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Encyclopedia > English people
English

Total population

ca. 90 million (estimate) For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The word English can mean: The people of England as an ethnic group. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ... Damon Albarn, (IPA: []) (born March 23, 1968 in Leytonstone, London), is an English singer-songwriter who gained fame as the lead singer of rock band Blur. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Nell Gwynn was one of the first English actresses and the mistress of King Charles II. Nell Gwyn (or Gwynn or Gwynne), born Eleanor, (2 February 1650 - 14 November 1687), was one of the earliest English actresses to receive prominent recognition, and a long-time mistress of King Charles II... 1873 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait drawn by her sister Cassandra. ... Kate Elizabeth Winslet (born October 5, 1975) is a five time Academy Award-nominated Emmy Award-nominated BAFTA, Grammy and Screen Actors Guild Award winning English actress. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
45.26 million (estimate) [60]
Flag of the United States United States 28,410,295 [61]
Flag of Australia Australia 6,358,880 [62]
Flag of Canada Canada 5,978,875 [63]
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 44,202 - 281,895 [64]
Flag of Argentina Argentina ~100,000 [65]
Language(s)
English (especially English English)
Religion(s)
Christianity (Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism and other minority denominations), and other faiths. Increasingly secularised since the late 20th century; with about a fifth claiming no religion.[66]

The English (from Old English Ænglisc) are a nation and ethnic group native to England and who speak English. The largest single population of English people reside in England — the largest constituent country of the United Kingdom.[1] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with estimation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... Constituent countries is a phrase used, often by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping, concerning these countries; thus the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has used the phrase in reference to the parts of former Yugoslavia...

Contents

Definitions

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) states that the earliest recorded sense of the word 'English' is "Of or belonging to the group of Teutonic peoples collectively known as the Angelcynn [...] comprising the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, who settled in Britain during the 5th c.". However, the OED continues that The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

With the incorporation of the Celtic and Scandinavian elements of the population into the ‘English’ people, the adj. came in the 11th c. to be applied to all natives of ‘England’, whatever their ancestry. But for a generation or two after the Norman Conquest, the descendants of the invaders, though born in England, continued to be regarded as ‘French’, so that the word English, as applied to persons, was for a time restricted to those whose ancestors were settled in England before the Conquest."[2] Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... Scandinavian can mean: a resident of, or anything relating to Scandinavia any North Germanic language a chess opening, Scandinavian Defense the aviation corpotation Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ...

Today, the word can be used to refer to an 'English nation' comprising anyone who considers themselves English and are considered English by most other people (see civic nationalism). However, this definition is not shared by all writers, some of whom perceive the English more exclusively as an "Anglo-Saxon" or at least a "white" ethnic group that shares a common ancestry. Civic nationalism, or civil nationalism, is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the will of the people. It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau and especially the social... For the ethnic group, see White people. ...


The English as an ethnic group

It is unclear how many people in the UK consider themselves ethnically English. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for 'Irish' and for 'Scottish', there were none for 'English' or 'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading 'White British'.[3] Following complaints about this, the 2011 census will "allow respondents to record their English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity"[4]; "English" will be listed as a subcategory of "White".[5] Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ... A tick (known as a checkmark or check in American English) is a mark () ( ) used to indicate the concept yes, for example yes, this has been verified or yes, I agree. Its opposite is the cross () ( ), although the cross can also be positive, for example in elections. ... This article is about the Scottish as an ethnic group. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ...


Some people see important ethnic differences between those with long-standing English ancestry and those whose ancestors arrived in England more recently: for example in Sarah Kane's play Blasted the character Ian boasts "I'm not an import", contrasting himself with the children of immigrants: "they have their kids, call them English, they're not English, born in England don't make you English".[6] Sarah Kane (February 3, 1971 – February 20, 1999) was an English playwright. ... Blasted is a 1995 play by British author Sarah Kane and one of the prime examples of in-yer-face theatre. ...


A complication is England's dominant position within the United Kingdom, which has resulted in the terms 'English' and 'British' often being used interchangeably.[7] Relatedly, studies of people with English ancestry have shown that they tend not to regard themselves as an ethnic group, even when they live in other countries. Patricia Greenhill studied people in Canada with English heritage, and found that they did not think of themselves as "ethnic", but rather as "normal" or "mainstream", an attitude Greenhill attributes to the cultural dominance of the English in Canada.[8] Writer Paul Johnson has suggested that like most dominant groups, the English have only demonstrated interest in their self-definition when they were feeling oppressed.[9] Paul Johnson (born Paul Bede Johnson on 2 November 1928 in Manchester, England) is a British Roman Catholic journalist, historian, speechwriter and author. ...


Despite these complexities, the notion of English ethnic distinctiveness has been highlighted in sensationalized and generally inaccurate reporting of scientific and sociological studies. In 2002, the BBC used the headline "English and Welsh are races apart" to report a genetic survey of test subjects from market towns in England and Wales,[10] while in September 2006, The Sunday Times reported that a survey of first names and surnames in the UK had identified Ripley as "the 'most English' place in England with 88.58% of residents having an English ethnic background".[11] In both cases, the conclusions of these studies have been exaggerated and the language of race and ethnicity used only by the journalists.[12] Also see: 2002 (number). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The market town is a medieval phenomenon. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... Map sources for Ripley, Derbyshire at grid reference SK398505 Ripley is a small town in the Amber Valley area of Derbyshire in England. ...


The English as a nation

The term "the English people" can also be used more inclusively to discuss the English as a "nation" rather than an ethnic group, using the OED's definition of "nation" as a group united by factors that include "language, culture, history, or occupation of the same territory", rather than ancestral ties alone.[13]


The concept of an 'English nation' (as opposed to a British one) has become increasingly popular after the devolution process in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland resulted in those three nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself still lacks self-government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness .[14] While there can be an ethnic component to expressions of English national identity, most political English nationalists do not consider Englishness to be genetic. For example, the English Democrats Party states that "We do not claim Englishness to be purely ethnic or purely cultural, but it is a complex mix of the two. We firmly believe Englishness is a state of mind",[15] while the Campaign for an English Parliament says, "The people of England includes everyone who considers this ancient land to be their home and future regardless of ethnicity, race, religion or culture".[16]. Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Englands (in red) location within the United Kingdom English nationalism is the name given to a nationalist political movement in England that demands self-government for England, via a devolved English Parliament. ... The English Democrats Party is the largest English Nationalist political party in England committed to the formation of a devolved English Parliament with at least the same powers as those granted to the Scottish Parliament. ... See also List of Parliaments of England External link Campaign for an English Parliament English Constitutional Convention Categories: English politics | England | Politics of England | Politics of the UK | United Kingdom | European politics | English independence ...


In an article for The Guardian, novelist Andrea Levy (born in London to Jamaican parents) calls England a separate country "without any doubt" and asserts that she is "English. Born and bred, as the saying goes. (As far as I can remember, it is born and bred and not born-and-bred-with-a-very-long-line-of-white-ancestors-directly-descended-from-Anglo-Saxons.)" Arguing that "England has never been an exclusive club, but rather a hybrid nation", she writes that "Englishness must never be allowed to attach itself to ethnicity. The majority of English people are white, but some are not ... Let England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland be nations that are plural and inclusive."[17] For other uses, see Guardian. ... Andrea Levy is a British author, born in 1956. ...


However, this use of the word "English" is complicated by the fact that most non-white people in England have a greater allegiance to Britain as a whole than to England. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office of National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity. They found that while 58% of white people described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". For example, "78 per cent of Bangladeshis said they were British, while only 5 per cent said they were English, Scottish or Welsh", and the largest percentage of non-whites to identify as English were the people who described their ethnicity as "Mixed" (37%).[18] The Office for National Statistics is the UK government agency charged with the collection and publication of government statistics. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ...


History

English people
Culture
Music
Language
Cuisine
Dance
Religion
People
Distribution
(United States • Canada • Africa • Australia)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Culture of England is sometimes difficult to separate clearly from the culture of the United Kingdom, so influential has English culture been on the cultures of the British Isles and, on the other hand, given the extent to which other cultures have influenced life in England. ... England has a long and rich musical history. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... English cuisine is shaped by the countrys temperate climate, its island geography and its history. ... St Pauls Cathedral The United Kingdom is traditionally a Christian state, though of the four constituent countries, only England still has a state faith in the form of an established church. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... English Canadian is a term that usually refers to the English-speaking majority population of Canada, most often contrasted with French Canadian. ... Anglo-Africans are primarily associated with Southern Africa and British ancestry. ... English Australians are Australians of English descent, the largest ethnic group in Australia after Australian (which contains an unknown number of English Australians). ...

Overview

Further information: Settlement of Great Britain and Ireland

The term 'English people' is not normally used to refer to the earliest inhabitants of England: Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers, Celtic Britons, and Roman colonists. Instead it refers to a heritage that begins with the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century who settled lands already inhabited by Romano-British tribes. That heritage then comes to include later arrivals, including Scandinavians, Normans, and other groups, as well as those Romano-Britons who still lived in England.[19] Research into the prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland is controversial, with differences of opinion from many academic disciplines. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), is widely used to refer to the members of any of the peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Scandinavian can mean: a resident of, or anything relating to Scandinavia any North Germanic language a chess opening, Scandinavian Defense the aviation corpotation Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Norman conquests in red. ...


The Anglo-Saxons and previous inhabitants

Further information: Anglo-Saxons, Roman Britain, Sub-Roman Britain, Ancient Britons, Romano-Britons

The first people to be called 'English' were the Anglo-Saxons, who are believed to originate from Germanic tribes that migrated to England from southern Denmark and northern Germany in the 5th century AD after the Romans retreated from Britain. It has been suggested that the settlement of Germanic immigrants and Germanic auxiliary troops in the Roman army may have begun long before the departure of the Roman legions in AD 410; indeed Germanic auxiliary troops may even have been involved in the Roman invasion of the island in the 1st century A.D.;[20] the same process occurred in many other provinces along the Roman border with the Germani, and Germanic tribes accepted as foederati. Either way, the Anglo-Saxons gave their name to England (Angle-land) and to the English people. For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Italic text Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ...


However, the Anglo-Saxons arrived in a land that was already populated by people commonly referred to as the 'Romano-British', the descendants of the native Brythonic-speaking Celtic population that lived in the area of Britain under Roman rule during the 1st-5th centuries AD. Furthermore, the multi-ethnic nature of the Roman Empire meant that other peoples were also present in England before the Anglo-Saxons arrived: for example, archaeological discoveries suggest that North Africans may have had a limited presence (popular historians sometimes refer to these people as "black",[21][22] although this description is debatable since not all North Africans are black).[citation needed] Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... This article is about the European people. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


The exact nature of the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons and their relationship with the Romano-British is a matter of debate. Traditionally, it was believed that a mass invasion by various Anglo-Saxon tribes largely displaced the indigenous British population in southern and eastern Great Britain (modern day England), except in Cornwall. However, archaeologists and historians have found minimal evidence for this: archaeologist Francis Pryor has stated that he "can't see any evidence for bona fide mass migrations after the Neolithic."[23] Historian Malcolm Todd writes For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Francis Pryor (right) discusses the excavation during the filming of a 2007 dig for Time Team with series editor Michael Douglas (left). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...

"It is much more likely that a large proportion of the British population remained in place and was progressively dominated by a Germanic aristocracy, in some cases marrying into it and leaving Celtic names in the, admittedly very dubious, early lists of Anglo-Saxon dynasties. But how we identify the surviving Britons in areas of predominantly Anglo-Saxon settlement, either archaeologically or linguistically, is still one of the deepest problems of early English history."[24]

Geneticists have explored the relationship between Anglo-Saxons and Britons by studying the Y-chromosomes of men in present day English towns. In 2002, a study by Weale et al found a considerable genetic difference between test subjects from market towns in England and Wales, and that the English subjects were, on average closer genetically to the Frisians of the Netherlands than they were to their Welsh neighbours. This conclusion seemed to indicate that the Anglo-Saxons purged England of its previous inhabitants.[25] A 2006 study led by Mark Thomas used computer simulations to find a possible reason for the divergence between these finds and the archaeological record. They concluded that the likeliest explanation was that the Anglo-Saxons operated an apartheid-like system, preventing intermarriage between Britons and Anglo-Saxons and asserting political dominance.[26] ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The market town is a medieval phenomenon. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


Other geneticists tell a different story. A follow-up study to Weale et al in 2003 by Christian Capelli et al complicated Weale's conclusions, indicating that different parts of England received different levels of intrusion from outsiders: while central and eastern England experienced a high level of intrusion from continental Europe (the study could not distinguish Germans from Danes and Frisians), southern England did not and the population there appears to be largely descended from the indigenous Britons (the scientists acknowledge that this conclusion is "startling"). The 2003 study also noted that the transition between England and Wales is more gradual than the earlier study suggested. [27] Stephen Oppenheimer has argued that the majority of English people, much like the other populations within the British Isles, have some genetic relationship to the original hunter-gatherers who settled Britain between 15,000 and 7,500 years ago, after the last Ice Age. [28] And Oxford geneticist Bryan Sykes has argued from DNA evidence that English genetic heritage is derived mainly from the Iberian Peninsula; according to him, the Anglo-Saxons played a rather insignificant role in English genetic composition. [29] Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In general, the midlands of a territory are its central regions. ... East of England is one of the official regions of England. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Stephen Oppenheimer is a well-known expert in the field of synthesizing DNA studies with archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and other field studies. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ...


The Danish Vikings and the unification of the English

Further information: Danelaw, Vikings, Treaty of Wedmore, Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum
Southern Great Britain in AD 600 after the Saxon settlement, showing England's division into multiple petty kingdoms.
Southern Great Britain in AD 600 after the Saxon settlement, showing England's division into multiple petty kingdoms.

The English population was not politically unified until the ninth century. Before then, it consisted of a number of petty kingdoms which gradually coalesced into a Heptarchy of seven powerful states, the most powerful of which were Mercia and Wessex. The English nation state began to form when the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms united against Danish Viking invasions, which began around 800 AD. Over the following century and a half England was for the most part a politically unified entity, and remained permanently so after 959.[citation needed] Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Wedmore, signed at Wedmore in Somerset, was the result of the Battle of Edington (OE. Ethandun) in 878 AD, in which Alfred the Great defeated the viking forces of the Dane, Guthrum. ... and then the king did a poo in battle The Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum is an agreement between Alfred of Wessex and Guthrum, the Viking ruler of East Anglia. ... Download high resolution version (944x1104, 59 KB) Drawn by iMeowbot. ... Download high resolution version (944x1104, 59 KB) Drawn by iMeowbot. ... Petty kingdoms were prominent before the formation of many of todays nation states. ... (8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars south... Petty kingdoms were prominent before the formation of many of todays nation states. ... A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600 Britain and Ireland around the year 802 Heptarchy (Greek: seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the south and east of Great Britain during late antiquity and the early... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Events October 1 - Edwy, king of England dies and is succeeded by his brother Edgar. ...


At first, the Vikings were very much considered a separate people from the English. This separation was enshrined when Alfred the Great signed the Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum to establish the Danelaw, a division of England between English and Danish rule, with the Danes occupying northern and eastern England.[30] However, Alfred's successors subsequently won military victories against the Danes, incorporating much of the Danelaw into the nascent kingdom of England. For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... and then the king did a poo in battle The Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum is an agreement between Alfred of Wessex and Guthrum, the Viking ruler of East Anglia. ... Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo...


The nation of England was formed in 937 by Athelstan of Wessex after the Battle of Brunanburh,[31][32] as Wessex grew from a relatively small kingdom in the South West to become the founder of the Kingdom of the English, incorporating all Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and the Danelaw.[33] Danish invasions continued into the 11th century, and there were both English and Danish kings in the period following the unification of England (for example, Ethelred the Unready was English but Canute the Great was Danish). For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Events Athelstan wins the Battle of Brunanburh September 21 - Magdeburg is now the capital of the Holy Roman Empire, after a Diet held by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Births Duke William IV of Aquitaine (d. ... Athelstan (c. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... The Battle of Brunanburh was a West Saxon victory in 937 by the army of king Athelstan and his brother Edmund over the combined armies of Olaf III Guthfrithson, Viking king of Dublin, Constantine, king of Scotland and King Owain of Strathclyde. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Canute II, or Canute the Great, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as Cnut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store, Danish: Knud den Store) (c. ...


Gradually, the Danes in England came to be seen as 'English'. They had a noticeable impact on the English language: many English words, such as dream are of Old Norse origin[34], and place names that include thwaite and by are Scandinavian in origin.[35] A 2003 genetic study of people in selected towns across the UK towns found similarities with Danish genetic profiles in all the English and Scottish sites that they tested.[27] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...


Normans and Angevins

Further information: Normans

The Norman Conquest of 1066 brought Anglo-Saxon and Danish rule of England to an end, as the new Norman elite almost universally replaced the Anglo-Saxon aristocracy and church leaders. After the conquest, the term "English people" normally included all natives of England, whether they were of Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian or Celtic ancestry, to distinguish them from the Norman invaders, who were regarded as "French" even if born in England, for a generation or two after the Conquest.[36] The Norman dynasty ruled England for 87 years until the death of King Stephen in 1154, when the succession passed to Henry II, of the French House of Plantagenet, and England became part of the Angevin Empire until 1399. Norman conquests in red. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Stephen (c. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... The House of Plantagenet (IPA: ), also called the House of Anjou, or Angevin dynasty was originally a noble family from France, which ruled the County of Anjou. ... The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and...


The Norman aristocracy used Anglo-Norman as the language of the court, law and administration. It continued to be used by the Plantagenet kings.[citation needed] However, over time the English language became more important even in the court, and the French were gradually assimilated into the English people, until, by the late 1200s, both rulers and subjects regarded themselves as English and spoke the English language.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Despite the assimilation of the French, the distinction between 'English' and 'French' survived in official documents long after it had fallen out of common use, in particular in the legal phrase Presentment of Englishry (a rule by which a hundred had to prove an unidentified murdered body found on their soil to be that of an Englishman, rather than a Norman, if they wanted to avoid a fine).[37] Englishry, or Englescherie, is a legal name given, in the reign of William the Conqueror, to the presentment of the fact that a person slain was an Englishman. ... A hundred is a geographic division used in England, Denmark, South Australia and some parts of the USA, Germany, Sweden (and todays Finland) and Norway, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller administrative units. ...


The English and Britain

Since the 16th century, England has been one part of a wider political entity covering all or part of the British Isles, which is today called the United Kingdom. Wales was annexed by England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, which incorporated Wales into the English state.[38] A new British identity began and was subsequently developed when James I expressed the desire to be known as the monarch of Britain (he was James I of England and James VI of Scotland).[39] In 1707, England formed a union with Scotland by the passage of the Acts of Union 1707 in both the Scottish and English parliaments, creating the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801 another Act of Union formed a union between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. About two thirds of Irish population, (those who lived in 26 of the 34 counties of Ireland) left the United Kingdom in 1922 to form the Irish Free State, and the remainder became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Englands (in red) location within the United Kingdom English nationalism is the name given to a nationalist political movement in England that demands self-government for England, via a devolved English Parliament. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... This article is about the country. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... This article is about the prior state. ... “UK” redirects here. ...


Throughout the history of the UK, the English have been dominant in terms of population and political weight. As a consequence, the notions of 'Englishness' and 'Britishness' are often very similar. At the same time, after the 1707 Union, the English, along with the other peoples of the British Isles, have been encouraged to think of themselves as British rather than identifying themselves by the smaller constituent nations.[40]


However, the late 1990s saw a resurgence of English national identity, spurred by devolution in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, which has given semi-independence to those countries. As England lacks its own devolved parliament, its laws are created only in the UK parliament, giving rise to the "West Lothian question", a hypothetical situation in which a law affecting only England could be voted for or against by a Scottish MP.[41] Consequently, groups such as the Campaign for an English Parliament are calling for the creation of a devolved English Parliament, claiming that there is now a discriminative democratic deficit against the English. This resurgence of English nationalism sometimes has an ethnic dimension; for example, the England First Party advocates "Reformation of the ethnic infrastructure of the English parliament" to create "an individual parliament with its own indigenous race of MPs."[42] Look up Devolution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... The West Lothian question was a question posed on 14 November 1977 by Tam Dalyell, Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for the Scottish constituency of West Lothian, during a British House of Commons debate over Scottish and Welsh devolution (see Scotland Act 1978 and Wales Act 1978): For how long... See also List of Parliaments of England External link Campaign for an English Parliament English Constitutional Convention Categories: English politics | England | Politics of England | Politics of the UK | United Kingdom | European politics | English independence ... A devolved English Parliament, giving separate decision-making powers to representatives for voters in England similar to the representation given by the Welsh Assembly, Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly, is currently an issue in British politics. ... Englands (in red) location within the United Kingdom English nationalism is the name given to a nationalist political movement in England that demands self-government for England, via a devolved English Parliament. ... The England First Party (EFP) is a minor political party in England. ...


Later immigrants

See also: Immigration to the United Kingdom (until 1922), Immigration to the United Kingdom (1922-present day), Demographics of England.

Although England has not been successfully conquered since the Norman conquest, English ethnic identity remains complex because England has been the destination of several mass emigrations since the seventeenth century. While some members of these groups maintain a separate ethnic identity, others have assimilated or intermarried with the English. Since Oliver Cromwell's resettlement of the Jews in 1656, there have been waves of Jewish immigration from persecution in Russia in the nineteenth century and from Germany in the twentieth.[43] After the French king Louis XIV declared Protestantism illegal in 1685 with the Edict of Fontainebleau, an estimated 50,000 Protestant Huguenots fled to England.[44] Due to sustained and sometimes mass emigration from Ireland, current estimates indicate that around 6 million people in the UK have at least one grandparent born in the Republic of Ireland.[45] Immigration to the United Kingdom concerns the inward movement of people, cultural and ethnic groups into the nation state entity that is today known as the United Kingdom. ... This article deals with immigration to the United Kingdom since its full political creation in 1922. ... This article discusses the Demographics of England as presented by the United Kingdom Census in 2001. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Othello and Desdemona from William Shakespeares Othello, a play often depicted as concerning a biracial couple. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... The Resettlement of the Jews in England was a historic commercial dgfasdfasdfasdfasdfasfsdfd the History of the Jews in England. ... // Events Mehmed Köprülü becomes Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, best known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which had granted to the Huguenots the right to worship their religion without persecution from the state. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ...


There has been a black presence in England since at least the 16th century due to the slave trade and an Indian presence since the mid 19th century because of the British Raj.[46] Black and Asian proportions have grown in England as immigration from the British Empire and the subsequent Commonwealth of Nations was encouraged due to labour shortages during post-war rebuilding.[47] While one result of this immigration has been racial hatred, there has also been considerable intermarriage; the 2001 census recorded that 1.31% of England's population call themselves "Mixed",[48] and The Sunday Times reported in 2007 that mixed race people are likely to be the largest ethnic minority in the UK by 2020.[49] Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures and throughout human history. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... See also: British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British, British Asian,Britsh Mixed Black British is term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political label. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The article describes the state of race relations and racism in a number of countries. ... Othello and Desdemona from William Shakespeares Othello, a play often depicted as concerning a biracial couple. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The terms multiracial, biracial and mixed-race describe people whose ancestors are not of a single race. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... 2020 (MMXX) will be a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Geographic distribution

Further information: English AmericanEnglish-Canadian, Anglo-African, and English Australian

From the earliest times English people have left England to settle in other parts of the British Isles, but it is not possible to identify their numbers, as British censuses have historically not invited respondents to identify themselves as English.[50] However, the census does record place of birth, revealing that 8.08% of Scotland's population[51], 3.66% of the population of Northern Ireland[52] and 20% of the Welsh population were born in England.[53] Similarly, the census of the Republic of Ireland does not collect information on ethnicity, but it does record that there are over 200,000 people living in Ireland who were born in England and Wales.[2] English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... English Canadian is a term that usually refers to the English-speaking majority population of Canada, most often contrasted with French Canadian. ... Anglo-Africans are primarily associated with Southern Africa and British ancestry. ... English Australians are Australians of English descent, the largest ethnic group in Australia after Australian (which contains an unknown number of English Australians). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...

Map showing the population density of United States citizens who claim some English ancestry in the census. Dark red and brown colours indicate a higher density: highest in the northeast as well as Utah and surrounding areas. (see also Maps of American ancestries).

English emigrant and descent communities are found across the world, and in some places, settled in significant numbers. Countries with significant numbers of people of English ancestry or ethnic origin include the United States (particularly Utah, New England, New York, California, Virginia and the Southern States), Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand. Image File history File links English1346. ... Image File history File links English1346. ... By county. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


Culture

Contribution to humanity

Further information: List of English people

In the opinion of English philologist J. R. R. Tolkien, the early medieval Anglo-Saxon mission to the Frankish Empire was "among our chief contributions to Europe, considering all our history". It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Tolkien redirects here. ... Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Germanic Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic Christianity across the Frankish Empire as well as in Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England itself during the 6th century. ...


The English have played a significant role in the development of the arts and sciences. Prominent individuals have included the scientists and inventors Isaac Newton, Francis Crick, Abraham Darby, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, Joseph Swan and Frank Whittle; the poet and playwright William Shakespeare, the novelists Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, Virginia Woolf and George Orwell , the composers Edward Elgar and Benjamin Britten, and the explorer James Cook. English philosophers include Francis Bacon, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell. This article is about Arts as a group of disciplines. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, who is most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... Abraham Darby is the name of three generations of an English Quaker family that was key to the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Joseph Swan Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (October 31, 1828 – May 27, 1914) was an English physicist and chemist, most famous for the development of the light bulb. ... Frank Whittle speaking to employees of the Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory (Now known as the NASA Glenn Research Center), USA, in 1946 Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, FRS, Hon FRAeS (1 June 1907–9 August 1996) was an English Royal Air Force officer and is seen as the... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... 1873 engraving of Jane Austen, based on a portrait drawn by her sister Cassandra. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 Lowestoft, Suffolk - December 4, 1976 Aldeburgh, Suffolk) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... for the painter see Francis Bacon (painter) For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Hobbes redirects here. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...


English law has also formed the basis for common law legal systems throughout the world.[54] English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


The rules for many modern sports including football, rugby (union and league), cricket and tennis were first formulated in England. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Rugby league football (usually shortened to rugby league, football, league) is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... This article is about the sport. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ...


Language

Further information: English language, English English and British English
Countries where English has official or de facto official language status.

English people traditionally speak the English language, a member of the West Germanic language family. The modern English language evolved from Old English, with lexical influence from Norman-French, Latin, and Old Norse. In addition, Welsh is also used by a number of speakers across England, predominantly on the border with Wales although there are also some 50,000 Welsh speakers in the Greater London Area. [55] A third language traditionally spoken is Cornish, a Celtic language originating in Cornwall, currently spoken by about 3,500 people. A fourth language also of the Brythonic Celtic group, Cumbric, used to be spoken in Cumbria in northwest England, but it died out in the 11th century although traces of it can still be found in the Cumbrian dialect. Because of the 19th century geopolitical dominance of the British Empire and the post-World War II hegemony of the United States, English has become the international language of business, science, communications, aviation, and diplomacy. English is the native language of roughly 350 million people worldwide, with another 1.5 billion people who speak it as a second language.[citation needed] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 36 KB) Summary Colored by me from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 36 KB) Summary Colored by me from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... Old English redirects here. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in England in Cumbria, Lancashire, some parts of Northumbria and Yorkshire and in southern Lowland Scotland, i. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Religion

Further information: Religion in the United Kingdom, Medieval Religion in England, Church of England, Anglicanism and English Reformation

Ever since the break with the Roman Catholic Church in the sixteenth century, the English have predominantly been members of the Church of England, a branch of the Anglican Communion, a form of Christianity with elements of Protestantism and Catholicism. The Book of Common Prayer is the foundational prayer book of the Church of England and replaced the various Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church. St Pauls Cathedral The United Kingdom is traditionally a Christian state, though of the four constituent countries, only England still has a state faith in the form of an established church. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ...


Today, most English people practising organized religion are affiliated to the Church of England or other Christian denominations such as Roman Catholicism and Methodism (itself originally a movement within the Anglican Church). In the 2001 Census, a little over 37 million people in England and Wales professed themselves to be Christian. Jewish immigration since the seventeenth century means that there is an integrated Jewish English population, mainly in urban areas. 252,000 Jews were recorded in England & Wales in the 2001 Census; however this represents a decline of about 50% over the previous 50 years, caused by emigration and intermarriage.[citation needed] Immigration to Britain from India and Pakistan since the 1950s means that a large number of people living in England practise Islam (818,000), Hinduism (467,000), or Sikhism (301,000); however, the census shows that adherents to these religions are more likely to regard themselves as British than English.[56] The 2001 census also revealed that about seven million people, or 15% of English people, claim no religion. [57] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... British Jews (often referred to collectively, but imprecisely, as Anglo Jewry) are British subjects of Jewish descent or religion who maintain a connection to the Jewish community, either through actively practising Judaism or through cultural and historical affiliation. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ...


Sports

There are many sports codified by the English, which then spread worldwide due to trading and the British Empire, including badminton, cricket, croquet, football, field hockey, lawn tennis, rugby league, rugby union, table tennis and thoroughbred horse racing. This article is about the sport. ... This article is about the sport. ... For the Smalltalk based 3D software platform, see Croquet project. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Rugby league football (usually shortened to rugby league, football, league) is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... “Ping Pong” redirects here. ... Thoroughbred horse racing in the United Kingdom is governed by the Horseracing Regulatory Authority (the HRA) which makes and enforces the rules, issues licences or permits to trainers and jockeys, and runs the races through their race course officials. ...


England, like the other nations of the United Kingdom, competes as a separate nation in some international sporting events. The English football, cricket and rugby union teams have contributed to an increasing sense of English identity. The England Cricket team actually represents England and Wales[58].


Supporters are more likely to carry the Cross of Saint George flag whereas twenty years ago the British Union Flag would have been the more prominent. In an article in the Daily Mirror on 17 September 2005, Billy Bragg said "Watching the crowd in Trafalgar Square celebrating The Ashes win, I couldn't help but be amazed at how quickly the flag of St George has replaced the Union Flag in the affections of England fans. A generation ago, England games looked a lot like Last Night of the Proms, with the red, white and blue firmly to the fore. Now, it seems, the English have begun to remember who they are."[59]. The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... “Union Jack” redirects here. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a British tabloid daily newspaper. ... Stephen William Bragg (born December 20, 1957), known as Billy Bragg, is an English musician renowned for his blend of folk, punk-rock, and protest music, and his poetic lyrics dealing with political as well as romantic themes. ... For other uses, see The Ashes (disambiguation). ...


Symbols

Saint George's Cross, the English flag.
Saint George's Cross, the English flag.

The English flag is a red cross on a white background, commonly called the Cross of Saint George. It was adopted after the Crusades. Saint George, later famed as a dragon-slayer, is also the patron saint of England. The three golden lions or leopards on a red background was the banner of the kings of England derived from their status as Duke of Normandy and is now used to represent the English national football team and the English national cricket team, though in blue rather than gold. The English oak and the Tudor rose are also English symbols, the latter of which is (although more modernised) used by the England national rugby union team. Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... First international  Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win  Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat  Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... The logo of the England Cricket Team which shows the three Lions of England below a five-pointed crown The England cricket team is the national cricket team which represents England and Wales. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... When Henry Tudor took the crown of England from Richard III in battle, he brought about the end of the Wars of the Roses between the House of Lancaster (Red Rose) and the House of York (White Rose). ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents...


England has no official anthem; however, the United Kingdom's "God Save the Queen" is widely regarded as England's unofficial national anthem. Other songs are sometimes used, including "Land of Hope and Glory" (used as England's anthem in the Commonwealth Games), "Jerusalem", "Rule Britannia", and "I Vow to Thee, My Country". Of these, only Jerusalem specifically mentions England. An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... Land of Hope and Glory is an English patriotic song. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... “Jerusalem (song)” redirects here. ... “Rule Britannia” is a patriotic British national song, originating from the poem Rule Britannia by James Thomson, and set to music by Thomas Arne in 1740. ... I Vow to Thee, My Country is an British patriotic song and Anglican hymn. ...


See also

Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... English Australians are Australians of English descent, the largest ethnic group in Australia after Australian (which contains an unknown number of English Australians). ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... English Canada is a term used to describe either: the anglophone residents of Canada or the Canadian provinces other than Quebec and, sometimes, New Brunswick, in which French is an official language of the provincial governments. ... This is a list of famous Anglo-Indians. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old English redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article deals with immigration to the United Kingdom since its full political creation in 1922. ... Population of England increased from 1. ... German-Briton A German-Briton is someone with both German and British (English, Irish, Welsh or Scottish)ethnicity who lives in the United Kingdom or who is a British citizen. ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ... Anglo-Africans are primarily associated with Southern Africa and British ancestry. ... English folklore is the folk tradition which has developed in England over a number of centuries. ... 100% English was a channel 4 television programme shown in November 2006 in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the British television station. ... Motto (Latin) Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand Anthem O Land of Our Birth (Manx) Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Douglas Official languages Manx, English Government    -  Lord of Mann Elizabeth II  -  Lieutenant Governor Sir Paul Haddacks  -  First Deemster Michael Kerruish  -  President of Tynwald Noel... This article describes demographic and genetic flows into and around European populations, as a product of human migrations. ...

References

  1. ^ 10 Downing Street official website. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
  2. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd. edtn (1989).
  3. ^ Scotland's Census 2001: Supporting Information (PDF; see p. 43); see also Philip Johnston, "Tory MP leads English protest over census", Daily Telegraph 15 June, 2006.
  4. ^ 'Developing the Questionnaires', National Statistics Office.
  5. ^ 2007 Census Test; see p. 6.
  6. ^ Sarah Kane, Complete Plays (19**), p. 41.
  7. ^ In The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of 'British' being used to mean 'English' and vice versa.[page reference needed]
  8. ^ Pauline Greenhill, Ethnicity in the Mainstream: Three Studies of English Canadian Culture in Ontario (McGill-Queens, 1994) - page reference needed
  9. ^ Quoted by Kumar, Making [page reference needed]
  10. ^ "English and Welsh are Races Apart", BBC, 30 June, 2002
  11. ^ "Found: Migrants with the Mostest", Robert Winnett and Holly Watt, The Sunday Times, 10 June, 2006
  12. ^ The BBC article claims a 50-100% "wipeout" of "indigenous British" by Anglo-Saxon "invaders", while the original article (Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration Michael E. Weale et al., in Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 [2002]) claims only a 50-100% "contribution" of "Anglo-Saxons" to the current Central English male population, with samples deriving only from central England; the conclusions of this study have been questioned in Cristian Capelli, et al, A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles Current Biology, 13 (2003). The Times article reports Richard Webber's OriginsInfo database, which does not use the term 'ethnic' and acknowledges that its conclusions are unsafe for many groups; see "Investigating Customers Origins", OriginsInfo.
  13. ^ "Nation", sense 1. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edtn., 1989'.
  14. ^ Krishan Kumar, The Rise of English National Identity (Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 262-290.
  15. ^ English Democrats FAQ
  16. ^ 'Introduction', The Campaign for an English Parliament
  17. ^ Andrea Levy, "This is my England", The Guardian, February 19, 2000.
  18. ^ 'Identity', National Statistics, 21 Feb, 2006
  19. ^ 'English', The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edtn., 1989.
  20. ^ Britain and the Rhine provinces: epigraphic evidence for Roman trade by Mark Hassall. Retrieved 01 October 2006.
  21. ^ The Black Romans: BBC culture website. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
  22. ^ The archaeology of black Britain: Channel 4 history website. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
  23. ^ Britain BC: Life in Britain and Ireland before the Romans by Francis Pryor, p. 122. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-00-712693-X.
  24. ^ Anglo-Saxon Origins: The Reality of the Myth by Malcolm Todd. Retrieved 01 October 2006.
  25. ^ "English and Welsh are Races Apart", BBC.co.uk, 30 June, 2002
  26. ^ Mark G. Thomas, et al, "Evidence for an Apartheid-like Social Structure in Anglo-Saxon England", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2006.. For a summary, see "'Apartheid' society gave edge to Anglo-Saxons, study suggests" , CBC, July 19, 2006.
  27. ^ a b A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles; Cristian Capelli, Nicola Redhead, Julia K. Abernethy, Fiona Gratrix, James F. Wilson, Torolf Moen, Tor Hervig, Martin Richards, Michael P. H. Stumpf, Peter A. Underhill, Paul Bradshaw, Alom Shaha, Mark G. Thomas, Neal Bradman, and David B. Goldstein Current Biology, Volume 13, Issue 11, Pages 979-984 (2003). Retrieved 6 December 2005.
  28. ^ Oppenheimer, Stephen (October 2006). "Myths of British Ancestry". Prospect Magazine (127). Retrieved on 2007-07-30. 
  29. ^ Bryan Sykes (2006). Saxons, Vikings, and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland. W.W. Norton & Co.. ISBN-13:978-0-393-06268-7. 
  30. ^ The Age of Athelstan by Paul Hill (2004), Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-2566-8
  31. ^ Athelstan (c.895 - 939): Historic Figures: BBC - History. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  32. ^ The Battle of Brunanburh, 937AD by h2g2, BBC website. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
  33. ^ A. L. Rowse, The Story of Britain, Artus 1979 ISBN 0-297-83311-1
  34. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper (2001), List of sources used. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
  35. ^ The Adventure of English, Melvyn Bragg, 2003. Pg 22
  36. ^ OED, 2nd edition, s.v. 'English'.
  37. ^ OED, s.v. 'Englishry'.
  38. ^ Liberation of Ireland: Ireland on the Net Website. Retrieved 23 June 2006.
  39. ^ A History of Britain: The British Wars 1603-1776 by Simon Schama, BBC Worldwide. ISBN 0-563-53747-7.
  40. ^ The English, Jeremy Paxman 1998
  41. ^ An English Parliament...
  42. ^ England First Party: Manifesto.
  43. ^ EJP looks back on 350 years of history of Jews in the UK: European Jewish Press. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
  44. ^ Meredith on the Guillet-Thoreau Genealogy
  45. ^ More Britons applying for Irish passports by Owen Bowcott The Guardian, 13 September 2006. Retrieved 9 January 2006.
  46. ^ Black Presence, Asian and Black History in Britain, 1500-1850: UK government website. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
  47. ^ Postwar immigration The National Archives Accessed October 2006
  48. ^ Resident population: by ethnic group, 2001: Regional Trends 38, National Statistics.
  49. ^ Jack Grimston, "Mixed-race Britons to become biggest minority" The Sunday Times, 21 January 2007.
  50. ^ Scotland's Census 2001: Supporting Information (PDF; see p. 43)
  51. ^ Scottish Census Results Online Browser, accessed November 16, 2007.
  52. ^ Key Statistics Report, p. 10.
  53. ^ Country of Birth: Proportion Born in Wales Falling, National Statistics, 8 January, 2004.
  54. '^ Common Law by Daniel K. Benjamin, A World Connected website. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
  55. ^ Welsh (Cymraeg). Omniglot.
  56. ^ Ethnicity and Identity: Religion, National Statistics, 21 March, 2005.; Identity, National Statistics, 21 March, 2005.
  57. ^ 2001 National Census England , Ethnicity and Religion. National Statistics (2001). Retrieved on 2007-08-05.
  58. ^ "England Cricket Team Profile". Retrieved on 2006-09-13. 
  59. ^ "The Saturday Soap Box: We have to make Jerusalem England's national anthem", Daily Mirror, 2005-09-17. Retrieved on 2006-11-01. 
  60. ^ The CIA World Factbook reports that in the 2001 UK census 92.1% of the UK population were in the White ethnic group, and that 83.6% of this group are in the English ethnic group. The UK Office for National Statistics reports a total population in the UK census of 58,789,194. A quick calculation shows this is equivalent to 45,265,093 people in the English ethnic group. However, this number may not represent a self-defined ethnic group because the 2001 census did not in fact offer "English" as an option under the 'ethnicity' question (the CIA's figure was presumably arrived at by calculating the number of people in England who listed themselves as "white").
  61. ^ (Ethnic origin) The 2000 US census shows 24,515,138 people claiming English ancestry. According to EuroAmericans.net the greatest population with English origins in a single state was 2,521,355 in California, and the highest percentage was 29.0% in Utah. The American Community Survey 2004 by the US Census Bureau estimates 28,410,295 people claiming some English origin.
  62. ^ (Ancestry) The Australian Bureau of Statistics reports 6,358,880 people of English ancestry in the 2001 Census.[1].
  63. ^ (Ethnic origin)2001 Canadian Census gives 1,479,520 respondents stating their ethnic origin as English as a single response, and 4,499,355 including multiple responses, giving a combined total of 5,978,875.
  64. ^ (Ethnic origin) The 2006 New Zealand census reports 44,202 people (based on pre-assigned ethnic categories) stating they belong to the English ethnic group. The 1996 census used a different question to both the 1991 and the 2001 censuses, which had "a tendency for respondents to answer the 1996 question on the basis of ancestry (or descent) rather than 'ethnicity' (or cultural affiliation)" and reported 281,895 people with English origins
  65. ^ Fare of the Country; Teatime: A bit of Britain in Argentina. New York Times. June 23, 1985.
  66. ^ CIA World Factbook]

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British television station. ... Francis Pryor (right) discusses the excavation during the filming of a 2007 dig for Time Team with series editor Michael Douglas (left). ... Malcolm Todd is a British historian and archaeologist with an interest in the interaction between the Roman Empire and Western Europe. ... Stephen Oppenheimer is a well-known expert in the field of synthesizing DNA studies with archaeological, anthropological, linguistic and other field studies. ... Prospect is a left-wing monthly British essay and comment magazine covering a wide range of topics, but specialising in politics and current affairs. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... H2G2 is also an acronym for the The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Alfred Leslie Rowse, CH FBA (December 4, 1903 – October 3, 1997), known professionally as A. L. Rowse and to his friends and family as Leslie, was a prolific British historian. ... Melvyn Bragg, Baron Bragg, FRSL, FRTS (born 6 October 1939, in Wigton, Cumberland) is a British author and broadcaster. ... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Simon Schama Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is a professor of history and art history at Columbia University. ... Jeremy Dickson Paxman (born 11 May 1950) is an English BBC journalist, news presenter and author. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...

Bibliography

  • Krishan Kumar (2003). The Making of English National Identity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521777364. 

External links

  • BBC Nations Articles on England and the English
  • The British Isles Information on England
  • Mercator's Atlas Map of England ("Anglia") circa 1564.
  • Viking blood still flowing; BBC; 3 December 2001.
  • UK 2001 Census showing 49,138,831 people from all ethnic groups living in England.
  • Tory MP leads English protest over census; The Telegraph; 23 April 2001.
  • On St. George's Day, What's Become Of England?; CNSNews.com; 23 April 2001.
  • Watching the English — an anthropologist's look at the hidden rules of English behaviour.
  • The True-Born Englishman, by Daniel Defoe.
  • The Effect of 1066 on the English Language Geoff Boxell
  • BBC "English and Welsh are races apart"
  • Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration
  • Origins of Britons - Brian Sykes

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