has tended to increase the influence of American culture in many countries, and France is no exception; American pop music, cinema and TV programmes enjoy widespread popularity. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ... The Ancient Greek term Aristocracy meant a system of government with rule by the best. This is the first definition given in most dictionaries. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ...


The United Kingdom and the 'continental' experience: political history

Proponents of the concept of Anglosphere argue that no English-speaking country ever was ruled by an absolute monarch. Hence none has ever seen the effectiveness and sheer dominance of such rulers as Peter the Great of Russia, Frederick the Great of Prussia, or King Louis XIV of France. No English-speaking country had to form political groups to struggle against an existing absolute rule. Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ...


On the other hand, the idea that English-speaking countries share a common culture because of something they didn't have appears to be based on a logical fallacy. One might as well say that their common culture is based on the fact that they didn't have the Chinese language. The English Civil War can be quite well be considered as a struggle against attempts by English kings to establish an absolute monarchy. The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of King Charles I and the supporters of...


Those who argue for the superiority of English political culture over the French Republican tradition sometimes suggest that the French Revolution of 1789 did not constitute an advance in civilisation. More accurately, they point instead to the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... The term Glorious Revolution refers to the generally popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688. ...


This belittles the lasting effect of the French Revolution on the global political landscape, for example through the concepts of manhood suffrage, and human rights. It also rejects the idea that philosophers could be serious constitutional theorists. Even restricting discussion to the United Kingdom and United States, it fails to recognise the immense influence of English philosophers such as Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Paine and John Stuart Mill on the shape of politics. English political thought relates in a more complex way to the Enlightenment than this suggests, and that can be said both of conservative and liberal thinkers. Since the USA has a strong Enlightenment political tradition, none of this really supports the idea of commonality in the Anglosphere. Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Philosophes (French for Philosophers) were a group of French thinkers of the 18th century Enlightenment. ... Jeremy Bentham (February 15, 1748 – June 6, 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, eccentric, and legal and social reformer. ... Thomas Paine Thomas Paine (January 29, 1737 – June 8, 1809) was an intellectual scholar and idealist, widely recognized as one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... John Stuart Mill (May 20, 1806 – May 8, 1873), aka JS Mill, an English philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... This article presents enlightenment in the sense of any transformation into greater wisdom. ...


Institutional history

In general Anglospheric countries did not suffer abrupt changes in institutions, caused by the end of the ancien regime. A certain residual chauvinism against the metric system in the English-speaking countries is symptomatic. Ancien R gime means Old Regime or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties, and secondarily to any regime which shares the formers defining features: a feudal system under the control... Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ...


English-speaking countries, except for the state of Louisiana, and parts of Canada, have not had legal systems based on the Napoleonic Code. The case of Scotland is considered anomalous, since its system is an older system largely independent of common law. State nickname: Pelican State Other U.S. States Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans Governor Kathleen Blanco Official languages None; English and French de facto Area 134,382 km² (31st)  - Land 112,927 km²  - Water 21,455 km² (16%) Population (2000)  - Population 4,468,976 (22nd)  - Density 39. ... The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


No English-speaking country ever had a government installed by Napoleon, though there were some Bonapartists in England. The foreign princes (Dutch and German following the Glorious Revolution) ruling in England were in theory constitutional monarchs, on sufferance. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... The term Glorious Revolution refers to the generally popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ...


No English-speaking country (pace Ireland) had the secret police that existed throughout Europe in the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century, and which were brought to a higher level under Napoleon. (This ignores some facts about British government actions, in particular in the Jacobin scares of the 1790s; it might be defended as a broad description of policy, such as the non-recognition of a minister for the Interior). A secret police (sometimes political police) force is a police organization that operates in secret to enforce state security. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794). ...


Against this one can argue that the UK and USA have in fact fundamental divergences in a number of aspects of their institutions. These include separation of religion and politics, the constitutions and the monarchy. For related meanings see also Monarch (disambiguation) A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ...


Legacy of the twentieth century

The consequences of the World War I did not result in fascism or communism being adopted in the Anglosphere; there were fascist and communist sympathisers, but they never gained political power except in some very limited ways. None of the countries was occupied by the Fascist powers, if one discounts the German occupation of the Channel Islands. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. ...


The philosophical trends in Britain, with logical positivism gaining at one point the upper hand, and in the United States, with a consistent strand of interest in types of pragmatism, differ from the existentialism and later philosophical trends in continental Europe. This distinction became sharp around 1930. Logical positivism (later referred to as logical empiricism) holds that philosophy should aspire to the same sort of rigor as science. ... Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that views the individual, the self, the individuals experience, and the uniqueness therein as the basis for understanding the nature of human existence. ... Continental philosophy is a general term for several related philosophical traditions that (notionally) originated in continental Europe, in contrast with Anglo_American analytic philosophy. ...


Identity cards were used in the UK in World War II, but were withdrawn some years after its end. Otherwise identity documents have not been required. (This may however change since proposals are again being floated for identity cards, to combat crime, terrorism and illegal immigration.) Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Terrorism is a controversial term with multiple definitions. ... An illegal immigrant is a person who either enters a country illegally, or who enters legally but subsequently violates the terms of their visa, permanent resident permit or refugee permit. ...


Discussion of Anglo-American diplomacy is often formulated, from the UK side, in terms of the existence and health of the special relationship, mostly harking back to the years 1941 to 1945 of very close alliance. This could be called a 'Churchillian' formulation; talk about the Anglosphere is in some sense a reformulation to suit policy discussion from Washington's perspective. British Prime Minister Tony Blair (left) hosted by the President of the United States, George W. Bush at Camp David in March 2003, in the build up to the invasion of Iraq by their countries. ...


Trends as of 2005

It is possible to point to a number of the supposed differences between the "Anglosphere" and "continental Europe" which are (as of 2005) being eroded. There has been an increase in centralised state control in the UK, examples being the National Curriculum, and the proposed introduction of identity cards in the UK (http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmhaff/130/13002.htm) (actually a part of EU-wide security-cooperation (http://www.statewatch.org/news/2004/nov/hague-programme-draft3.pdf)). 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the England, Wales and Northern Ireland, a nationwide education curriculum was introduced in the 1980s to ensure that certain basic material was covered by all pupils. ...


Police powers have been recently expanded in the USA post-9/11, and some argue about what they consider deliberate US sabotage of stronger EU data-privacy rules (http://www.statewatch.org/pnrobservatory.htm). 9-11 can refer to: The September 11, 2001 attacks A collection of interviews of Noam Chomsky by a variety of European publications and individual interviewers during the month after the September 11, 2001 attacks September 11 (month-day date notation) 9 November (day-month date notation) The North American...


See also

Anglo-American relations refers to bilateral relations between the United Kingdom and the United States. ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which bound Australia, New Zealand and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in any area. ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is an association of independent sovereign states, most of which are former colonies once governed by the United Kingdom as part of the British Empire. ... This article is about the spy network; for other uses see Echelon (disambiguation). ... The Scramble for Africa was the period between the 1880s and the start of World War I, when colonial empires in Africa were acquired faster than anywhere else on the globe. ... British Prime Minister Tony Blair (left) hosted by the President of the United States, George W. Bush at Camp David in March 2003, in the build up to the invasion of Iraq by their countries. ... The UKUSA Community is an alliance of English-speaking nations for the purpose of gathering intelligence via signals intelligence. ...

External links

  • An Anglosphere Primer (http://www.pattern.com/bennettj-anglosphereprimer.html)
  • The Anglosphere Challenge (http://www.anglospherechallenge.com/)
  • Anglosphere Institute (http://www.anglosphereinstitute.com/)

  Results from FactBites:
 
English language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6271 words)
English is an Anglo-Frisian language brought to southeastern Great Britain in the 5th century AD and earlier by Germanic settlers and Germanic auxiliary troops from various parts of northwest Germany (Saxons, Angles) as well as Denmark (Jutes).
English is also the most widely used language for young backpackers who travel across continents, regardless of whether it is their mother tongue or a secondary language.
English as a lingua franca for Europe is a new variant of the English language created to become the common language in Europe, spoken in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.
English language: Information from Answers.com (6136 words)
English was spread to many parts of the world through the expansion of the British Empire, but it did not acquire a lingua franca status in other parts of the world until the late 20th century.
English is an Anglo-Frisian language brought to south-eastern Great Britain in the 5th century AD by Germanic settlers from various parts of northwest Germany (Saxons, Angles) as well as Denmark (Jutes).
English is the most widely learned and used foreign language, and as such, some linguists believe that it is no longer the exclusive cultural sign of 'native English speakers', but is rather a language that is absorbing aspects of cultures world-wide as it continues to grow.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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