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Encyclopedia > English poetry
Many regard William Shakespeare as the greatest English poet.
Many regard William Shakespeare as the greatest English poet.

The history of English poetry stretches from the middle of the 7th century to the present day. Over this period, English poets have written some of the most enduring poems in European culture, and the language and its poetry have spread around the globe. Consequently, the term English poetry is unavoidably ambiguous. It can mean poetry written in England, or poetry written in the English language. Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Poets are authors of poems. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ... Culture (Culture from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate,) generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The earliest surviving poetry from the area currently known as England was likely transmitted orally and then written down in versions that do not now survive; thus, dating the earliest poetry remains difficult and often controversial. The earliest surviving manuscripts date from the 10th century. Poetry written in Latin, Brythonic (a predecessor language of Welsh) and Old Irish survives which may date as early as the 6th century. The earliest surviving poetry written in Anglo-Saxon, the most direct predecessor of modern English, may have been composed as early as the seventh century. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Brythonic is one of two major divisions of Insular Celtic languages (the other being Goidelic). ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language which can be more or less fully reconstructed from extant sources. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


With the growth of trade and the British Empire, the English language had been widely used outside England. In the twenty-first century, only a small percentage of the world's native English speakers live in England, and there is also a vast population of non-native speakers of English who are capable of writing poetry in the language. A number of major national poetries, including the American, Australian, New Zealand, Canadian and Indian poetry have emerged and developed. Since 1922, Irish poetry has also been increasingly viewed as a separate area of study. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


This article focuses on poetry written in English by poets born or spending a significant part of their lives in England. However, given the nature of the subject, this guideline has been applied with common sense, and reference is made to poetry in other languages or poets who are not primarily English where appropriate.

Contents

The earliest English poetry

Main article: Old English poetry
The first page of Beowulf
The first page of Beowulf

The earliest known English poem is a hymn on the creation; Bede attributes this to Cædmon (fl. 658–680), who was, according to legend, an illiterate herdsman who produced extemporaneous poetry at a monastery at Whitby.[1] This is generally taken as marking the beginning of Anglo-Saxon poetry. Old English poetry is based upon one system of verse construction which was used for all poems. ... Image File history File links Beowulf. ... Image File history File links Beowulf. ... Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ... Depiction of Cædmon carved on a stone memorial cross on the grounds of St Marys Church in Whitby. ... Whitby is a historic town in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England. ... Old English poetry is based upon one system of verse construction which was used for all poems. ...


Much of the poetry of the period is difficult to date, or even to arrange chronologically; for example, estimates for the date of the great epic Beowulf range from AD 608 right through to AD 1000, and there has never been anything even approaching a consensus.[2] It is possible to identify certain key moments, however. The Dream of the Rood was written before circa AD 700, when excerpts were carved in runes on the Ruthwell Cross.[3] Some poems on historical events, such as The Battle of Brunanburh (937) and the Battle of Maldon (991), appear to have been composed shortly after the events in question, and can be dated reasonably precisely in consequence. The first page of Beowulf Beowulf is an Old English heroic epic poem composed in the later Early Middle Ages (in the 8th, 9th or 10th century). ... The Dream of the Rood is one of the earliest Christian poems in the corpus of Old English poetry and an intriguing example of the genre of dream poetry. ... One or more images would improve this articles quality. ... The Battle of Brunanburh was a West Saxon victory in 937 by the army of king Athelstan and his brother Edmund over the combined armies of Olaf III Guthfrithson, Viking king of Dublin, Constantine, king of Scotland and King Owain of Strathclyde. ... The Battle of Maldon took place in 991 near Maldon beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, during the reign of Ethelred the Unready. ...


By and large, however, Anglo-Saxon poetry is categorised by the manuscripts in which it survives, rather than its date of composition. The most important manuscripts are the four great poetical codices of the late tenth and early eleventh centuries, known as the Caedmon manuscript, the Vercelli Book, the Exeter Book, and the Beowulf manuscript. Categories: Art stubs | Literature stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ... The Vercelli Book (Vercelli, Cathedral Library, MS CXVII) is a late 10th century Old English manuscript. ... The Exeter Book, also known as the Codex Exoniensis, is a tenth century book (or, as some prefer, a codex) of Anglo-Saxon poetry. ... he joost hoestie, wat loop je ons nou uit te schelden, je stinkt zelf, want je bent een nep japanner ...


While the poetry that has survived is limited in volume, it is wide in breadth. Beowulf is the only heroic epic to have survived in its entirety, but fragments of others such as Waldere and the Finnsburg Fragment show that it was not unique in its time. Other genres include much religious verse, from devotional works to biblical paraphrase; elegies such as The Wanderer, The Seafarer, and The Ruin (often taken to be a description of the ruins of Bath); and numerous proverbs, riddles, and charms. Waldere is the conventional title of two Old English fragments from a lost epic poem, discovered in 1860 by E. C. Werlauff, Librarian of the Danish Royal Library at Copenhagen, and still preserved in that library. ... The Finnsburg Fragment is a fragment of an Old English poem, found in the Exeter Book. ... This article is about the Old English Wanderer poem, for the German Wanderer poems set to music by (amongst others) Franz Schubert, see: List_of_compositions_by_Schubert#Lieder_. ... The Seafarer and The Wanderer are two Old English poems included in the Exeter Book. ... The Ruin is an Old English poem from the Exeter Book. ... Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... A riddle is a puzzle, consisting of text with a question to answer. ... Look up charm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


With one notable exception (Rhyming Poem), Anglo-Saxon poetry depends on alliterative verse for its structure and any rhyme included is merely ornamental. The Rhyming Poem is one of the poems found in the Exeter Book. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ... In music, ornaments are musical flourishes that are not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serve to decorate or ornament that line. ...


The Anglo-Norman period and the Later Middle Ages

See also: Anglo-Norman literature

With the Norman conquest of England, beginning in 1066, the Anglo-Saxon language rapidly diminished as a written literary language. The new aristocracy spoke French, and this became the standard language of courts, parliament, and polite society. As the invaders integrated, their language and literature mingled with that of the natives: the French dialect of the upper classes became Anglo-Norman, and Anglo-Saxon underwent a gradual transition into Middle English. Anglo-Norman literature is literature composed in the Anglo-Norman language developed during the period 1066-1204 when the Duchy of Normandy and England were united in the Anglo-Norman realm. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


While Anglo-Norman or Latin was preferred for high culture, English literature by no means died out, and a number of important works illustrate the development of the language. Around the turn of the thirteenth century, Layamon wrote his Brut, based on Wace's twelfth century Anglo-Norman epic of the same name; Layamon's language is recognisably Middle English, though his prosody shows a strong Anglo-Saxon influence remaining. Other transitional works were preserved as popular entertainment, including a variety of romances and lyrics. With time, the English language regained prestige, and in 1362 it replaced French and Latin in Parliament and courts of law. Layamon, or Laȝamon (using the archaic letter yogh), was a poet of the early 13th century, whose Brut (c. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Middle English Lyric is a genre of English Literature, popular in the 14th Century, that is characterized by its brevity and emotional expression. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


It was with the fourteenth century that major works of English literature began once again to appear; these include the so-called Pearl Poet's Pearl, Patience, Cleanness, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight; Langland's political and religious allegory Piers Plowman; Gower's Confessio Amantis; and, of course, the works of Chaucer, the most highly regarded English poet of the Middle Ages, who was seen by his contemporaries as a successor to the great tradition of Virgil and Dante. The Pearl Poet is the name given to the author of Pearl, an alliterative poem written in Middle English. ... Pearl is a Middle English alliterative poem written in the late 14th century. ... Patience is a Middle English alliterative poem written in the late 14th century. ... Cleanness is a poem in alliterative verse in Middle English dating from the first half of the 14th century. ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... Langlands Dreamer: from an illuminated initial in a Piers Plowman manuscript held at Corpus Christi College, Oxford William Langland is the conjectured author of the 14th-century English dream-vision Piers Plowman. ... Page from a 14th century Psalter, showing drolleries on the right margin and a plowman at the bottom. ... John Gower shooting the world, a sphere of earth, air, and water (from an edition of his works c. ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid, the last being an epic poem of twelve books that became... Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ...


The reputation of Chaucer's successors in the 15th century has suffered in comparison with him, though Lydgate and Skelton are widely studied. However, the century really belongs to a group of remarkable Scottish writers. The rise of Scottish poetry began with the writing of The Kingis Quair by James I of Scotland. The main poets of this Scottish group were Robert Henryson, William Dunbar and Gavin Douglas. Henryson and Douglas introduced a note of almost savage satire, which may have owed something to the Gaelic bards, while Douglas' version of Virgil's Aeneid is one of the early monuments of Renaissance literary humanism in English. John Lydgate (1370?-1451?); Monk and poet, born in Lidgate, Suffolk, England. ... John Skelton (c. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... James I (December 10, 1394 – February 21, 1437) reigned as King of Scots from April 4, 1406 until February 21, 1437. ... Robert Henryson (c. ... William Dunbar (c. ... Gavin Douglas (c. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... The Bard (ca. ...


The Renaissance in England

The Renaissance was slow in coming to England, with the generally accepted start date being around 1509. It is also generally accepted that the English Renaissance extended until the Restoration in 1660. However, a number of factors had prepared the way for the introduction of the new learning long before this start date. A number of medieval poets had, as already noted, shown an interest in the ideas of Aristotle and the writings of European Renaissance precursors such as Dante. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


The introduction of movable-block printing by Caxton in 1474 provided the means for the more rapid dissemination of new or recently rediscovered writers and thinkers. Caxton also printed the works of Chaucer and Gower and these books helped establish the idea of a native poetic tradition that was linked to its European counterparts. In addition, the writings of English humanists like Thomas More and Thomas Elyot helped bring the ideas and attitudes associated with the new learning to an English audience. The printers device of William Caxton, 1478. ... There are also several institutions named Thomas More College. ... Sir Thomas Elyot (c. ...


Three other factors in the establishment of the English Renaissance were the Reformation, Counter Reformation, and the opening of the era of English naval power and overseas exploration and expansion. The establishment of the Church of England in 1535 accelerated the process of questioning the Catholic world-view that had previously dominated intellectual and artistic life. At the same time, long-distance sea voyages helped provide the stimulus and information that underpinned a new understanding of the nature of the universe which resulted in the theories of Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... “Copernicus” redirects here. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ...


Early Renaissance poetry

With a small number of exceptions, the early years of the 16th century are not particularly notable. The Douglas Aeneid was completed in 1513 and John Skelton wrote poems that were transitional between the late Medieval and Renaissance styles. The new king, Henry VIII, was something of a poet himself. The most significant English poet of this period was Thomas Wyatt, who was among the first poets to write sonnets in English. John Skelton (c. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 – October 6, 1542) was a poet and Ambassador in the service of Henry VIII. He first entered Henrys service in 1516 as Sewer Extraordinary, and the same year he began studying at St Johns College of the University of Cambridge. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ...


The Elizabethans

The Elizabethan period (1558 to 1603) in poetry is characterised by a number of frequently overlapping developments. The introduction and adaptation of themes, models and verse forms from other European traditions and classical literature, the Elizabethan song tradition, the emergence of a courtly poetry often centred around the figure of the monarch and the growth of a verse-based drama are among the most important of these developments. The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... // Elizabeth I ascends the throne of England Robert Greene Thomas Kyd Chidiock Tichborne Thomas Lodge Thomas Morley William Warner Poetry Categories: | | ... // death of Elizabeth I, end of Elizabethan Age Samuel Daniels Defence of Rhyme, a reply to Thomas Campions Observations John Dowlands Third and Last Booke of Songs William Shakespeares Measure for Measure July 12 - Edward Benlowes, English (died 1676) Dates unknown: Gysbert Japiks, Frisian (died 1639...


Elizabethan song

A wide range of Elizabethan poets wrote songs, including Nicholas Grimald, Thomas Nashe and Robert Southwell. There are also a large number of extant anonymous songs from the period. Perhaps the greatest of all the songwriters was Thomas Campion. Campion is also notable because of his experiments with metres based on counting syllables rather than stresses. These quantitative metres were based on classical models and should be viewed as part of the wider Renaissance revival of Greek and Roman artistic methods. Nicholas Grimald (or Grimoald) (1519-1562), English poet, was born in Huntingdonshire, the son probably of Giovanni Baptista Grimaldi, who had been a clerk in the service of Empson and Dudley in the reign of Henry VII. He was educated at Christs College, Cambridge, where he took his B... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ... St Robert Southwell (c. ... Thomas Campion, sometimes Campian (February 12, 1567 – March 1, 1620) was an English composer, poet and physician. ... Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ...


The songs were generally printed either in miscellanies or anthologies such as Richard Tottel's 1557 Songs and Sonnets or in songbooks that included printed music to enable performance. These performances formed an integral part of both public and private entertainment. By the end of the 16th century, a new generation of composers, including John Dowland, William Byrd, Orlando Gibbons, Thomas Weelkes and Thomas Morley were helping to bring the art of Elizabethan song to an extremely high musical level. Richard Tottel (d. ... John Dowland (1563 – February 20, 1626) was an English composer, singer, and lutenist. ... William Byrd William Byrd (c. ... Orlando Gibbons Orlando Gibbons (baptised December 25, 1583 – June 5, 1625) was an English composer and organist of the late Tudor and early Jacobean periods. ... Thomas Weelkes (baptised 25 October 1576 – buried 1 December 1623) was an English composer and organist. ... Thomas Morley (1557 or 1558 – October 1602) was an English composer, theorist, editor and organist of the Renaissance, and the foremost member of the English Madrigal School. ...


Courtly poetry

Edmund Spenser
Edmund Spenser

With the consolidation of Elizabeth's power, a genuine court sympathetic to poetry and the arts in general emerged. This encouraged the emergence of a poetry aimed at, and often set in, an idealised version of the courtly world. PD through age, numerous places on the internet File links The following pages link to this file: Edmund Spenser English poetry Categories: Public domain images ... PD through age, numerous places on the internet File links The following pages link to this file: Edmund Spenser English poetry Categories: Public domain images ...


Among the best known examples of this are Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, which is effectively an extended hymn of praise to the queen, and Philip Sidney's Arcadia. This courtly trend can also be seen in Spenser's Shepheardes Calender. This poem marks the introduction into an English context of the classical pastoral, a mode of poetry that assumes an aristocratic audience with a certain kind of attitude to the land and peasants. The explorations of love found in the sonnets of William Shakespeare and the poetry of Walter Raleigh and others also implies a courtly audience. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Una and the Lion by Briton Rivière The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser, published first in three books in 1590, and later in six books in 1596. ... Philip Sidney. ... The Countess of Pembrokes Arcadia, also known simply as The Arcadia is by far Sir Philip Sidneys most ambitious work. ... Titians The Pastoral Concert Pastoral refers to the lifestyle of shepherds and pastoralists, moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability of water and feed. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with Walter Raleigh (professor). ...


Elizabethan verse drama

Elizabethan verse drama is widely considered to be one of the major achievements of literature in English, and its most famous exponent, William Shakespeare, is revered as the greatest poet in the language. This drama, which served both as courtly masque and popular entertainment, deals with all the major themes of contemporary literature and life. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


There are plays on European, classical, and religious themes reflecting the importance of humanism and the Reformation. There are also a number of plays dealing with English history that may be read as part of an effort to strengthen the British national myth and as artistic underpinnings for Elizabeth's resistance to the Spanish and other foreign threats. A number of the comic works for the stage also use bucolic themes connected with the pastoral genre. World map showing the location of Europe. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... England is the largest and most populous of the four main divisions of the United Kingdom. ... A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nations past. ... Titians The Pastoral Concert Pastoral refers to the lifestyle of shepherds and pastoralists, moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability of water and feed. ...


In addition to Shakespeare, other notable dramatists of the period include Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Dekker and Ben Jonson. Christopher (Kit) Marlowe (baptised 26 February 1564 – 30 May 1593?) was an English dramatist, poet, and translator of the Elizabethan era. ... Thomas Dekker, (c. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Classicism

Gavin Douglas' Aeneid, Thomas Campion's metrical experiments, and Spenser's Shepheardes Calender and plays like Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra are all examples of the influence of classicism on Elizabethan poetry. It remained common for poets of the period to write on themes from classical mythology; Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis and the Christopher Marlowe/George Chapman Hero and Leander are examples of this kind of work. Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. ... Classical or Greco-Roman mythology usually refers to the mythology, and the associated polytheistic rituals and practices, of Classical Antiquity. ... This article is about George Chapman the English literary figure; see George Chapman (murderer) for the Victorian poisoner of the same name. ...


Translations of classical poetry also became more widespread, with the versions of Ovid's Metamorphoses by Arthur Golding (1565–7) and George Sandys (1626), and Chapman's translations of Homer's Iliad (1611) and Odyssey (c.1615), among the outstanding examples. Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1632 London edition of Publius Ovidius Naso (Sulmona, March 20, 43 BC – Tomis, now ConstanÅ£a AD 17), a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Arthur Golding (c. ... George Sandys (March 2, 1578 - 1644), English traveller, colonist and poet, the seventh and youngest son of Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York. ... Homer (Greek: , ) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ...


Jacobean and Caroline poetry

English Renaissance poetry after the Elizabethan poetry can be seen as belonging to one of three strains; the Metaphysical poets, the Cavalier poets and the school of Spenser. However, the boundaries between these three groups are not always clear and an individual poet could write in more than one manner. The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ... Cavalier poets is a broad description of a school of poets, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. ...


The Metaphysical poets

John Donne

The early 17th century saw the emergence of this group of poets who wrote in a witty, complicated style. The most famous of the Metaphysicals is probably John Donne. Others include George Herbert, Henry Vaughan, Andrew Marvell and Richard Crashaw. John Milton in his Comus falls into this group. The Metaphysical poets went out of favour in the 18th century but began to be read again in the Victorian era. Donne's reputation was finally fully restored by the approbation of T. S. Eliot in the early 20th century. Image File history File links JohnDonne. ... Image File history File links JohnDonne. ... The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... George Herbert (April 3, 1593 – March 1, 1633) was an English poet, orator and a priest. ... Henry Vaughan (April 17, 1622 - April 28, 1695) was a Welsh Metaphysical poet and a doctor, the twin brother of the philosopher Thomas Vaughan. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Richard Crashaw (c. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ...


The Cavalier poets

The Cavalier poets wrote in a lighter, more elegant and artificial style than the Metaphysical poets. Leading members of the group include Ben Jonson, Richard Lovelace, Robert Herrick, Edmund Waller, Thomas Carew and John Denham. The Cavalier poets can be seen as the forerunners of the major poets of the Augustan era, who admired them greatly. Cavalier poets is a broad description of a school of poets, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Richard Lovelace (1618 - 1657) was an English poet and nobleman, born in Woolwich, today part of south-east London. ... Robert Herrick Gather Ye Rosebuds While Ye May, by John William Waterhouse, (1908) Gather Ye rosebuds While Ye May, by John William Waterhouse, (1909) Robert Herrick (baptized August 24, 1591- October 1674) was a 17th century English poet. ... Edmund Waller (March 3, 1606 – October 21, 1687) was an English poet. ... Thomas Carew (pronounced like Carey) (1595 – March 22, 1640) was an English poet. ... Sir John Denham (1615 - 1669), poet, son of the Chief Baron of Exchequer in Ireland, was born in Dublin, and educated at Oxford He began his literary career with a tragedy, The Sophy (1641), which seldom rises above mediocrity. ... Augustan poetry is named for Caesar Augustus. ...


The school of Spenser

The early 17th century also saw a group of poets who were interested in Giles and Phineas Fletcher. Although these poetsto John Milton's great mythic long poem, Paradise Lost. Giles can refer to: // Saint Giles, 7th-8th century Christian hermit saint Giles of Assisi, (c. ... Phineas Fletcher (1582-1650) was an English poet, elder son of Dr Giles Fletcher, and brother of Giles the younger. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Title page of the first edition (1667) Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. ...


The Restoration and 18th century

It is perhaps ironic that Paradise Lost, a story of fallen pride, was the first major poem to appear in England after the Restoration. The court of Charles II had, in its years in France, learned a worldliness and sophistication that marked it as distinctively different from the monarchies that preceded the Republic. Even if Charles had wanted to reassert the divine right of kingship, the Protestantism and taste for power of the intervening years would have rendered it impossible. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Satire

It is hardly surprising that the world of fashion and scepticism that emerged encouraged the art of satire. All the major poets of the period, Samuel Butler, John Dryden, Alexander Pope and Samuel Johnson, and the Irish poet Jonathan Swift, wrote satirical verse. What is perhaps more surprising is that their satire was often written in defence of public order and the established church and government. However, writers such as Pope used their gift for satire to create scathing works responding to their detractors or to criticise what they saw as social atrocities perpetrated by the government. Pope's "The Dunciad" is a satirical slaying of two of his literary adversaries (Lewis Theobald, and Colley Cibber in a later version), expressing the view that British society was falling apart morally, culturally, and intellectually. Skepticism (Commonwealth spelling: Scepticism) can mean: Philosophical skepticism - a philosophical position in which people choose to critically examine whether the knowledge and perceptions that they have are actually true, and whether or not one can ever be said to have absolutely true knowledge; or Scientific skepticism - a scientific, or practical... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Samuel Butler Samuel Butler (4 December 1612–18 June 1680) was born in Strensham, Worcestershire and baptised 14 February 1613. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and...


18th century classicism

The 18th century is sometimes called the Augustan age, and contemporary admiration for the classical world extended to the poetry of the time. Not only did the poets aim for a polished high style in emulation of the Roman ideal, they also translated and imitated Greek and Latin verse. Dryden translated all the known works of Virgil, and Pope produced versions of the two Homeric epics. Horace and Juvenal were also widely translated and imitated, Horace most famously by John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester and Juvenal by Samuel Johnson's Vanity of Human Wishes.479 Augustan poetry is named for Caesar Augustus. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester (April 1, 1647 - July 26, 1680) was an English nobleman, a friend of King Charles II of England, and the writer of much satirical and bawdy poetry. ...


Women poets in the 18th century

Aphra Behn

A number of women poets of note emerged during the period of the Restoration, including Aphra Behn, Margaret Cavendish, Mary Chudleigh, Anne Finch, Anne Killigrew, and Katherine Philips. Nevertheless, print publication by women poets was still relatively scarce when compared to that of men, though manuscript evidence indicates that many more women poets were practicing than was previously thought. Disapproval of feminine "forwardness," however, kept many out of print in the early part of the period, and even as the century progressed women authors still felt the need to justify their incursions into the public sphere by claiming economic necessity or the pressure of friends. Women writers were increasingly active in all genres throughout the eighteenth century, and by the 1790s women's poetry was flourishing. Notable poets later in the period include Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Joanna Baillie, Susanna Blamire, Felicia Hemans, Mary Leapor, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Hannah More, and Mary Robinson. In the past decades there has been substantial scholarly and critical work done on women poets of the long eighteenth century: first, to reclaim them and make them available in contemporary editions in print or online, and second, to assess them and position them within a literary tradition. Portrait of Aphra Behn (1640? - 1689) by Mary Beale. ... Portrait of Aphra Behn (1640? - 1689) by Mary Beale. ... A sketch of Aphra Behn by George Scharf from a portrait believed to be lost. ... Margaret Cavendish Segment of Frontispiece from The Blazing World The Blazing World Portrait Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle (1623-15 December 1673), was an English aristocrat and a prolific writer. ... Lady Mary Chudleigh (1656-1710) was part of an intellectual circle that included Mary Astell, Elizabeth Thomas, Judith Drake, Elizabeth Elstob, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, and John Norris. ... Anne Finch, née Kingsmill, Countess of Winchilsea (April 1661 in Sydmonton, Hampshire, England – August 5, 1720 in London, England), was one of the first female English poets to be published. ... Anne Killigrew (1660 – 1685) was an English poet. ... Katherine Philips (January 1, 1631 – June 22, 1664), was an Anglo-Welsh poet. ... Anna Laetitia Barbauld (June 20, 1743—March 9, 1825) was an English poet and miscellaneous writer. ... Joanna Baillie (1762-1851), poetess and dramatist. ... Susanna Blamire (1747 - 1794), poetess, was of good Cumberland family, and received the sobriquet of Her poems, which were not collected until 1842, depict Cumbrian life and manners with truth and vivacity. ... Felicia Hemans Felicia Hemans (September 25, 1793 - 1835), was a British poet. ... Mary Leapor (1722-1746) worked as a kitchen maid and wrote poetry. ... Mary Wortley Montague, by Charles Jervas, after 1716. ... Hannah More (February 2, 1745 - September 7, 1833) was an English religious writer and philanthropist. ... Mary Robinson, nee Darby (1756 or 1758 - 26 December 1800) the English poet, was also known for her role as Perdita (heroine of Shakespeares A Winters Tale) in 1779. ...


The late 18th century

Towards the end of the 18th century, poetry began to move away from the strict Augustan ideals and a new emphasis on sentiment and the feelings of the poet. This trend can perhaps be most clearly seen in the handling of nature, with a move away from poems about formal gardens and landscapes by urban poets and towards poems about nature as lived in. The leading exponents of this new trend include Thomas Gray, William Cowper, George Crabbe, Christopher Smart and Robert Burns as well as the Irish poet Oliver Goldsmith. These poets can be seen as paving the way for the Romantic movement. Thomas Gray Thomas Gray (December 26, 1716 – July 30, 1771), was an English poet, classical scholar and professor of history at Cambridge University. ... Portrait of William Cowper attributed to Romney. ... George Crabbe (December 24, 1754 - February 3, 1832) was an English poet and naturalist. ... Smart Christopher Smart (April 11, 1722 – May 21, 1771) was an English poet. ... Robert Burns, foremost Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) was a poet and a lyricist. ... Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith (November 10, 1730 or 1728 – April 4, 1774) was an Irish writer and physician known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770) (written in memory of his brother), and his plays The Good-naturd Man (1768) and... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ...


The Romantic movement

William Wordsworth

The last quarter of the 18th century was a time of social and political turbulence, with revolutions in the United States, France, Ireland and elsewhere. In Great Britain, movement for social change and a more inclusive sharing of power was also growing. This was the backdrop against which the Romantic movement in English poetry emerged. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (914x1400, 79 KB)William Wordsworth - Project Gutenberg eText 12933 - http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (914x1400, 79 KB)William Wordsworth - Project Gutenberg eText 12933 - http://www. ...


The main poets of this movement were William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lord Byron, and John Keats. The birth of English Romanticism is often dated to the publication in 1798 of Wordsworth and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads. However, Blake had been publishing since the early 1780s. However, much of the focus on Blake only came about during the last century when Northrap Frye discussed his work in his book "The Anatomy of Criticism." William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... -1... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Keats grave in Rome (left). ...


In poetry, the Romantic movement emphasised the creative expression of the individual and the need to find and formulate new forms of expression. The Romantics, with the partial exception of Byron, rejected the poetic ideals of the eighteenth century, and each of them returned to Milton for inspiration, though each drew something different from Milton. They also put a good deal of stress on their own originality. To the Romantics, the moment of creation was the most important in poetic expression and could not be repeated once it passed. Because of this new emphasis, poems that were not complete were nonetheless included in a poet's body of work (such as Coleridge's "Kubla Khan" and "Christabel"). Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ...


Additionally, the Romantic movement marked a shift in the use of language. Attempting to express the "language of the common man", Wordsworth and his fellow Romantic poets focused on employing poetic language for a wider audience, countering the mimetic, tightly constrained Neo-Classic poems (although it's important to note that the poet wrote first and foremost for his own creative, expression). In Shelley's "Defense of Poetry", he contends that poets are the "creators of language" and that the poet's job is to refresh language for their society.


The Romantics were not the only poets of note at this time. In the work of John Clare the late Augustan voice is blended with a peasant's first-hand knowledge to produce arguably some of the finest nature poetry in the English language. Another contemporary poet who does not fit into the Romantic group was Walter Savage Landor. Landor was a classicist whose poetry forms a link between the Augustans and Robert Browning, who much admired it. John Clare (13 July 1793 – 20 May 1864) was an English poet, in his time commonly known as the Northamptonshire Peasant Poet, the son of a farm labourer, born at Helpston near Peterborough. ... Walter Savage Landor (January 30, 1775 - September 17, 1864), English writer, eldest son of Walter Landor and his wife Elizabeth Savage, was born at Warwick. ... Robert Browning (May 7, 1812 – December 12, 1889) was a British poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. ...


Victorian poetry

The Victorian era was a period of great political, social and economic change. The Empire recovered from the loss of the American colonies and entered a period of rapid expansion. This expansion, combined with increasing industrialisation and mechanisation, led to a prolonged period of economic growth. The Reform Act 1832 was the beginning of a process that would eventually lead to universal suffrage. Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Betsy Ross purportedly sewed the first American flag with 13 stars and 13 stripes representing each of the 13 colonies. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ...


High Victorian poetry

Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning

The major High Victorian poets were Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Robert Browning, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Matthew Arnold and Gerard Manley Hopkins. Tennyson was, to some degree, the Spenser of the new age and his Idylls of the Kings can be read as a Victorian version of The Faerie Queen, that is as a poem that sets out to provide a mythic foundation to the idea of empire. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (530x679, 66 KB) Elizabeth Barrett Browning, based on http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (530x679, 66 KB) Elizabeth Barrett Browning, based on http://www. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... Robert Browning (May 7, 1812 – December 12, 1889) was a British poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. ... Elizabeth Barrett Browning Elizabeth Barrett Browning (March 6, 1806 – June 29, 1861) was a member of the Barrett family and one of the most respected poets of the Victorian era. ... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... The Best ideal is the true/ And other truth is none. ...


The Brownings spent much of their time out of England and explored European models and matter in much of their poetry. Robert Browning's great innovation was the dramatic monologue, which he used to its full extent in his long novel in verse, The Ring and the Book. Elizabeth Barrett Browning is perhaps best remembered for Sonnets from the Portuguese but her long poem Aurora Leigh is one of the classics of 19th century feminist literature. Verse drama is any drama written as verse to be spoken; another possible general terms is poetic drama. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


Matthew Arnold was much influenced by Wordsworth, though his poem Dover Beach is often considered a precursor of the modernist revolution. Hopkins wrote in relative obscurity and his work was not published until after his death. His unusual style (involving what he called "sprung rhythm" and heavy reliance on rhyme and alliteration) had a considerable influence on many of the poets of the 1940s. Mountebanks ...


Pre-Raphaelites, arts and crafts, Aestheticism, and the "Yellow" 1890s

Dante Gabriel Rossetti: selfportrait
Dante Gabriel Rossetti: selfportrait

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a mid-19th century arts movement dedicated to the reform of what they considered the sloppy Mannerist painting of the day. Although primarily concerned with the visual arts, two members, the brother and sister Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Christina Rossetti, were also poets of some ability. Their poetry shares many of the concerns of the painters; an interest in Medieval models, an almost obsessive attention to visual detail and an occasional tendency to lapse into whimsy. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 - April 10, 1882) was an English poet, painter and translator. ... Christina Rossetti Christina Georgina Rossetti (December 5, 1830 – December 29, 1894) was an English poet. ...


Dante Rossetti worked with, and had some influence on, the leading Arts and crafts painter and poet William Morris. Morris shared the Pre-Raphaelite interest in the poetry of the European Middle Ages, to the point of producing some illuminated manuscript volumes of his work. Small wooden sculpture depicting a Native American mother holding her child. ... William Morris, socialist and innovator in the Arts and Crafts movement William Morris (March 24, 1834 – October 3, 1896) was an English artist, writer, socialist and activist. ...


Towards the end of the century, English poets began to take an interest in French symbolism and Victorian poetry entered a decadent fin-de-siecle phase. Two groups of poets emerged, the Yellow Book poets who adhered to the tenets of Aestheticism, including Algernon Charles Swinburne, Oscar Wilde and Arthur Symons and the Rhymer's Club group that included Ernest Dowson, Lionel Johnson and W. B. Yeats. The Yellow Book, with a cover illustrated by Aubrey Beardsley. ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth-century Britain. ... Algernon Swinburne, detail of his portrait by Rossetti Algernon Charles Swinburne (April 5, 1837 – April 10, 1909) was a Victorian era English poet. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Arthur Symons (February 28, 1865 - January 22, 1945), was a British poet and critic. ... The Rhymers Club was a group of London-based poets, founded in 1890 by W. B. Yeats and Ernest Rhys. ... Ernest Christopher Dowson (2 August 1867-23 February 1900), an English poet who was associated with the Decadent Movement, was born at Lee, south-east of London. ... Lionel Pigot Johnson (15 March 1867 - 4 October 1902) was an English poet, essayist and critic. ... William Butler Yeats, 1933 photograph, author unknown. ...


The 20th century

The first three decades

The Victorian era continued into the early years of the 20th century and two figures emerged as the leading representative of the poetry of the old era to act as a bridge into the new. These were Yeats and Thomas Hardy. Yeats, although not a modernist, was to learn a lot from the new poetic movements that sprang up around him and adapted his writing to the new circumstances. Hardy was, in terms of technique at least, a more traditional figure and was to be a reference point for various anti-modernist reactions, especially from the 1950s onwards. William Butler Yeats, 1933 photograph, author unknown. ... Thomas Hardy Thomas Hardy, OM (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) — an English novelist, short story writer, and poet of the naturalist movement — delineated characters struggling against their passions and circumstances. ...


The Georgian poets and World War I

The Georgian poets were the first major grouping of the post-Victorian era. Their work appeared in a series of five anthologies called Georgian Poetry which were published by Harold Monro and edited by Edward Marsh. The poets featured included Edmund Blunden, Rupert Brooke, Robert Graves, D. H. Lawrence, Walter de la Mare and Siegfried Sassoon. Their poetry represented something of a reaction to the decadence of the 1890s and tended towards the sentimental. The Georgian poets were, by the strictest definition, those whose works appeared in a series of five anthologies named Georgian Poetry, published by Harold Monro and edited by Edward Marsh. ... ... Edward Marsh (1872-1953) was an English polymath, the sponsor of the Georgian school of poets and a friend to many individuals, including Rupert Brooke and Siegfried Sassoon. ... Edmund Charles Blunden (November 1, 1896 - January 20, 1974), although not one of the top trio of English World War I writers, was an important and influential poet, author and critic. ... A statue of Rupert Brooke in Rugby Rupert Chawner Brooke (August 3, 1887 – April 23, 1915) was an English poet known for his idealistic War Sonnets written during the First World War (especially The Soldier), as well as for his poetry written outside of war, especially The Old Vicarage, Grantchester... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was a very important and controversial English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism and personal letters. ... It has been suggested that The Listeners be merged into this article or section. ... Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE MC (8 September 1886 – 1 September 1967) was an English poet and author. ...


Brooke and Sassoon were to go on to win reputations as war poets and Lawrence quickly distanced himself from the group and was associated with the modernist movement. Other notable poets who wrote about the war include Isaac Rosenberg, Edward Thomas, Wilfred Owen, May Cannan and, from the home front, Hardy and Rudyard Kipling. Although many of these poets wrote socially-aware criticism of the war, most remained technically conservative and traditionalist. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Isaac Rosenberg (November 25, 1890 - April 1, 1918) was a Jewish-English poet of the First World War who was one of the greatest of all British war poets. ... Do you mean: Edward Thomas, the English poet, killed at Arras in 1917 Corporal Edward Thomas, who fired the first British shots in World War I This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen, MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was an English poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Mary Wedderburn Cannan (1893–1973) was a poet. ... This article is about the British author. ...


Modernism

The early decades of the 20th century saw the United States begin to overtake the United Kingdom as the major economic power. In the world of poetry, this period also saw American writers at the forefront of avant-garde practices. Among the foremost of these poets were T.S. Eliot, H.D. and Ezra Pound, each of whom spent an important part of their writing lives in England. Thomas Stearns Eliot (September 26, 1888 - January 4, 1965), was a major Modernist Anglo-American poet, dramatist, and literary critic. ... H.D. in the mid 1910s Hilda Doolitle(September 10, 1886, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States – September 27, 1961, Zürich, Switzerland), prominently known only by her initials H.D., was an American poet, novelist and memoirist. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ...


Pound's involvement with the Imagists marked the beginning of a revolution in the way poetry was written. English poets involved with this group included D. H. Lawrence, Richard Aldington, T. E. Hulme, F. S. Flint, E. E. Cummings, Ford Madox Ford, Allen Upward and John Cournos. Eliot, particularly after the publication of The Waste Land, became a major figure and influence on other English poets. Ezra Pound, one of the prime movers of Imagism. ... Richard Aldington (July 8, 1892 – July 27, 1962) was an English writer and poet. ... Thomas Ernest Hulme (September 16, 1883 - 28 September 1917) was an English writer, who during his informal tenure from 1909 as critic for The New Age, edited by A. R. Orage, exerted a notable influence on London modernism. ... Frank Stuart Flint (December 19, 1885 - February 28, 1960) was an English poet and translator who was a prominent member of the Imagist group. ... E. E. Cummings Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), abbreviated E. E. Cummings, was an American poet, painter, essayist, and playwright. ... Ford Madox Ford (December 17, 1873 - June 26, 1939) was an English novelist and publisher. ... Allen Upward (1863 - 1920) was a poet, lawyer, politician and teacher. ... John Cournos (1881 - 1966) was an American writer from a Russian-Jewish background; his family emigrated when he was aged 10. ...


In addition to these poets, other English modernists began to emerge. These included the London-Welsh poet and painter David Jones, whose first book, In Parenthesis, was one of the very few experimental poems to come out of World War I, the Scot Hugh MacDiarmid, Mina Loy and Basil Bunting. David Jones CH (November 1, 1895-1974) was both an artist and one of the most important first generation British modernist poets. ... Hugh MacDiarmid was the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (August 11, 1892, Langholm - September 9, 1978), perhaps the most important Scottish poet of the 20th century. ... Image:Loy-Haweis1904. ... Basil Cheesman Bunting (March 3, 1900 – 1985) was a British modernist poet. ...


The Thirties

The poets who began to emerge in the 1930s had two things in common; they had all been born too late to have any real experience of the pre-World War I world and they grew up in a period of social, economic and political turmoil. Perhaps as a consequence of these facts, themes of community, social (in)justice and war seem to dominate the poetry of the decade. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The poetic landscape of the decade was dominated by four poets; W. H. Auden, Stephen Spender, Cecil Day-Lewis and Louis MacNeice, although the last of these belongs at least as much to the history of Irish poetry. These poets were all, in their early days at least, politically active on the Left. Although they admired Eliot, they also represented a move away from the technical innovations of their modernist predecessors. A number of other, less enduring, poets also worked in the same vein. One of these was Michael Roberts, whose New Country anthology both introduced the group to a wider audience and gave them their name. Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) (IPA: ; first syllable of Auden rhymes with law), who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ... Sir Stephen Harold Spender CBE, (February 28, 1909, London – July 16, 1995) was an English poet, novelist and essayist who concentrated on themes of social injustice and the class struggle in his work. ... Cecil Day-Lewis (or Day Lewis) CBE (27 April 1904 – 22 May 1972) was a British poet, the British Poet Laureate from 1967 to 1972, and, under the pseudonym of Nicholas Blake, a mystery writer. ... Frederick Louis MacNeice (September 12, 1907 – September 3, 1963) was a British and Irish poet and playwright. ... Look up left in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Michael Roberts may refer to: Michael Roberts (1902-1948), a British poet, writer, critic and broadcaster Michael Roberts, (1908-1997) a British historian specializing in the early modern period and particularly known for his studies of Swedish history. ...


The 1930s also saw the emergence of a home-grown English surrealist poetry whose main exponents were David Gascoyne, Hugh Sykes Davies, George Barker, and Philip O'Connor. These poets turned to French models rather than either the New Country poets or English-language modernism, and their work was to prove of importance to later English experimental poets as it broadened the scope of the English avant-garde tradition. Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... The cover of Gascoynes 1935 book A Short Survey of Surrealism David Gascoyne (October 10, 1916 - November 25, 2001) was a British poet associated with the Surrealist movement. ... Hugh Sykes Davies (1909-1984) was an English poet, novelist and communist who was one of a small group of 1930s British surrealists. ... See George Barker for other notable people with the same name. ... Philip OConnor (1916-1998) was a British writer and surrealist poet, who also painted. ...


John Betjeman and Stevie Smith, who were two of the most significant poets of this period, stood outside all schools and groups. Betjeman was a quietly ironic poet of Middle England with a fine command of a wide range of verse techniques. Smith was an entirely unclassifiable one-off voice. A collection of Betjemans poetry, published by John Murray in January 2006 Sir John Betjeman CBE (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was an English poet, writer and broadcaster who described himself in Whos Who as a poet and hack. He was born to a middle-class family... Stevie Smith was a British poet and radio personality (September 20, 1902 - March 7, 1971). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Forties

The 1940s opened with the United Kingdom at war and a new generation of war poets emerged in response. These included Keith Douglas, Alun Lewis, Henry Reed and F. T. Prince. As with the poets of the First World War, the work of these writers can be seen as something of an interlude in the history of 20th century poetry. Technically, many of these war poets owed something to the 1930s poets, but their work grew out of the particular circumstances in which they found themselves living and fighting. Keith Douglas (January 24, 1920 - June 9, 1944), was an English poet of World War II. He was born in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, and educated at Christs Hospital and at the University of Oxford. ... Alun Lewis (July 1, 1915 - March 5, 1944), was a poet of the Anglo-Welsh school. ... Henry Reed (February 22, 1914 - December 8, 1986) was a British poet, translator, radio dramatist and journalist. ... Frank Templeton Prince (September 13, 1912 – August 7, 2003) was a British poet and academic, known generally for the 1942 poem Soldiers Bathing which has been frequently included in anthologies. ...


The main movement in post-war 1940s poetry was the New Romantic group that included Dylan Thomas, George Barker, W. S. Graham, Kathleen Raine, Henry Treece and J. F. Hendry. These writers saw themselves as in revolt against the classicism of the New Country poets. They turned to such models as Gerard Manley Hopkins, Arthur Rimbaud and Hart Crane and the word play of James Joyce. Thomas, in particular, helped Anglo-Welsh poetry to emerge as a recognisable force. Dylan Thomas Dylan Marlais Thomas (October 27, 1914 – November 9, 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer. ... See George Barker for other notable people with the same name. ... William Sydney Graham (November 19, 1918 - January 9, 1986) was a Scottish poet who is often associated with Dylan Thomas and the neo-romantic group of poets. ... Kathleen Jessie Raine (June 14, 1908 – July 6, 2003) was a British poet, critic and independent scholar writing in particular on William Blake and W. B. Yeats. ... Henry Treece (December 1911 – June 10, 1966) was a British poet and writer, who worked also as a teacher, actor, and editor. ... James Findlay Hendry (12 September 1912 – 17 December 1986) was a Scottish poet known also as an editor and writer. ... The Best ideal is the true/ And other truth is none. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 in Garrettsville, Ohio, United States – April 27, 1932 at sea) was a U.S. poet. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... Anglo-Welsh poetry is a subset of Anglo-Welsh literature. ...


Other significant poets to emerge in the 1940s include Lawrence Durrell, Bernard Spencer, Roy Fuller, Norman Nicholson, Vernon Watkins, R. S. Thomas and Norman McCaig. These last four poets represent a trend towards regionalism and poets writing about their native areas; Watkins and Thomas in Wales, Nicholson in Cumberland and MacCaig in Scotland. Lawrence George Durrell (February 27, 1912 – November 7, 1990) was a British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer, though he resisted affiliation with Britain and preferred to be considered cosmopolitan. ... Charles Bernard Spencer (1909 – 1963) was an English poet. ... Roy Broadbent Fuller (11 February 1912 – 27 September 1991) was an English writer, known mostly as a poet. ... Norman Cornthwaite Nicholson, (January 8, 1914 – May 30, 1987), was an English poet, known for his association with the Cumberland town of Millom. ... Vernon Watkins (1906 – 1967) was a Welsh poet, and a painter. ... Ronald Stuart Thomas (29 March 1913 – 25 September 2000) was a Welsh poet and Anglican Clergyman, noted for his nationalism and spirituality. ... The cover of MacCaigs Selected Poems Norman MacCaig (14 November 1910 – 23 January 1996) was a Scottish poet. ... This article is about the country. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II...


The Fifties

The 1950s were dominated by three groups of poets, The Movement, The Group and a number of poets that gathered around the label Extremist Art. The Movement was a term coined by J. D. Scott, literary editor of the Spectator, in 1954 to describe a group of writers including Kingsley Amis, Philip Larkin, Donald Alfred Davie, D.J. Enright, John Wain, Elizabeth Jennings and Robert Conquest. ... The Group can mean The Group (society), formed in Cleveland, Ohio in the 1990s The Group (book) by Mary McCarthy The Group (film) by Sidney Lumet, based on the book [1] The Group (literature), a group of British poets of the late 1950s and early 1960s The Group (theater), a...


The Movement poets as a group came to public notice in Robert Conquest's 1955 anthology New Lines. The core of the group consisted of Philip Larkin, Elizabeth Jennings, D. J. Enright, Kingsley Amis, Thom Gunn and Donald Davie. They were identified with a hostility to modernism and internationalism, and looked to Hardy as a model. However, both Davie and Gunn later moved away from this position. Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... // The Group, a British poetry movement, starts meeting in London with gatherings taking place once a week, on Friday evenings, at first at Hobsbaums flat and later at the house of Edward Lucie-Smith. ... Philip Arthur Larkin, CH, CBE, FRSL, (9 August 1922 – 2 December 1985) was an English poet, novelist and jazz critic. ... Elizabeth Jennings (July 18, 1926 – October 26, 2001) was an English poet, noted for her clarity of style and simplicity of literary approach. ... Dennis Joseph Enright (March 11, 1920 – December 31, 2002) was a British academic, poet, novelist and critic, and general man of letters. ... Sir Kingsley William Amis (April 16, 1922 – October 22, 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher. ... Thom Gunn (August 29, 1929 - April 25, 2004) was a British poet. ... Donald Alfred Davie (1922-1995) was an English poet and critic. ...


As befits their name, the Group were much more formally a group of poets, meeting for weekly discussions under the chairmanship of Philip Hobsbaum and Edward Lucie-Smith. Other Group poets included Martin Bell, Peter Porter, Peter Redgrove, George MacBeth and David Wevill. Hobsbaum spent some time teaching in Belfast, where he was a formative influence on the emerging Northern Ireland poets including Seamus Heaney. Philip Hobsbaum (born 29 June 1932) is an academic, poet and critic. ... Philip Hobsbaum (born 29 June 1932) is an academic, poet and critic. ... Edward Lucie-Smith, 2006 John Edward McKenzie Lucie-Smith (born 27 February 1933) is a British writer, poet, art critic, curator and author of exhibition catalogues. ... For the British skier of the same name, please see Martin Bell (skier). ... Peter Neville Frederick Porter (born 1929 is an Australian born British poet. ... Peter William Redgrove (1932- 2003) was a prolific British poet, who also wrote works with his second wife Penelope Shuttle on menstruation and womens health, novels and plays. ... George Mann MacBeth (January 19, 1932-February 16, 1992) was a Scottish poet and novelist. ... David Wevill (born 1937) is a British poet. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Northern Ireland County: District: Belfast UK Parliament: Belfast North Belfast South Belfast East Belfast West European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 posttown = Belfast Postal District(s): BT1-BT17, BT29 (part of), BT58 Area: 115 km² Population (2001) Website: www. ... Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: //) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer from County derry, Northern Ireland. ...


The term Extremist Art was first used by the poet A. Alvarez to describe the work of the American poet Sylvia Plath. Other poets associated with this group included Plath's one-time husband Ted Hughes, Francis Berry and Jon Silkin. These poets are sometimes compared with the Expressionist German school.hi its rijo the new ris poet of india Al Alvarez (1929-) is an English poet, writer and critic. ... Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer. ... 1 Aspinall Street, Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire, where Ted Hughes was born. ... Francis Berry (born March 23, 1915) is a British academic, poet, critic and translator. ... Jon Silkin (1930 - 1997) was a British poet. ... The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893) which inspired 20th century Expressionists Portrait of Eduard Kosmack by Egon Schiele Rehe im Walde by Franz Marc Elbe Bridge I by Rolf Nesch On White II by Wassily Kandinsky, 1923. ...


A number of young poets working in what might be termed a modernist vein also started publishing during this decade. These included Charles Tomlinson, Gael Turnbull, Roy Fisher and Bob Cobbing. These poets can now be seen as forerunners of some of the major developments during the following two decades. Alfred Charles Tomlinson, CBE (born January 8, 1927) is a major British poet and translator, and also an academic and artist. ... Gael Turnbull (1928 - July 2, 2004) was a Scottish poet who was an important precursor of the British Poetry Revival. ... Roy Fisher (born 1930) is a British poet and jazz pianist. ... Bob Cobbing (July 30, 1920 - September 29, 2002) was a British sound, visual, concrete and performance poet who was a central figure in the British Poetry Revival. ...


The 1960s and 1970s

In the early part of the 1960s, the centre of gravity of mainstream poetry moved to Ireland, with the emergence of Seamus Heaney, Tom Paulin, Paul Muldoon and others. In England, the most cohesive groupings can, in retrospect, be seen to cluster around what might loosely be called the modernist tradition and draw on American as well as indigenous models. Seamus Justin Heaney (IPA: //) (born 13 April 1939) is an Irish poet, writer and lecturer from County derry, Northern Ireland. ... Thomas Neilson Paulin (born January 25, 1949 in Leeds, England) is a Northern Irish poet and critic well-known for his strong political views. ... Paul Muldoon (b. ...


The British Poetry Revival was a wide-reaching collection of groupings and subgroupings that embraces performance, sound and concrete poetry as well as the legacy of Pound, Jones, MacDiarmid, Loy and Bunting, the Objectivist poets, the Beats and the Black Mountain poets, among others. Leading poets associated with this movement include J. H. Prynne, Eric Mottram, Tom Raworth, Denise Riley and Lee Harwood. The British Poetry Revival is the general name given to a loose poetic movement in Britain that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Performance poetry is poetry that is specifically composed for or during performance before an audience. ... Sound poetry is a form of literary or musical composition in which the phonetic aspects of human speech are foregrounded at the expense of more conventional semantic and syntactic values; verse without words. By definition, sound poetry is intended primarily for performance. ... Concrete poetry, pattern poetry or shape poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme and so on. ... William Carlos Williams, who was the only poet to be published as both an Objectivist and an Imagist The Objectivist poets were a loose-knit group of second-generation Modernists who emerged in the 1930s. ... The term beat generation was introduced by Jack Kerouac in approximately 1948 to describe his social circle to the novelist John Clellon Holmes (who published an early novel about the beat generation, titled Go, in 1952, along with a manifesto of sorts in the New York Times Magazine: This is... The Black Mountain poets, sometimes called the Projectivist poets, were a group of mid 20th century American avant-garde or postmodern poets centered around Black Mountain College. ... J. H. Prynne (born 1936) is a British poet closely associated with the British Poetry Revival. ... Eric Mottram (1924 - January 16, 1995) was a teacher, critic, editor and poet who was one of the central figures in the British Poetry Revival. ... Tom Raworth (Thomas Moore Raworth) (born 1938) is a London-born poet and visual artist who has published over 40 books of poetry and prose since 1966. ... Denise Riley (born 1948 in Carlisle, England) is a professor of literature, a feminist theorist, and a poet. ... Lee Harwood (born 1939) is a poet associated with the British Poetry Revival. ...


The Mersey Beat poets were Adrian Henri, Brian Patten and Roger McGough. Their work was a self-conscious attempt at creating an English equivalent to the Beats. Many of their poems were written in protest against the established social order and, particularly, the threat of nuclear war. Although not actually a Mersey Beat poet, Adrian Mitchell is often associated with the group in critical discussion. Contemporary poet Steve Turner has also been compared with them. The Liverpool Poets were a group of influential 1960s poets from Liverpool, heavily influenced by the 1950s Beat poetry. ... Adrian Henri (April 10, 1932 – December 21, 2000) was a British poet and painter. ... Brian Patten (photo by Hugo Glendinning) Brian Patten (born 7 February 1946, Liverpool) is a British poet, born in a working-class neighbourhood near the docks. ... Front cover of the 1983 revised edition of The Mersey Sound Roger McGough CBE (born November 9, 1937) is a well-known British performance poet. ... Adrian Mitchell (born 1932) is a British poet and dramatist. ... Steve Turner is an English music journalist, biographer and poet. ...


English poetry now

The last three decades of the 20th century saw a number of short-lived poetic groupings such as the Martians. There was a growth in interest in women's writing and in poetry from England's ethnic groupings, especially the West Indian community. Poets who emerged include Carol Ann Duffy, Andrew Motion, Craig Raine, Wendy Cope, James Fenton, Blake Morrison, Liz Lochhead, Linton Kwesi Johnson and Benjamin Zephaniah. There was also a growth in performance poetry fuelled by the Poetry Slam movement. A new generation of innovative poets has also sprung up in the wake of the Revival grouping. Further activity focussed around poets in Bloodaxe Books The New Poetry including Simon Armitage, Kathleen Jamie, Glyn Maxwell, Selima Hill, Maggie Hannan, and Michael Hofmann. The New Generation movement flowered in the 1990s and early twenty first century producing poets such as Don Paterson, Julia Copus, John Stammers, Jacob Polley, David Morley and Alice Oswald. Martian poetry. ... Carol Ann Duffy Carol Ann Duffy (born December 23, 1955) is a British poet, playwright and freelance writer born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Andrew Motion, FRSL, (born October 26, 1952) is an English poet, novelist and biographer who is the current Poet Laureate. ... Craig Raine (3 December 1944 - ) is an English poet and critic born in Bishop Auckland, County Durham. ... Wendy Cope (born July 21, 1945) is a contemporary English poet. ... James Fenton (born April 25, 1949, Lincoln, England) has been, at various times, a journalist, poet, literary critic, and professor. ... Blake Morrison is a versatile British author who has published in a wide range of fiction and non-fiction genres. ... Liz Lochhead (born December 26, 1947) is a Scottish poet and dramatist, originally from Motherwell. ... Linton Kwesi Johnson (aka LKJ) (born 24 August 1952, in Chapelton, Jamaica) is a British-based Dub poet. ... Benjamin Obadiah Iqbal Zephaniah (born 15 April 1958, Coles Hill, Birmingham, England) is a British Rastafarian writer and dub poet, and is well known in contemporary English literature. ... Slam poetry is a form of performance poetry that occurs within a competitive poetry event, called a slam, at which poets perform their own poems (or, in rare cases, those of others) that are judged on a numeric scale by randomly picked members of the audience. ... The New Poetry was a poetry anthology edited by Al Alvarez, published in 1962 and in a revised edition in 1966. ... Simon Armitage Simon Armitage (born May 26, 1963 in Huddersfield) is a British poet, playwright and novelist. ... Kathleen Jamie is a Scottish poet, born May 13th, 1962 and raised in Currie, Edinburgh. ... Glyn Maxwell (born in 1962) is a British poet. ... Michael Hofmann (born 1957, Freiburg, West Germany) is a German poet and award-winning translator. ... New Generation is the third and final single off the album Dog Man Star by Suede, released on January 30, 1995 on Nude Records. ... Don Paterson (born 1963) is a Scottish poet and musician who was awarded the TS Eliot Prize for poetry for the second time in six years in 2004, and having already won the poetry category narrowly missed the same years Whitbread Prize. ... Julia Copus (born 16 July 1969 in London) is a British poet and radio dramatist. ... Jacob Polley (born 1975) is a British poet, born in Carlisle, Cumbria. ... David Morley (1967–2004) was a fatal victim of happy slapping killed near Waterloo station in London on the morning of October 31, 2004. ... Alice Oswald is a well-prized English poet. ...


Despite all of this activity, major publishers dropped their poetry lists and both young and established writers became increasingly reliant on small and medium sized presses, generally dependent on State funding. As of 2004, it appears that a still thriving literature is faced with an ever-decreasing audience.


Notes

  1. ^ Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.
  2. ^ See, for example, Beowulf: a Dual-Language Edition, Doubleday, New York, NY, 1977; Newton, S., 1993. The Origins of Beowulf and the Pre-Viking Kingdom of East Anglia. Cambridge.
  3. ^ Brendan Cassidy (ed.), The Ruthwell Cross, Princeton University Press (1992).

Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ... Folio 3v from Codex Beda Petersburgiensis (746) The Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (in English: Ecclesiastical History of the English People) is a work in Latin by the Venerable Bede on the history of the Church in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between Roman...

References

Print

  • Hamilton, Ian. The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Poetry in English

Online

See also

The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... This is a list of articles about poetry in a single language or produced by a single nation. ... Poets who wrote or write much of their poetry in the English language. ... Indian English Literature (IEL) refers to the body of work by writers in India who write in the English language and whose mother tongue is usually one of the numerous languages of India. ... Poets corner Poets Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of poets, playwrights and writers now buried and commemorated there. ... The New Oxford Book of English Verse 1250 – 1950 is a poetry anthology edited by Helen Gardner, and published in New York and London in 1972 by the Oxford University Press with ISBN 0198121369, as a replacement for the Quiller-Couch Oxford Book of English Verse. ...

External links

  • English Poetry Collection Forums
  • English Poets Portal - Poems and Quotes of English Famous Persons.
  • English Poets - Poems and biographies of English poets.
  • Poetry Resource a website for students of poetry
  • Poets perform their own work

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