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Encyclopedia > English monarchy

This article is part of the series
Politics of the United Kingdom

The monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom. The current British monarchy can trace its line back to the Anglo-Saxon period. During the ninth century, Wessex came to dominate other kingdoms, and during the tenth, England was consolidated into a single realm. Most British monarchs in the Middle Ages ruled as absolute monarchs, as was standard across most of Europe. However, their power was often limited by the nobility and, later, by Parliament. The wars, revolutions, and rebellions of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries saw the power of the monarchy somewhat reduced, and by the mid-eighteenth century monarchs had become primarily figureheads. Union Flag / Union Jack: Flag of the United Kingdom For more information, see Court of the Lord Lyon, Flags. ... The Politics of the United Kingdom are based upon a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times Chancellor of England, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom. ... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ... In the British House of Commons the Speaker of the House of Commons controls the day to day running of the house. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... In British politics, the Cabinet is comprised of the most senior government ministers, most of them heads of government departments with the title Secretary of State. In the British system of government, the Cabinet is the key formal decision making body of the executive. ... The Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministries, known in the United Kingdom as Government Departments. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... The Scottish Executive (Riaghaltas na h-Alba in Gaelic) is the executive arm of the Scottish Parliament. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... The Welsh Assembly Government (or WAG) is the executive body of the National Assembly for Wales — it is comprised of the First Minister and his Cabinet. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly is a 108-member legislative body for Northern Ireland that sits at Stormont with powers devolved to it from the Westminster parliament. ... The Northern Ireland Executive is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The United Kingdom is divided into four parts, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 sq. ... Elections in the United Kingdom gives information on election and election results in the United Kingdom. ... The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ... The United Kingdom general election of 2005 was held on 5 May 2005, just over three weeks after the dissolution of Parliament on 11 April by Queen Elizabeth II, at the request of the Prime Minister, Tony Blair. ... The next general election in the United Kingdom must be held on or before 3 June, 2010. ... Political parties in the United Kingdom lists political parties in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom has an uncodified constitution, which means it is not all contained in a single document. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... Wessex was one of the seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (the Heptarchy) that preceded the kingdom of England. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... A figurehead is a person, usually in a political role, who may hold an important title or office yet executes little actual power. ...


Thus, as the modern British monarchy is a constitutional one, the Sovereign's role is limited to ceremonial and non-partisan functions. In practice, most political power is exercised by the Parliament of the United Kingdom (of which the Sovereign is in theory a component, together with the House of Lords and the House of Commons), and by the Prime Minister and Cabinet. By constitutional convention, the Sovereign exercises the Royal Prerogative, with very few exceptions, solely on the advice of the Prime Minister and other ministers. The Sovereign is also the nominal Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, but in practice the spiritual leadership of the Church is the responsibility of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The United Kingdom has an uncodified constitution, which means it is not all contained in a single document. ... Partisan may refer to: A member of a lightly-equipped irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... In British politics, the Cabinet is comprised of the most senior government ministers, most of them heads of government departments with the title Secretary of State. In the British system of government, the Cabinet is the key formal decision making body of the executive. ... Alternative meaning: Constitutional convention A Constitutional Convention is a gathering of persons for the purpose of drawing up a constitution, or planning to modify one. ... This article or section should include material from Royal Perogative. ... The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British Monarchs that signifies their titular leadership over the Church of England. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior bishop of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion, outranking the other English archbishop, the Archbishop of York. ...


The present monarch is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952. The heir apparent is her eldest son, His Royal Highness The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. The Prince of Wales undertakes various public ceremonial functions, as does the Queen's husband, His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. There are several other members of Royal Family besides those aforementioned, including the Queen's other children, grandchildren and cousins. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The Queen, is the Queen regnant and Head of State of the United Kingdom, as well as the Queen of Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1952 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... His Royal Highness The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor) (born 14 November 1948), the eldest son of HM Queen Elizabeth II and HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is Heir Apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and over a dozen Commonwealth... HRH The Duke of Edinburgh His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten, formerly Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark), styled HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (born June 10, 1921), is the consort of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is a group of people closely related to the British monarch. ...

Contents

History

English monarchy

Monarchs had existed in the island of Britain since before Roman times; many of these "Celtic" rulers were to ally or fall to the Romans who made Britain part of their empire. Rome withdrew from Britain in the early fifth century, and a period of history followed that has, perhaps unfairly, been referred to as the Dark Ages. Angles, Saxons, and Jutes settled in Britain, and formed many kingdoms, the seven most powerful of which have been referred to as the Heptarchy. This term, however, is somewhat misleading, as it does not truly convey the complicated political make-up of Britain at the time. Each kingdom had its own "monarch," and at times one powerful king would have dominance over several others: there was no "British monarchy", however, and the idea that the so-called Bretwalda was some official royal title is rather fanciful. The Dark Ages (or Dark Age) is a metaphor with multiple meanings and connotations. ... Heptarchy (from Greek: ἑπτά seven + ἀρχία sovereignty) is the name applied by historians to the period in the English history after the Anglo-Saxon conquest of the southern portion of the island of Great Britain, named Angleland (England) by them, up to the time when the Vikings started their predations... The title of Bretwalda was one perhaps used by some of the kings of the kingdoms of England (the so_called Anglo_Saxon heptarchy) in the second half of the first millennium AD. Such a king was considered to be the overlord of several Anglo_Saxon kingdoms. ...


Following the Viking raids and settlement of the ninth century, the kingdom of Wessex emerged as the dominant English kingdom. Alfred the Great secured Wessex and achieved dominance over western Mercia, but he did not become King of England; the nearest title he assumed was "King of the Anglo-Saxons". It was Alfred's successors of the tenth century who built the kingdom now recognised as England, though even by the reign of Edgar the Peaceful England was not beyond fracturing into its constituent parts. The eleventh century saw England become more stable, despite a number of wars with the Danes which resulted in a Danish monarchy for some years. When William, Duke of Normandy conquered England in 1066 he became monarch of a kingdom with probably the strongest royal authority in Europe. Wessex was one of the seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (the Heptarchy) that preceded the kingdom of England. ... Alfred (849? – 26 October 899) (sometimes spelt Ælfred) was king of the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex from 871 to 899. ... Mercia, sometimes spelled Mierce, was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy, in what is now England, in the region of the Midlands, with its heart in the valley of the River Trent and its tributary streams. ... This article is about the king of England. ... King William I of England William I ( 1027–September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ...

The Bayeux Tapestry, created in 1077, depicts the Norman Conquest.

The Norman Conquest, the last ever successful military invasion of England, was crucial in British history, in terms of both political and social change. The new monarch continued the centralisation of power begun in the Anglo-Saxon period, while the Feudal System also continued to develop. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is not actually a tapestry (that is, a weaving), but is embroidery, and dates from 1077. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor begs Pope Gregory VII to remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of Rüm in modern Turkey Anush... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


William I was succeeded by two of his sons: William II, and then Henry I. Henry made a controversial decision to name his daughter Matilda (his only surviving child) as his heir. Following Henry's death in 1135, one of William I's grandsons, Stephen, laid claim to the Throne, and took power with the support of most of the barons. Stephen's weak rule, however, allowed Matilda to challenge his reign; as a result, England soon descended into a period of disorder known as the Anarchy. Stephen maintained a precarious hold on power for the rest of his life; however, he agreed to a compromise under which he would be succeeded by Matilda's son Henry, who accordingly became the first monarch of the Angevin or Plantagenet dynasty as Henry II in 1154. William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance, or maybe his bloody reign) (c. ... Henry I of England, depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry I (c. ... Empress Maud (February 7, 1102 – September 10, 1169) is the title by which Matilda, daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland (herself daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and St. ... Events Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Stephen (1096 - October 25, 1154), the last Norman King of England, reigned from 1135 to 1154, when he was succeeded by his cousin (or, as the gossip of the time had it, his natural son) Henry II, the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet Kings. ... The Anarchy in English history commonly names the period of civil war and unsettled government that occurred during the reign (1135–1154) of King Stephen of England. ... Henry II of England, depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry II (March 25, 1133–July 6, 1189), ruled as Duke of Anjou and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Events King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ...


The reigns of most of the Angevin monarchs was marred by civil strife and conflicts between the monarch and the nobility. Henry II faced rebellions from his own sons, the future monarchs Richard I and John. For the majority of his reign, Richard was absent from England, as he was fighting the Crusades. John's reign was marked by conflict with the barons, who in 1215 coerced him into issuing the Magna Carta (Latin for "Great Charter") to guarantee the rights and liberties of the nobility. Soon afterwards, John repealed the charter, plunging England into a civil war known as the First Barons' War. The war came to an abrupt end after John died in 1216, leaving the Crown to his nine-year-old son Henry III. The barons, led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, again rebelled later in Henry's reign, beginning the Second Barons' War. The war, however, ended in a clear royalist victory, and in the execution of many rebels. Richard I of England, as a bronze, brandishes his sword outside the Palace of Westminster Richard I (September 8, 1157 - April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... John of England depicted in Cassells History of England (1902) John (French: Jean) (December 24, 1166/67–October 18/19, 1216) reigned as King of England from 1199 to 1216. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Events June 15 - King John of England forced to put his seal to Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning men (nobles and knights) and restricts the kings power. ... Magna Carta placed certain checks on the absolute power of the English Monarchs. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The First Barons War ( 1215– 1217) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons and King John. ... Events Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Henry III of England, as depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry III (October 1, 1207 - November 16, 1272) is one of the least-known British monarchs, considering the great length of his reign. ... Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to king Henry III of England. ... The Second Barons War ( 1264– 1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of rebellious barons lead by Simon de Montfort, against the Royalist forces led by Prince Edward (later Edward I of England). ...


The next monarch, Edward I, was far more successful in maintaining royal power, but his successor, Edward II, became involved in a disastrous conflict with the nobility. He was, in 1311, forced to relinquish many of his powers to a committee of baronial "ordainers"; however, military victories helped him regain control in 1322. Nevertheless, in 1327, Edward was deposed and executed by his wife Isabella and his son, who became Edward III. The new monarch soon also claimed the French Crown, setting off the Hundred Years' War between England and France. Edward III's campaigns were largely successful, and culminated in the conquest of much French territory. Edward's reign was also marked by the further development of Parliament, which came to be divided into two Houses for the first time. In 1377, Edward III died, leaving the Crown to his ten year-old grandson Richard II. The new monarch, like many of his predecessors, conflicted with the nobles, especially by attempting to concentrate power in his own hands. In 1377, whilst he was away in Ireland, his cousin Henry Bolingbroke seized power; Richard was then forced to abdicate and was murdered. Edward I; illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902. ... This article is about the fourteenth century king of England. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ... Events September 27/September 28 - Battle of Ampfing, often called the last battle of knights, in which Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria Births Emperor Komyo of Japan, second of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Deaths January 3 - France Categories: 1322 ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... Isabella of France (~1292 - August 22, 1358), known as the She-Wolf of France, was the Queen consort of Edward II of England. ... Edward III King of England Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English Kings of medieval times. ... A map of Europe in the 1430s, at the height of the Hundred Years War The Hundred Years War was a 116-year-long armed conflict between the Kingdom of England and France, beginning in 1337 and ending in 1453. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Events January 17 – Gregory XI enters Rome. ... There is also a play entitled Richard II by Shakespeare. ... Events January 17 – Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Henry IV of England, depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry IV King of England, Lord of Ireland. ...


Henry IV was the grandson of Edward III and the son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster; hence, his dynasty was known as the House of Lancaster. For most of his reign, Henry IV was forced to fight off plots and rebellions; his success was partly due to the military skill of his son, the future Henry V. Henry V's own reign, which began in 1413, was largely free from domestic strife, leaving the king free to pursue the Hundred Years' War in France. Henry V was victorious in his conquest; however, his sudden death in 1422 left his infant son Henry VI on the Throne, and gave the French an opportunity to overthrow English rule. The unpopularity of Henry's regents, and afterwards, Henry's own ineffectual leadership, led to the weakening of the House of Lancaster. The Lancastrians faced a challenge from the House of York, so called because its head, a descendant of Edward III, was Richard, Duke of York. Although the Duke of York died in battle in 1460, his eldest son Edward led the Yorkists to victory in 1461. The Wars of the Roses, nevertheless, continued intermittently during the reigns of the Yorkists Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III. Ultimately, the conflict culminated in success for the Lancastrian branch, led by Henry Tudor (Henry VII), in 1485, when Richard III was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... A cobblestone mosaic showing heraldic devices associated with the House of Lancaster The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... Henry V of England, as depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry V Henry V, (August 9 or September 16, 1387 - August 31, 1422), King of England, son of Henry IV of England by Mary de Bohun, was born at Monmouth, Wales, in September... Events March 20 - Henry V becomes King of England Project of Annals of Joseon Dynasty began. ... Events August 31 - Henry VI becomes King of England. ... This article is about the English king. ... This article is about Richard, Duke of York, father of King Edward IV. For the article about Edward IVs son who was imprisoned in the Tower of London see: Richard, Duke of York (Prince in the Tower). ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Edward V with his parents Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville Edward V (November 4, 1470-1483?) was an English monarch, although never crowned. ... Richard III Richard III (October 2, 1452 - August 22, 1485) was the King of England from 1483 until his death and the last king from the House of York. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder of the Tudor dynasty and is generally acknowledged as one of Englands most successful kings. ... Events August 22 - Battle of Bosworth Field is fought between the armies of King Richard III of England and rival claimant to the throne of England Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. ... The Battle of Bosworth or Bosworth Field was an important battle during the Wars of the Roses in 15th century England. ...

The above portrait of Elizabeth I was made in approximately 1588 to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (depicted in the background).

The end of the Wars of the Roses formed a major turning point in the history of the monarchy. Much of the nobility was either decimated on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, and many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown. Moreover, feudalism was dying, and the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Hence, the Tudor monarchs easily re-established absolute supremacy in the realm, and the conflicts with the nobility that had plagued previous monarchs came to an end. The power of the Crown reached its zenith during the reign of the second Tudor king, Henry VIII. Henry VIII's reign was one of great political change; England was transformed from a weak kingdom into one of the powers of Europe. Religious upheaval also occurred, as disputes with the Popeled the monarch to break away from the Roman Catholic Church and to establish the Church of England (the Anglican Church). Henry VIII's son and successor, the young Edward VI, continued with further religious reforms. Unknown artist, ca 1588. ... Unknown artist, ca 1588. ... Spanish Armada Conflict Anglo-Spanish War Date June 19, 1588 – August 12, 1588 Place The English Channel off Gravelines, France Result Decisive English victory The Spanish Armada (Old Spanish: la Felicissima Armada, most fortunate fleet; Modern Spanish: la Armada Invencible, the Invincible Fleet) was a fleet sent by King Philip... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Edward VI King of England and Ireland Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. ...


Edward VI died in 1553, precipitating a succession crisis. He was wary of allowing his Catholic elder half-sister Mary to succeed to the Throne, and therefore drew up a will designating the Lady Jane Grey as his heiress, even though no woman had ever reigned over England. Jane's reign, however, lasted only nine days; with tremendous popular support, Mary deposed her, revoked her proclamation as Queen, and declared herself the lawful Sovereign. Mary I attempted to return England to Roman Catholicism, in the process burning numerous Protestants at the stake as heretics. Mary I died in 1558, to be succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I, who once again returned England to Protestantism. The Elizabethan era involved the growth of England as a world power, as evidenced by England's success in the Anglo-Spanish War (especially the celebrated defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588) and by English colonies in North America. The era is often referred to as a "golden age" for England, especially due to the cultural achievements of William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon, and others. Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Mary I Queen of England and Ireland Mary I (February 18, 1516–November 17, 1558) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from July 6, 1553 (de jure) or July 19, 1553 (de facto) until her death. ... Image long believed to be that of Lady Jane Grey, Queen for Nine Days, now thought by art historians to be Catherine Parr, 6th wife of Henry VIII Lady Jane Grey (October 12?, 1537–February 12, 1554), was a great granddaughter of Henry VII of England, and was proclaimed Queen... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08_08 by Philippe_Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts the battle of Gravelines. ... Spanish Armada Conflict Anglo-Spanish War Date June 19, 1588 – August 12, 1588 Place The English Channel off Gravelines, France Result Decisive English victory The Spanish Armada (Old Spanish: la Felicissima Armada, most fortunate fleet; Modern Spanish: la Armada Invencible, the Invincible Fleet) was a fleet sent by King Philip... Events May 12 - Day of the Barricades in Paris. ... British colonization of the Americas began in the late 16th century. ... World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is the third largest continent in area and in population after Eurasia and Africa. ... A golden age is period in a field of endeavour where great tasks were accomplished. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans (January 22, 1561 – April 9, 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, spy and essayist. ...


Scottish monarchy

In Scotland, as in England, monarchies emerged after the withdrawal of Rome in the early fifth century. The two primary groups that lived in Scotland at this time were the Picts (who inhabited the kingdom of Pictavia) and the Britons (who lived in several kingdoms in southern Scotland, including the Kingdom of Strathclyde). The late fifth century was marked by the arrival of another important group, the Scotti (who would later give their name to Scotland), from Ireland. The area settled by the Scotti would become known as the Kingdom of Dalriada. The Dalriadan King Kenneth MacAlpin obtained the Pictish Crown in the middle ninth century, and is traditionally viewed as the founder of united Scotland (or Alba). The expansion of Scottish dominions continued over the next century, as other territories such as Strathclyde were subjugated. The Picts inhabited Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth. ... The Picts inhabited Pictavia or Pictland - Caledonia (Scotland), north of the River Forth _ prior to the Scotticisation of the area. ... The term Briton may have the following meanings: in a historical context: an inhabitant of Great Britain in pre-Roman times a descendant of Britons during a later period (e. ... Strathclyde was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Scotti was the generic name given by the Romans to Gaelic raiders from Ireland. ... Dalriada or Dál Riata (as it was called in Ireland) was the kingdom of the Scotti, who migrated from County Antrim in Ulster to Argyll and eventually gave their name to Scotland. ... Kenneth I the Hardy (ca. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: Alba The name Alba may refer to — the ancient and modern Gaelic name (pronounced Al_a_pah) for Scotland. ...


Early Scottish monarchs did not inherit the Crown directly; instead, they were elected under a custom known as tanistry. Although such was not its original purpose, tanistry soon evolved into a system whereby the monarchy alternated between two branches of the House of Alpin. As a result, however, the two rival dynastic lines clashed, often violently. The problems relating to succession were especially illustrated by the period from 942 to 1005, during which seven consecutive monarchs were either murdered or killed in battle. Tanistry and the rotation of the monarchy between different lines were abandoned after Malcolm II ascended the throne in 1005. Thus, when Duncan I succeeded Malcolm II in 1034, he became the first Scottish monarch to directly inherit the throne. Duncan had previously become King of Strathclyde; as a consequence of his accession as King of Scots, most of modern-day Scotland stood unified under a single monarch. Only a few northern areas under the control of the Vikings remained separate. Tanistry (from Gaelic tana, lordship) was a custom among various Celtic tribes, by which the king or chief of the clan was chosen from among the heads of the septs and elected by them in full assembly. ... Events Kaminarimon, the eight-pillared gate to Japans Kinryuzan Sensouji Temple is erected. ... Events Malcolm II succeeds Kenneth III as king of Scotland. ... Malcolm II of Scotland (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) (c. ... Duncan I Cæn-Mohr MacCrinan (1001 - August 14, 1040) was a son of Crinan the Thane de Mormaer, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and Princess Bethoc of Scotland. ... Events April 11 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael IV. Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire. ...


In 1040, Duncan suffered defeat in battle at the hands of Macbeth, the subject of William Shakespeare's famous play (The Tragedy of Macbeth). Later, in 1057, Duncan's son Malcolm Canmore avenged his father's death by defeating and killing Macbeth. A few months later, after the murder of Macbeth's son Lulach, Malcolm Canmore ascended the throne as Malcolm III, becoming the first monarch of the House of Dunkeld. In achieving his victory, Malcolm had relied on assistance from England, heralding a long era of English interference in Scottish affairs. England's involvement became apparent after Malcolm III's death in 1093, when it participated in a series of Scottish succession conflicts between Malcolm's brother Donalbain and Malcolm's sons. Events August 14 - King Duncan I is killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth. ... Macbeth (Gaelic for Son of Life) c. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Scene from Macbeth by William Rimmer, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, based loosely on the historical King Macbeth of Scotland. ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... King Malcolm III of Scotland, (1031? - November 13, 1093) also known as Malcolm Canmore (Malcolm with the large head), was the eldest son of King Duncan I of Scotland and first king of the House of Dunkeld. ... Lulach I of Scotland (c. ... The House of Dunkeld or Canmore was a dynasty of Scottish kings that ruled Scotland from 1058 to 1290. ... Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... Donald II of Scotland (Domnall mac Causantín) was king of Scotland from 889 to 900. ...


From 1107, Scotland was briefly partitioned under the will of King Edgar, who divided his dominions between his elder son Alexander I (who ruled northern Scotland as a king) and his younger son David (who ruled southern Scotland as an earl). After Alexander's death in 1124, David inherited his dominions, and Scotland became unified once more. David was succeeded by the ineffective Malcolm IV, and then by William the Lion, the longest-reigning King of Scots in history. William I participated in an rebellion against King Henry II of England; however, the rebellion failed, and William was captured by the English. In exchange for his release, William was forced to acknowledge Henry as his feudal overlord. The English King Richard I agreed to terminate the arrangement in 1189, in return for a large sum of money needed for the Crusades. William died in 1214, and was succeeded by his son Alexander II. Alexander II, as well as his successor Alexander III, attempted to take over the Western Isles, which were still under the overlordship of Norway. During the reign of Alexander III, Norway launched an unsuccessful invasion of Scotland; the ensuing Treaty of Perth recognised Scottish control of the Western Isles and other disputed areas. Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Edgar of Scotland (1074 - January 8, 1107 ) , also known as Edgar the Peaceable, was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... Alexander I (c. ... David I, known as the Saint, (1084 - May 24, 1153), king of Scotland, the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling), was born in 1084. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ... Malcolm IV (c. ... William I (William the Lion, William Leo, William Dunkeld or William Canmore), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scotland from 1165 to 1214. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Events Simon Apulia becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 - July 6, 1249), king of Scotland, son of William I, the Lion, and of Ermengarde of Beaumont, was born at Haddington in 1198, and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214. ... Alexander III (September 4, 1241 _ March 19, 1286), king of Scots, also known as Alexander the Glorious ranks as one of Scotlands greatest kings. ... The Treaty of Perth ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the sovereignty of the Western Isles, the Isle of Mann and Caithness. ...


Alexander III's death in 1286 brought his three year-old Norwegian granddaughter Margaret to the throne. On her way to Scotland in 1290, however, Margaret died at sea, precipitating a major succession crisis, during which there were thirteen rival claimants. Several Scottish leaders appealed to King Edward I of England to settle the dispute; Edward chose John Balliol. Edward proceeded to treat Balliol as a vassal, exerting considerable influence over Scottish affairs. In 1295, when Balliol renounced his allegiance to England, Edward I invaded and conquered Scotland. During the first ten years of the ensuing Wars of Scottish Independence, Scotland had no monarch; however, it was informally led by the rebel leader William Wallace. After Wallace's execution in 1305, Robert the Bruce took over and declared himself king. Robert's efforts culminated in success, and Scottish independence was acknowledged in 1328. However, only one year later, Robert died, and the English again invaded under the pretext of restoring John Balliol's "rightful" heir, Edward Balliol, to the throne. Nonetheless, during further military campaigns, Scotland once again won its independence under Robert the Bruce's son David II. Events Margaret I of Scotland became queen of Scotland, end of Canmore dynasty. ... This article is about Margaret, Queen of Scots. ... Events King Edward I of England banishes all Jews from Britain. ... After the death of the young Margaret I of Scotland in 1290, the Crown of Scotland was without an heir. ... John Balliol, the son of Devorguilla Balliol and John, 5th Baron de Balliol, was the king of Scotland from November 17, 1292-1296. ... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of campaigns launched after the English invasion of Scotland in 1296. ... Sir William Wallace (c. ... Events Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia The Papacy removed to France following riots in the Papal State. ... Robert I, usually known as Robert the Bruce (July 11, 1274 – June 7, 1329), was King of Scotland (1306-1329). ... Events May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Edward Balliol (c. ... David II (March 5, 1324-February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ...


In 1371, David II was succeeded by Robert II, the first Scottish monarch from the House of Stewart (later Stuart). The reigns of both Robert II and his successor, Robert III, were marked by a general decline in royal power. When Robert III died in 1406, regents had to rule the country; the monarch, Robert III's son James I, had been taken captive by the English. Having paid a large ransom, James returned to Scotland in 1424; in order to restore his authority, he used ruthless measures, including the execution of several of his enemies. James II continued his father's policies by subduing influential noblemen. At the same time, however, the Estates of Scotland (the Scottish Parliament) became increasingly powerful, often openly defying the King. Parliamentary power reached its zenith during the reign of the ineffective King James III. As a result, James IV and his successors tended to avoid calling parliamentary sessions, thereby checking the power of the Estates. Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Births May 28 - John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy (+ 1419) Leopold IV, Regent of... Robert II (March 2, 1316- April 19, 1390), king of Scotland, called the Steward, a title that gave the name to the House of Stewart (or Stuart). ... The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Scottish, and then British, Royal House of Breton origin. ... Robert III (c. ... Events Construction of Forbidden City begins in Beijing. ... James I (1394 - February 21, 1437) reigned as king of Scotland from 1406 until 1437. ... Events August 17 - Battle of Verneuil - An English force under John, Duke of Bedford defeats a larger French army under the Duke of Alençon, John Stuart, and Earl Archibald of Douglas. ... James II of Scotland (October 16, 1430 - August 3, 1460) was king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452- June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... James IV (March 17, 1473 - September 9, 1513) was king of Scotland from 1488 to 1513. ...


Since the Union of the Crowns

Elizabeth's death in 1603 brought about the end to the rule of the House of Tudor; she was succeeded by the Scottish monarch James VI, who ruled in England as James I. Although England and Scotland were in personal union under one monarch, they remained separate kingdoms. James belonged to the House of Stuart, a royal house whose monarchs experienced frequent conflicts with the English Parliament. The disputes frequently related to the issue of royal and parliamentary powers, especially the power to impose taxes. The conflict was especially pronounced during the reign of James I's successor Charles I, who provoked opposition by ruling without Parliament from 1629 to 1640 (the "Eleven Years Tyranny"), unilaterally levying taxes, and adopting controversial religious policies (many of which were offensive to the Scottish Presbyterians and the English Puritans). In about 1642, the conflict between King and Parliament reached its climax as the English Civil War began. The war culminated in the in the execution of the king, the overthrow of the monarchy, and the establishment of a republic known as the Commonwealth of England. In 1653, however, Oliver Cromwell, the most prominent military and political leader in the nation, seized power and declared himself Lord Protector (effectively becoming a military dictator). Oliver Cromwell continued to rule until his death in 1658, when he was succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell. The new Lord Protector had little interest in governing; he soon abdicated, allowing the brief re-establishment of the Commonwealth. The lack of clear leadership, however, led to civil and military unrest, and for a popular desire to restore the monarchy. The Restoration came about in 1660, when Charles I's son Charles II was declared king. The establishment of the Commonwealth and Protectorate was deemed illegal; Charles II was declared to have been the de jure king since his father's death in 1649. Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... A personal union consists of two or more entities that are internationally considered separate states, only sharing the same Head of State (and thence also sharing whatever political actions are vested in the Head of State, but no, or at least extremely few, others). ... The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Scottish, and then British, Royal House of Breton origin. ... Charles I ( 19 November 1600– 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... The Eleven Years Tyranny refers to the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of King Charles I and the supporters of... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people that dont found their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... The Commonwealth was the republican government which ruled first England and then the whole of Britain, Ireland, the colonies and other Crown possessions during the periods from 1649 (the monarch Charles I being beheaded on January 30 and An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth being passed by the... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... The Lord Protector was the head of state during the brief period of the republic or Commonwealth in Great Britain and Ireland. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who has plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross from Sweden to Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by Thomas Browne September... For the American actor of the 1930s and 1940s, please see Richard Cromwell (actor) Richard Cromwell (October 4, 1626- July 12, 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and was Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from September 3, 1658 until May 25... The English Restoration or simply Restoration was an episode in the history of Great Britain beginning in 1660 when the monarchy was restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War. ... Events January 1 - colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration February 2 – George Monck and his regiment arrive in London February 23 - Charles XI becomes king of Sweden. ... Charles II King of England, Scotland and Ireland Charles II (29 May 1630–6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ...


Charles II's reign was marked by the development of the first modern political parties in England. Charles had no legitimate children, and was due to be succeeded by his Roman Catholic brother, James, Duke of York. There arose a parliamentary effort to exclude James from the line of succession; the "Abhorrers," who opposed it, became the Tory Party, whereas the "Petitioners," who supported it, became the Whig Party. The Exclusion Bill failed, allowing James II to succeed Charles (who himself converted to Catholicism on his deathbed) in 1685. James pursued policy of offering religious tolerance to Roman Catholics, thereby drawing the ire of many of his Protestant subjects. Many opposed James's decisions maintain a large standing army, to appoint Roman Catholics to high political and military offices, and to imprison Church of England clerics who challenged his policies (see Seven Bishops). As a result, a group of Protestant nobles and other notable citizens known as the Immortal Seven invited James II's daughter Mary II and her husband William of Orange to depose the king. William obliged, arriving in England on 5 November 1688 to great public support. Faced with the defection of many of his Protestant officials, James fled the realm on 23 December of the same year. On 12 February 1689, the Convention Parliament declared that James's flight constituted an abdication, and that William III and Mary II (not James II's Catholic son James Francis Edward Stuart) were joint Sovereigns of England and Ireland. The Scottish Estates soon followed suit. James VII and II King of England, Scotland and Ireland James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... The Immortal Seven were seven notable English citizens who issued the Invitation to William, a document asking William of Orange to depose James II in favour of Williams wife Mary, culminating in the Glorious Revolution. ... Mary II Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) was Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689 until her death, and Queen of Scotland from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11 April... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 - January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 - January 1, 1766) who is more commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ...


James's overthrow is normally known as the Glorious Revolution, and was one of the most important events in the long evolution of parliamentary power. The Bill of Rights 1689 declared that the English people held certain rights, including the freedom from taxes imposed without parliamentary consent. The Bill of Rights also required future monarchs to be Protestants, and provided that, after any children of William and Mary, Mary's sister Anne would inherit the Crown. Mary died childless in 1694, leaving William as the sole monarch. By 1700, a political crisis arose, as all of the Princess Anne's children had died, leaving Anne as the only individual left in the line of succession. Parliament, afraid that the former James II or his Roman Catholic relatives might attempt to reclaim the Throne, passed the Act of Settlement 1701, which placed William's distant Protestant cousin Sophia, Electress of Hanover, in the line of succession. Soon after the passage of the Act, William II died, leaving the Crown to his sister-in-law Anne. The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689), also known as the bloodless revolution, is an event in which the Stuart king James II (James VII of Scotland) was removed from his thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland, and replaced by William of the House of Orange and his wife and joint sovereign... The Bill of Rights 1689 is an English Act of Parliament with the long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown and known colloquially in the UK as the Bill of Rights. ... Anne Queen of Great Britain and Ireland Anne (6 February 1665–1 August 1714), became Queen of England and Scotland on 8 March 1702. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Electress Sophia of Hanover was born Sophia, Pfalzgräfin von Simmern, at The Hague on October 14, 1630, and died at Herrenhausen on June 8, 1714. ...


After Anne's accession, the succession issue quickly re-emerged; the Scottish Estates, infuriated that the English Parliament did not consult them on the choice of Sophia of Hanover, passed the Act of Security, threatening to end the personal union between England and Scotland. The Parliament of England retaliated with the Alien Act 1705, threatening to devastate the Scottish economy by cutting free trade. As a result, the Scottish Estates acquiesced to the Act of Union 1707, under which England and Scotland were united into a single Kingdom of Great Britain, with succession to be determined under the rules prescribed by the Act of Settlement. The Scottish Act of Security was a response by the Scottish Parliament to the English Act of Settlement. ... For the US Alien Act of 1798, see Alien and Sedition Acts. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (going into effect on 26 March) in the Scottish and the English Parliaments. ...

King George III asserted his political authority on several occasions, in contrast with his two Hanoverian predecessors.
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King George III asserted his political authority on several occasions, in contrast with his two Hanoverian predecessors.

Accordingly, in 1714, Queen Anne was succeeded by the son of the deceased Sophia of Hanover, George I, who consolidated his position by defeating Jacobite rebellions in 1715 and 1719. The new monarch was much less active in government than many of his predecessors, preferring to devote much of his time to the affairs of his German kingdoms. Instead, George left much of his power to his ministers, especially to Sir Robert Walpole, who is often considered the first (unofficial) Prime Minister of Great Britain. The decline of the influence of the monarch and the rise of the power of the Prime Minister and Cabinet continued during the reign of the next monarch, George II, but was halted during that of George III. George III attempted to recover much of the power given up by his Hanoverian predecessors; he also acted to keep the Tories (who favoured royal control in government more than the Whigs) in power whenever possible. George III's reign was also important because of the union of Great Britain and Ireland into the United Kingdom under the Act of Union 1800. At the same time, George III also dropped the claim to the French Throne, which had been nominally made by all English monarchs since Edward III. Enhanced version of previous picture - is it better? File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Enhanced version of previous picture - is it better? File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Events August 1 - George, elector of Hanover becomes King George I of Great Britain. ... George I King of Great Britain and Ireland George I (George Ludwig von Guelph-dEste) (28 May 1660–11 June 1727) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... Events September 1 - King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years, leaving the throne of his exhausted and indebted country to his great-grandson Louis XV. Regent for the new, five years old monarch is Philippe dOrléans, nephew of Louis XIV. September - First of the... Events January 23 - The Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) Births November 30 - Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, later Princess of Wales. ... Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford PC,KBE (26 August 1676–18 March 1745), normally known as Sir Robert Walpole, is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... In British politics, the Cabinet is comprised of the most senior government ministers, most of them heads of government departments with the title Secretary of State. In the British system of government, the Cabinet is the key formal decision making body of the executive. ... George II King of Great Britain and Ireland George II (George Augustus) (10 November 1683–25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... The 1800 Act of Union merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ...


From 1811 to 1820, George III was insane, forcing his son, the future George IV, to rule as Prince Regent. During the Regency, and later during his own reign, George IV continued to maintain what remained of royal authority, instead of ceding it to Parliament and the Cabinet. His successor, William IV, attempted to do the same, but met with much less success. In 1834, William dismissed the Whig Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, over policy differences, and instead appointed a Tory, Sir Robert Peel. In the ensuing elections, however, the Whigs maintained a large majority in the House of Commons; they forced Peel to resign by blocking most of his legislation, thus leaving the King with no choice but to recall Lord Melbourne. Since 1834, no monarch has appointed or dismissed a Prime Minister contrary to the will of the democratically chosen House of Commons. The final transition to a constitutional monarchy was made during the long reign of William IV's successor, Victoria. As a woman, Victoria could not rule Hanover; thus, the personal union of the United Kingdom and Hanover came to an end. The Victorian Era was an historic one for the United Kingdom, and was marked by great cultural change, technological progress, and the establishment of the United Kingdom as one of the world's foremost powers. In recognition of British rule over India, Victoria was declared Empress of India in 1876. However, the reign was also marked by increased support for the republican movement, due in part to Victoria's permanent mourning and lengthy period of seclusion following the death of her husband in 1861. 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... George IV King of the United Kingdom George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762–26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom and Hanover from 29 January 1820. ... William IV (William Henry) (21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne (March 15, 1779-November 24, 1848) was home secretary (1830-1834) and prime minister (1834 and 1835-1841) of Britain, and mentor of Queen Victoria. ... This is about the British Prime Minister. ... Victoria of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Alternate meanings: Hanover (district), Hanover (region), Hanover (state), other uses Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the Leine river, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen) in Germany. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era. ... Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The British republican movement is a movement in the United Kingdom which seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a republic with an elected head of state. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Victoria's son, Edward VII, became the first monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in 1901. However, in 1917, the next monarch, George V, replaced "Saxe-Coburg-Gotha" with "Windsor" due to the anti-German sympathies aroused by the First World War. George V's regin was also marked by the separation of Ireland into Northern Ireland (which remained a part of the United Kingdom) and the Irish Free State (an independent nation) in 1922. Soon thereafter, Parliament passed the Statute of Westminster 1931, under which self-government was granted to several parts of the British Empire. Formerly, the entire Empire was deemed to be the territory belonging to the British Crown; after the passage of the Statute, however, each dominion obtained its own monarchy. Hence, George V was separately King of the United Kingdom, King of Canada, King of Australia, and so forth. Edward VII King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VII (Albert Edward) (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha or Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) was once the name given to the two German duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany, in the present states of Bavaria and Thuringia, which were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. ... 1901 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... King George V King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Statute of Westminster 1931 was the enactment of the United Kingdom Parliament (December 11, 1931) which established the legislative equal status of the self-governing dominions of the British Empire and United Kingdom. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ...


George V's death in 1936 was followed by the accession of the celebrated King Edward VIII, who caused a public scandal by announcing his desire to marry a divorced American woman, Wallis Simpson, even though the Church of England opposed the remarriage of divorcées. Accordingly, Edward announced his intention to abdicate; the Parliaments of the United Kingdom and of other Commonwealth realms granted his request. Edward VIII and any children by his new wife were to be excluded from the line of succession; instead, the Crown went to his brother, George VI. The new monarch served as a figurehead for the British people during the Second World War, making several morale-boosting visits to munitions factories and to areas bombed by Nazi Germany. George VI was also the last British monarch to hold the title "Emperor of India," a title relinquished when India was granted independence in 1947. 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the House... Like King Henry VIII of England, whose wish to marry Anne Boleyn in the 1530s rocked his kingdom, King Edward VIII created a crisis for the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth in the 1930s when he wished to marry Wallis Simpson: many have argued that the problem for Edward... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) (December 14, 1895 - February 6, 1952) was the third British monarch of the House of Windsor, reigning from December 11, 1936 to February 6, 1952. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


George VI's death in 1952 was followed by the accession of the present monarch, Elizabeth II. Like her recent predecessors, Elizabeth II continues to function as a constitutional monarch. During her reign, there has been some support for the republican movement, especially due to negative publicity associated with the Royal Family (for instance, the divorce of HRH The Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales). Nevertheless, a large majority of the British public supports the continuation of the monarchy. 1952 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The Queen, is the Queen regnant and Head of State of the United Kingdom, as well as the Queen of Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea... His Royal Highness The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor) (born 14 November 1948), the eldest son of HM Queen Elizabeth II and HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is Heir Apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and over a dozen Commonwealth... Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances Mountbatten-Windsor, née Spencer) (1 July 1961 - 31 August 1997), was the first wife of HRH The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. ...


Succession

Main articles: Succession, Coronation Succession to the British Throne has generally been according to the rules of male primogeniture. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ...


Succession is governed by several enactments, the most important of which are the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701. The rules for succession are not fixed, but may be changed by an Act of Parliament. Succession is according to the rules of male-preference cognatic primogeniture, under which sons inherit before daughters, and under which elder children inherit before younger ones of the same sex. The Act of Settlement, however, restricts the succession to the natural (non-adopted) legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover (lived 16301714). The Bill of Rights 1689 is an English Act of Parliament with the long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown and known colloquially in the UK as the Bill of Rights. ... The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... Primogeniture is inheritance by the first-born of the entirety of a parents wealth, estate or office. ... Adoption is the legal act of permanently placing a child with a parent or parents other than the birth parents. ... The Electress Sophia of Hanover was born Sophia, Pfalzgräfin von Simmern, at The Hague on October 14, 1630, and died at Herrenhausen on June 8, 1714. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Events August 1 - George, elector of Hanover becomes King George I of Great Britain. ...

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The Sovereign is crowned at Westminster Abbey, as depicted in the above portrait of King Charles II.

The Bill of Rights and Act of Settlement also include certain religious restrictions, which were imposed because of the English people's mistrust of Roman Catholicism during the late seventeenth century. Most importantly, only individuals who are Protestants at the time of the succession may inherit the Crown. Moreover, a person who has at any time professed Roman Catholicism, or has ever married a Roman Catholic, is also prohibited from succeeding. One who is thus disabled from inheriting the Crown is deemed "naturally dead" for succession purposes; the disqualifications do not extend to the individual's descendants. In recent years, there have been some efforts to remove the religious restrictions (especially the specific rules relating to Roman Catholicism), but the provisions still remain in effect. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Upon a "demise in the Crown" (the death of a Sovereign) his or her heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony. (Hence arises the phrase "The King is dead. Long live the King!") Nevertheless, it is customary for the accession of the Sovereign to be publicly proclaimed by an Accession Council that meets at St. James's Palace. After an appropriate period of mourning has passed, the Sovereign is also crowned in Westminster Abbey, normally by the Archbishop of Canterbury. A coronation is not necessary for a Sovereign to rule; for example, Edward VIII was never crowned, yet was undoubtedly king during his short reign. In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council proclaims a new monarch upon the death of a previous monarch. ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... The Abbey at night, from Deans Yard. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior bishop of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion, outranking the other English archbishop, the Archbishop of York. ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the House...


After an individual ascends the Throne, he or she continues to reign until death. Monarchs are not allowed to unilaterally abdicate; the only monarch to voluntarily abdicate, Edward VIII (1936), did so with the authorisation of a special Act of Parliament. Historically, however, numerous reigns ended due to irregular or extralegal procedures; several monarchs have been killed, deposed, or forced to abdicate, chiefly during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The last monarch involuntarily removed from power was James II, who fled the realm in 1688 during the Glorious Revolution; Parliament interpreted his flight as an abdication. 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... James VII and II King of England, Scotland and Ireland James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689), also known as the bloodless revolution, is an event in which the Stuart king James II (James VII of Scotland) was removed from his thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland, and replaced by William of the House of Orange and his wife and joint sovereign...


Regency

Main articles: Regency Acts, Counsellor of State The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various points in time, to provide a regent if the British monarch were to be incapacited or in minority (under the age of 18). ... In Britain, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British royal family to whom Queen Elizabeth II delegates certain state functions and powers when she is abroad or unavailable. ...


Under the Regency Act 1937 and Regency Act 1953, the powers of a monarch who has not reached the age of eighteen, or of a monarch who is physically or mentally incapacitated, must be exercised by a regent. A physical or mental incapacity must be certified by at least three of the following people: the Sovereign's spouse, the Lord Chancellor, the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, and the Master of the Rolls. The declaration of three or more of the same persons is also necessary to terminate the regency and to allow the monarch to resume power. The Regency Acts are Acts of the British Parliament passed at various points in time, to provide a regent if the British monarch were to be incapacited or in minority (under the age of 18). ... For the insecticide Regent, see Regent (insecticide) A regent is an acting governor. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times Chancellor of England, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom. ... In the British House of Commons the Speaker of the House of Commons controls the day to day running of the house. ... The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the second-highest judge of the Courts of England and Wales, after the Lord Chancellor, and the presiding judge of Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal, and of the Queens Bench Division of the High Court. ... The Master of the Rolls is the third most senior judge of England, the Lord Chancellor being first and the Lord Chief Justice being second. ...


When a Regency is necessary, the next qualified individual in the line of succession becomes Regent; no special parliamentary vote or other confirmation procedure is necessary. The Regent must be aged at least twenty-one years (eighteen years in the case of the heir apparent or heir presumptive), be a British citizen, and be domiciled in the United Kingdom. The only individual to have acted as Regent was the future George IV, who took over the government of the realm whilst his father, George III, was insane (18111820). Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... An heir presumptive is one who is first in line to inherit a title or property, such as a monarchy, because there is not yet an heir apparent. ... In astrology, domicile, rulership or house is the strongest essential dignity of a planet. ... George IV King of the United Kingdom George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762–26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom and Hanover from 29 January 1820. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


During a temporary physical infirmity or an absence from the kingdom, the Sovereign may temporarily delegate his or her functions to Counsellors of State, the Sovereign's spouse and the four qualified individuals next in the line of succession. The qualifications for Counsellors of State are the same as those for Regents. The present Counsellors of State are: HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (the Queen's husband), HRH The Prince of Wales, HRH Prince William of Wales, HRH The Duke of York, and HRH The Earl of Wessex. In Britain, Counsellors of State are senior members of the British royal family to whom Queen Elizabeth II delegates certain state functions and powers when she is abroad or unavailable. ... HRH The Duke of Edinburgh His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten, formerly Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark), styled HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (born June 10, 1921), is the consort of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... His Royal Highness The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor) (born 14 November 1948), the eldest son of HM Queen Elizabeth II and HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is Heir Apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and over a dozen Commonwealth... HRH Prince William of Wales William Arthur Philip Louis His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales (William Arthur Philip Louis Mountbatten-Windsor) (born June 21, 1982) is a member of the British Royal Family, grandson of Queen Elizabeth II and first son of the Prince of Wales and the late... HRH The Duke of York His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew, Duke of York, (Andrew Albert Christian Edward Mountbatten-Windsor, formerly Windsor), styled HRH The Duke of York (born February 19, 1960), is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II... HRH The Earl of Wessex His Royal Highness The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex (Edward Antony Richard Louis Mountbatten-Windsor), styled HRH The Earl of Wessex (born March 10, 1964), is a member of the British Royal Family, the youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title...


Political role

Although the monarch's powers are in theory vast, they are in practice very limited. As a constitutional monarch, the Sovereign acts within the constraints of convention and precedent, almost always exercising the Royal Prerogative on the advice of the Prime Minister and other ministers. The Prime Minister and ministers are, in turn, accountable to the democratically elected House of Commons, and through it, to the people.


Whenever necessary, the Sovereign is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister; the appointment is formalised at a ceremony known as Kissing Hands. In accordance with unwritten constitutional conventions, the Sovereign must appoint the individual most likely to maintain the support of the House of Commons: usually, the leader of the party which has a majority in that House. If no party has a majority (an unlikely occurrence given the United Kingdom's First Past the Post electoral system), two or more groups may form a coalition, whose agreed leader is then appointed Prime Minister. In a "hung parliament," in which no party or coalition holds a majority, the monarch obtains an increased degree of latitude in his or her choice of Prime Minister. Still, however, the individual most likely to command the support of the Commons, usually the leader of the largest party, must be appointed. Thus, for example, Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister soon after the February 1974 general election, even though his Labour Party did not have a majority. The term to Kiss Hands is used in the United Kingdom to refer to the formal installation of British governmental office-holders to their office. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... In Parliamentary systems, a hung parliament is one in which no one political party has an outright majority. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, PC (March 11, 1916 – May 24, 1995) was one of the more successful Labour Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom and a 1960s icon. ... The UK general election of February 1974 was held on February 28, 1974. ...


The Sovereign appoints and dismisses Cabinet and other ministers, but exercises such a function only on the Prime Minister's advice. Thus, in practice, the Prime Minister, and not the Sovereign, exercises complete control over the composition of the Cabinet. The monarch may, in theory, unilaterally dismiss a Prime Minister, but convention and precedent bar such an action. The last monarch to unilaterally remove a Prime Minister was William IV, who dismissed Lord Melbourne in 1834. In practice, a Prime Minister's term comes to an end only with death or resignation. (In some circumstances, the Prime Minister is required to resign; see Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.) William IV (William Henry) (21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne (March 15, 1779-November 24, 1848) was home secretary (1830-1834) and prime minister (1834 and 1835-1841) of Britain, and mentor of Queen Victoria. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ...


The monarch holds a weekly audience with the Prime Minister, as well as regular audiences with other members of the Cabinet. The monarch may express his or her views, but, as a constitutional ruler, must ultimately accept the Prime Minister's and Cabinet's decisions. Walter Bagehot, the nineteenth century constitutional writer, summarises this concept, "the Sovereign has, under a constitutional monarchy ... three rights—the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, the right to warn." Walter Bagehot (February 3, 1826 – March 24, 1877), pronounced “Badge-utt” [1], was a nineteenth century British writer. ...


The monarch has a similar relationship with devolved governments of Scotland and Wales. The Sovereign appoints the First Minister of Scotland, but on the nomination of the Scottish Parliament. The First Minister of Wales, on the other hand, is directly elected by the National Assembly for Wales. In Scottish matters, the Sovereign acts on the advice of the Scottish Executive. However, as devolution is more limited in Wales, the Sovereign acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom in Welsh matters. (Northern Ireland presently has no devolved government; its Assembly and executive have been suspended.) Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Official languages: English and Welsh Capital: Cardiff First Minister: Rhodri Morgan AM Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² xx% Population  - Total (2001):  - Density: Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS... The First Minister (Prìomh Mhinistear in Scots Gaelic) is the leader of Scotlands national home rule government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the reconstituted Scottish Parliament. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... The First Minister of Wales is the leader of the Welsh Assembly Government, Waless devolved administration. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ...


The Sovereign also plays a symbolic role in the United Kingdom. Oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen, not to Parliament or to the nation. Moreover, God Save the Queen (or, if the Sovereign is male, God Save the King) is used as the British national anthem. The monarch's visage appears on postage stamps, on coins, and on banknotes issued by the Bank of England. (Banknotes issued by other British banks, such as the Bank of Scotland and the Ulster Bank, do not depict the Sovereign.) An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges his duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to his Sovereign or country. ... God Save the Queen is a patriotic song written by Henry Carey. ... The National Anthem is the name of a song by the band Radiohead. ... This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ... 1¢ euro coin A coin is generally a piece of hard material, generally metal and usually in the shape of a disc, which is used as a form of money. ... A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom, sometimes known as The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street or The Old Lady. The Bank of England Functions of the bank It performs all the recognized functions of a central bank -- to maintain price stability, and subject to... Logo of the Bank of Scotland The Governor and Company of the Bank of Scotland is a major commercial bank in Scotland, and, to a lesser extent, in the rest of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. ... Ulster Bank, one of the Big Four in Ireland is a large commercial bank. ...


Royal Prerogative

Main article: Royal Prerogative This article or section should include material from Royal Perogative. ...


The powers that belong to the Crown are collectively known as the Royal Prerogative. The Royal Prerogative includes many powers (such as the powers to make treaties or send ambassadors) as well as certain duties (such as the duties to defend the realm and to maintain the Queen's peace). As the British monarchy is a constitutional one, however, the monarch exercises the Royal Prerogative on the advice of ministers. Parliamentary approval is not required for the exercise of the Royal Prerogative; moreover, the Consent of the Crown must be obtained before either House may even debate a bill affecting the Sovereign's prerogatives or interests. Although the Royal Prerogative is extensive, it is not unlimited. For example, the monarch does not have the prerogative to impose and collect new taxes; such an action requires the authorisation of an Act of Parliament. This article or section should include material from Royal Perogative. ... In English law, the Queens peace (or Kings peace, when a male is on the throne) is the peaceful, violence_free state that the realm should endure in at all times. ...


The Sovereign is considered one of the three components of Parliament; the others are the House of Lords and the House of Commons. It is the prerogative of the monarch to summon, prorogue, and dissolve Parliament. Each parliamentary session begins with the monarch's summons. The new parliamentary session is marked by the State Opening of Parliament, during which the Sovereign reads the Speech from the Throne in the Chamber of the House of Lords, outlining the Government's legislative agenda. Prorogation usually occurs about one year after a session begins, and formally concludes the session. Dissolution ends a parliamentary term (which lasts a maximum of five years), and is followed by general elections for all seats in the House of Commons. These powers, however, are always exercised on the Prime Minister's advice. The timing of a dissolution is affected by a variety of factors; the Prime Minister normally chooses the most politically opportune moment for his or her party. The Sovereign may theoretically refuse a dissolution, but the circumstances under which such an action would be warranted are unclear. (See Lascelles Principles.) No parliamentary term may last more than five years; at the end of this period, a dissolution is automatic under the Parliament Act 1911. A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. ... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... Queen Beatrix of The Netherlands reads her countrys Speech from the Throne Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne, sometimes referred to by the shorter term Throne Speech, is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or... The Lascelles Principles are a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom describing the circumstances under which a monarch may refuse a request for dissolution of Parliament. ... In the United Kingdom, Parliament Act refers to each of two Acts of Parliament, passed in 1911 and 1949 respectively. ...


All laws are enacted in the monarch's name. The words "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows," known as the enacting formula, form a part of each Act of Parliament. Before a bill can become law, the Royal Assent (the monarch's approval) is required. Theoretically, the Sovereign may either grant the Royal Assent (thereby making the bill law) or withhold the Royal Assent (thereby vetoing the bill). By convention, however, the monarch always grants the Royal Assent; therefore, the Sovereign's role with respect to approving bills is purely ceremonial. The last monarch to withhold the Royal Assent was Queen Anne, who did so when presented with a Scottish Militia Bill in 1708. An enacting formula is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by some legislatures. ... The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a Sovereign or the Sovereigns representative in the United Kingdom and in Commonwealth Realms completes the process of the enactment of legislation by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... Anne Queen of Great Britain and Ireland Anne (6 February 1665–1 August 1714), became Queen of England and Scotland on 8 March 1702. ... Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague September 28: Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya J.S. Bach appointed as chamber musician and...


The Royal Prerogative with respect to domestic affairs is extensive. He or she is responsible for the appointment and dismissal of ministers, Privy Counsellors, members of various executive agencies, and other officials. Effectively, however, the appointees are chosen by the Prime Minister, or, for less important offices, by other ministers. In addition, the monarch is the head of the Armed Forces (the British Army, the Royal Navy, and the Royal Air Force). It is the Sovereign's prerogative to declare war, make peace, and direct the actions of the military; as usual, the power is used only on ministerial advice. The British Army is the land armed forces of the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force of the United Kingdom. ...


The Royal Prerogative, in addition, extends to foreign affairs. The Sovereign may negotiate and ratify treaties, alliances, and international agreements; no parliamentary approval is required. However, a treaty cannot alter the domestic laws of the United Kingdom; an Act of Parliament is necessary in such cases. The Sovereign also accredits British High Commissioners and ambassadors, and receives diplomats from foreign states. In addition, all British passports are issued in the monarch's name. The title page of European Union passports bears the name of the issuing country, then the name European Union, in the languages of all EU countries. ...


Furthermore, the Sovereign is deemed the fount of justice, and is theoretically responsible for rendering justice for all subjects. The Sovereign does not personally rule in judicial cases; instead, judicial functions are performed in his or her name. For instance, prosecutions are brought on the monarch's behalf, and courts derive their authority from the Crown. The common law holds that the Sovereign "can do no wrong"; the monarch cannot be prosecuted in his or her own courts for criminal offences. The Crown Proceedings Act 1947 allows civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against the government); however, lawsuits against the monarch personally are not cognizable. The Sovereign also exercises the "prerogative of mercy," and may pardon offences against the Crown. Pardons may be awarded before, during, or after a trial, but are in practice granted only on ministerial advice. A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ...


Similarly, the monarch is also the fount of honour, the source of all honours and dignities in the United Kingdom. Thus, the Crown creates all peerages, appoints members of the orders of chivalry, grants knighthoods, and awards other honours. In practice, peerages and most other honours are granted on the advice of the Prime Minister. Some honours, however, are within the personal gift of the Sovereign, and are not granted on ministerial advice. Thus, the monarch alone appoints members of the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the Royal Victorian Order, and the Order of Merit. The fount of honour refers to a nations head of state, who, by virtue of his or her official position, has the exclusive right of conferring legitimate titles of Nobility and Orders of Chivalry to other persons. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Victoria founded the Royal Victorian Order. ... The Order of Merit is a British Order (decoration). ...


Finally, the Sovereign is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, the officially established church in England. As such, the monarch has the power to appoint archbishops and bishops. The Prime Minister, however, chooses the appointee, though he or she must select from a list of nominees prepared by the Crown Nominations Commission. The Crown's role in the Church of England is purely titular; the most senior clergyman, the Archbishop of Canterbury, is seen as the spiritual leader of the Church and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The monarch is only an ordinary member, and not the head or leader, of the established Church of Scotland; however, he or she does hold the power to appoint the Lord High Commissioner to the Church's General Assembly. The Sovereign plays no formal role in the Church in Wales and the Church of Ireland, neither of which is an established church. The Supreme Governor of the Church of England is a title held by the British Monarchs that signifies their titular leadership over the Church of England. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior bishop of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion, outranking the other English archbishop, the Archbishop of York. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... The Church of Scotland is the national (established) church in Scotland. ... As the Sovereigns personal representative Lord High Commissioners were appointed to the Parliament of the separate Kingdom of Scotland between 1603 and 1707. ... The Church in Wales is a member Church of the Anglican Communion. ... The Church of Ireland which is part of the Anglican Communion, is the largest Protestant church on the island of Ireland, claims to be the most ancient Christian church within all Ireland, and is the second largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland. ...


The Great Seal of the Realm is the device used to authenticate important official documents, including letters patent, proclamations, and writs of election. The Great Seal of the Realm is in the custody of the Lord Chancellor. For matters relating exclusively to Scotland or Northern Ireland, the Great Seal of Scotland or the Great Seal of Northern Ireland is used, as the case may be. The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal document which is an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as a corporation. ... A writ of election is a writ issued by the government ordering the holding of a special election for a governmental office. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times Chancellor of England, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom. ...


Finances

Main article: Privy Purse In the past, the UKs Civil Government day-to-day costs were paid for by the Sovereign under normal circumstances, the monies in this Public Purse being raised by from the income of the Crown Estate lands and holdings. ...


Parliament meets much of the Sovereign's official expenditure from public funds. The Civil List is the sum that covers most expenses, including those for staffing, state visits, public engagements, and official entertainment. The size of the Civil List is fixed by Parliament every ten years; however, any money saved may be carried forward to the next ten year period. Thus, the Sovereign's Civil List expenditure in 2003 was approximately £9.9 million. In addition, the Sovereign receives an annual Property Services Grant-in-Aid (£15.3 million for FY 20032004) to pay for the upkeep of the royal residences, as well as an annual Royal Travel Grant-in-Aid (£5.9 million for FY 20032004). The Civil List and the Grants-in-Aid are paid from public funds. A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... A fiscal year or financial year is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial reports in businesses and other organizations. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A fiscal year or financial year is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial reports in businesses and other organizations. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Formerly, the monarch met all official expenses from hereditary revenues, including the profits of the Crown Estate. In 1760, however, King George III agreed to surrender the hereditary revenues of the Crown in return for the Civil List; this arrangement still persists. In modern times, the profits surrendered from the Crown Estate have by far exceeded the Civil List and Grants-in-Aid provided to the monarch. For example, the Crown Estate produced over £170 million for the Treasury in the financial year 20032004, whereas parliamentary funding for the monarch was less than £40 million during the same period. The monarch continues to own the Crown Estate, but cannot sell it; instead, the estate must continue to pass from one Sovereign to the next. In the United Kingdom and its predecessors, Crown land is designated land belonging to the Crown, the equivalent of an entailed estate that passed with the monarchy and could not be alienated from it. ... Events January 9 - Afghans defeat Marathas in Battle of Barari Ghat. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Aside from the Crown Estate, the Sovereign also owns the Duchy of Lancaster. The Duchy is the monarch's private inherited property, unlike the Crown Estate, which belongs to the monarch in an official capacity. Like the Crown Estate, however, the Duchy is held in trust, and cannot be sold by the monarch. The revenues of the Duchy of Lancaster need not be surrendered to the Treasury; instead, they form a part of the Privy Purse, and are used for expenses not borne by the Civil List. The Duchy of Cornwall is a similar estate held in trust to meet the expenses of the monarch's eldest son. The Duchy of Lancaster is one of the two Royal Duchies in the United Kingdom, the other being the Duchy of Cornwall. ... In the past, the UKs Civil Government day-to-day costs were paid for by the Sovereign under normal circumstances, the monies in this Public Purse being raised by from the income of the Crown Estate lands and holdings. ... The Duchy of Cornwall is one of the two Royal duchies in the United Kingdom (the other being the Duchy of Lancaster). ...


The Sovereign is subject to indirect taxes such as the value added tax (VAT), but is exempt from income tax and capital gains tax. Since 1993, however, the Queen has voluntarily paid taxes on personal income. As the Civil List and Grants-in-Aid are used solely for official expenditure, they are not taken into account when calculating taxes. Value added tax (VAT) is a sales tax levied on the sale of goods and services. ... Income tax is a direct tax which is levied on the income of private individuals. ... In many jurisdictions, including the United States and the United Kingdom, a capital gains tax or CGT is charged on capital gains, that is the profit realised on the sale of an asset that was previously purchased at a lower price. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ...


Residences

Buckingham Palace is the monarch's principal residence.

The Sovereign's primary official residence is Buckingham Palace in the City of Westminster. Buckingham Palace is the site of most state banquets, investitures, royal christenings, and other ceremonies. Moreover, visiting heads of state usually reside in Buckingham Palace. Another principal residence is Windsor Castle, the largest occupied castle in the world. Windsor Castle, located in Windsor, Berkshire, is used principally as a weekend retreat; the monarch also resides there during the Royal Ascot, an annual race meeting that forms a major part of the social calendar. The Sovereign's principal official residence in Scotland is the Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly called Holyrood Palace, in Edinburgh. The monarch stays at Holyrood Palace for at least one week each year, and when visiting Scotland on state occasions. Buckingham Palace with Victoria Monument from the Mall. ... Buckingham Palace with Victoria Monument from the Mall. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria memorial. This principal facade of 1850 by Edward Blore was redesigned in 1913 by Sir Aston Webb. ... The City of Westminster is a London borough and a city in its own right, situated to the west of the City of London and north of the River Thames. ... Windsor Castle is (along with Buckingham Palace in London and Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh) one of the principal official residences of the British monarch, who always stays there at Easter and during Royal Ascot week (in June) at the nearby Ascot Racecourse; as well as for various weekend retreats throughout... Location within the British Isles. ... Ascot Racecourse is a racecourse, located in the village of Ascot in the English county of Berkshire. ... Holyrood Palace The Palace of Holyroodhouse, more commonly known as Holyrood Palace, originally founded as a monastery by David I of Scotland in 1128, has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scotland since the 15th century. ... Edinburgh viewed from Arthurs Seat. ...


There also exist a number of other palaces not used as residences by the monarch. The Palace of Westminster was originally the Sovereign's primary residence until 1530; although it is still officially a royal palace, it serves as the home to both Houses of Parliament. Thereafter, the Sovereign's principal London residence was the Palace of Whitehall, which was destroyed by fire in 1698, to be replaced by St. James's Palace. Although it was replaced as the monarch's primary residence by Buckingham Palace in 1837, St James's is still used for various official functions. For example, foreign ambassadors are accredited to the Court of St. James's, and the Palace is the site of the meeting of the Accession Council. However, St James's Palace is not one of the Sovereign's official residences; instead, it is used by members of the Royal Family. Other residences used by the Royal Family include Clarence House (presently the home of the heir-apparent, HRH The Prince of Wales) and Kensington Palace. The Palace of Westminster lies on the bank of the River Thames. ... Events June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Court of St Jamess is the popular name of the royal court of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council proclaims a new monarch upon the death of a previous monarch. ... Clarence House, London Clarence House is a royal home in London, situated in The Mall, immediately southwest of St. ... His Royal Highness The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor) (born 14 November 1948), the eldest son of HM Queen Elizabeth II and HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is Heir Apparent to the thrones of the United Kingdom and over a dozen Commonwealth... Categories: Stub | Historic houses in London | Royal buildings in London | Palaces in England | British Royal Residences ...


The aforementioned residences belong to the Crown; they are held in trust for future rulers, and cannot be sold by the monarch. However, the monarch does own certain homes in a private capacity. Sandringham House, a privately owned country house near the village of Sandringham, Norfolk, is typically used from Christmas to the end of January. Similarly, during parts of August and September, the monarch resides in Balmoral Castle, a privately owned castle in Aberdeenshire in Scotland. Sandringham House is a country house on 8000 acres (32 km²) of land near the village of Sandringham, Norfolk, whixh is privately owned by the British Royal Family. ... In Britain (and also in Ireland) the term country house generally refers to a large house which was built on an agricultural estate as the private residence of the landowner. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... Balmoral Castle Balmoral Castle, painted by Queen Victoria in 1854 during its construction Balmoral Castle is a large mansion built by Queen Victoria in the Scottish baronial style on the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, current (as of 2004) summer residence of Queen Elizabeth II, who stays there for 12... Introduction Aberdeenshire is one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland. ...


Style

Main article: Style and Title The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ...


The present Sovereign's full style and title is: "Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith." The title "Head of the Commonwealth" is held by the Queen personally, and is not vested in the British Crown. (However, her father, George VI, was also recognised as such.) Pope Leo X first granted the title "Defender of the Faith" to King Henry VIII in 1521, rewarding him for his support of the Papacy during the early years of the Protestant Reformation. However, Henry VIII later broke from the Roman Catholic Church and established the Church of England; Pope Paul III revoked the grant, but Parliament passed a law authorising its continued use. Queen Elizabeth II is recognised as Head of the Commonwealth in those members of the Commonwealth of Nations which are not Commonwealth realms and where, therefore, she is not head of state. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) (December 14, 1895 - February 6, 1952) was the third British monarch of the House of Windsor, reigning from December 11, 1936 to February 6, 1952. ... Pope Leo X Leo X, né Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (December 11, 1475 - December 1, 1521), was the only pope who has bestowed his own name upon his age, and one of the few whose original extraction has corresponded in some measure with the splendour of the pontifical dignity. ... Defenders of the Faith. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Pope Paul III, (1543) portrait by Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ...


The Sovereign is known as "His Majesty" or "Her Majesty," though, in certain formal circumstances, "Most Gracious Majesty" or "Most Excellent Majesty" is used instead. The form "Britannic Majesty" appears in international treaties and on passports to differentiate the British monarch from foreign rulers. Queens Consort (wives of Kings) and Queens Dowager (widows of Kings) are also entitled to the style "Majesty," but husbands of female monarchs are not. Thus, the husband of the present Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, is only styled "Royal Highness." HRH The Duke of Edinburgh His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten, formerly Prince Philippos of Greece and Denmark), styled HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (born June 10, 1921), is the consort of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...


The ordinal used for the monarch only takes into account monarchs since the Norman Conquest. If only one monarch has used a particular name, then no ordinal is used; for example, Queen Victoria is never known as "Victoria I." After the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, numbering was based solely on previous English monarchs, and not on Scottish ones. In 1953, however, Scottish nationalists challenged the right of the Queen to style herself "Elizabeth II," on the grounds that there had never before been an "Elizabeth I" in Scotland. In MacCormick v. Lord Advocate, the Scottish Court of Session ruled against the plaintiffs, finding that the Queen's title was a matter of her own choice and prerogative. Nevertheless, it was announced that future monarchs would use the higher of the English and Scottish ordinals. Retroactively applying this policy yields no change in numbering. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest was the conquest of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Events March 26 - Act of Union with Scotland becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... MacCormick v. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ...


Traditionally, a monarch's signature includes his or her regnal name (but not ordinal) followed by the letter R. The letter stands for rex or regina (king or queen in Latin). Hence, the present Queen signs "Elizabeth R". R is the eighteenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... Latin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Arms of Dominion

Main article: Arms of Dominion The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom The Royal Arms of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II are her arms of dominion in right of the United Kingdom. ...

The Royal Standard is the Sovereign's official flag in the United Kingdom. It depicts the Arms of Dominion (the monarch's coat of arms).

The coat of arms used by the Sovereign, known as the Arms of Dominion, are: Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). The supporters are the lion and the unicorn; the motto is Dieu et mon Droit (French for "God and my Right"). In Scotland, the monarch uses an alternative form of the Arms of Dominion in which quarters I and IV represent Scotland, II England, and IV Ireland. The motto is Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin for "No-one provokes me with impunity"); the supporters are the unicorn and lion. Royal Standard of the United Kingdom (including Scotland). ... Royal Standard of the United Kingdom (including Scotland). ... Heraldry is the science and art of describing coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom The Royal Arms of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II are her arms of dominion in right of the United Kingdom. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: French Wikipedia en français French in its formal sense and used in its capitalized form, denotes: Something from or related to France. ... Latin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


The monarch official flag in the United Kingdom is known as the Royal Standard, and depicts the Arms of Dominion. (The Royal Standard used in Scotland depicts the Scottish version of the arms.) This flag is only from buildings and vehicles in which the Sovereign is present; elsewhere, the Union Flag is flown. The Royal Standard may never be flown at half-mast. The Royal Standard is the official flag of Her Majesty The Queen in her capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom and of various other Realms. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The Union Flag or Union Jack is the flag most commonly associated with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and was also used throughout the former British Empire. ...


See also

The United Kingdom has an uncodified constitution, which means it is not all contained in a single document. ... The British republican movement is a movement in the United Kingdom which seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a republic with an elected head of state. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The line of succession to the British Throne (and, by extension, the thrones of the fifteen other commonwealth realms) is determined by male primogeniture, whereby the eldest son of the incumbent inherits the throne. ... The Politics of the United Kingdom are based upon a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... Succession to the British Throne has generally been according to the rules of male primogeniture. ...

References

  • Blackstone, Sir William. (1765). Commentaries on the Laws of England. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • British Monarchy. (2005). Official website. (http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp)
  • Cannon, John, and Ralph Griffiths. (2000). The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Farnborough, Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron. (1896). Constitutional History of England since the Accession of George the Third, 11th ed. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
  • Fraser, Lady Antonia (Editor). (1975). The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • The House of Commons Public Administration Select Committee. (2003). "The Royal Prerogative." (http://www.parliament.uk/parliamentary_committees/public_administration_select_committee/pasc_19.cfm)
  • Raphael, D.D., Donald Limon, and W.R. McKay. (2004). Erskine May: Parliamentary Practice, 23rd ed. London: Butterworths Tolley.

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