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Encyclopedia > English language learning and teaching

ESL (English as a second language), ESOL (English for speakers of other languages), and EFL (English as a foreign language) all refer to the use or study of English by speakers with a different native language. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information. ESL is a common abbreviation for English as a Second Language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ...


ELT (English language teaching) is a widely-used student-centred term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. The abbreviations TESL (teaching English as a second language), TESOL (teaching English for speakers of other languages) and TEFL (teaching English as a foreign language) are all also used. TEFL or Teaching English as a foreign language refers to teaching English to students for whom it is not their mother tongue. ...


Other terms used in this field include EAL (English as an additional language), ESD (English as a second dialect), EIL (English as an international language), ELF (English as a lingua franca), ESP (English for special purposes, or English for specific purposes), EAP (English for academic purposes). Some terms that refer to those who are learning English are ELL (English language learner) and LEP (limited English proficiency). For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Contents

Terminology and types

The many acronyms used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing. English is a language with great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world under many different circumstances. In English-speaking countries, English language teaching has essentially evolved in two broad directions: instruction for people who intend to stay in the country and those who don't. These divisions have grown firmer as the instructors of these two "industries" have used different terminology, followed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associations, and so on. Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held. Matters are further complicated by the fact that the United States and the United Kingdom, both major engines of the language, describe these categories in different terms: as many eloquent users of the language have observed, "England and America are two countries divided by a common language." (Attributed to Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, and Oscar Wilde.) The following technical definitions may therefore have their currency contested. Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ... Terminology is the study of terms and their use — of words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. ... This article or section should be merged with professional body In countries where the legal system entitles defendants to a jury by their peers, the general public may not be considered sufficiently knowledgeable in a field of practice to act as a peer in some legal cases. ... Churchill redirects here. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ...


English outside English-speaking countries

EFL, English as a foreign language, indicates the use of English in a non-English-speaking region. Study can occur either in the student's home country, as part of the normal school curriculum or otherwise, or, for the more privileged minority, in an anglophone country that they visit as a sort of educational tourist, particularly immediately before or after graduating from university. TEFL is the teaching of English as a foreign language; note that this sort of instruction can take place in any country, English-speaking or not. Typically, EFL is learned either to pass exams as a necessary part of one's education, or for career progression while working for an organisation or business with an international focus. EFL may be part of the state school curriculum in countries where English has no special status (what linguist Braj Kachru calls the "expanding circle countries"); it may also be supplemented by lessons paid for privately. Teachers of EFL generally assume that students are literate in their mother tongue. The Chinese EFL Journal [[3]]and Iranian EFL Journal [[4]]are examples of international journals dedicated to specifics of English language learning within unique cultures. Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... TEFL or Teaching English as a foreign language refers to teaching English to students for whom it is not their mother tongue. ... For a curriculum vitae, see Résumé. In formal education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. ... Braj Kachru (born 1932?) was born in Kashmir. ... Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ...


English within English-speaking countries

The other broad grouping is the use of English within the Anglosphere. In what theorist Braj Kachru calls "the inner circle", i.e. countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States, this use of English is generally by refugees, immigrants and their children. It also includes the use of English in "outer circle" countries, often former British colonies, where English is an official language even if it is not spoken as a mother tongue by the majority of the population. Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... Braj Kachru (born 1932?) was born in Kashmir. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ...


In the US, Canada and Australia, this use of English is called ESL (English as a second language). This term has been criticized on the grounds that many learners already speak more than one language. A counter-argument says that the word "a" in the phrase "a second language" means there is no presumption that English is the second acquired language (see also Second language). TESL is the teaching of English as a second language. A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ...


In the UK, Ireland and New Zealand, the term ESL has been replaced by ESOL (English for speakers of other languages). In these countries TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is normally used to refer to teaching English only to this group. In the UK, the term EAL (English as an additional language), rather than ESOL, is usually used when talking about primary and secondary schools.[1]


Other acronyms were created to describe the person rather than the language to be learned. The term LEP (Limited English proficiency) was created in 1975 by the Lau Remedies following a decision of the US Supreme Court. ELL (English Language Learner), used by United States governments and school systems, was created by Charlene Rivera of the Center for Equity and Excellent in Education in an effort to label learners positively, rather than ascribing a deficiency to them. LOTE (Languages other than English) is a parallel term used in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Lote is a village in Eid municipality, Norway. ...


Typically, this sort of English (called ESL in the United States, Canada, and Australia, ESOL in the United Kingdom, Ireland and New Zealand) is learned to function in the new host country, e.g. within the school system (if a child), to find and hold down a job (if an adult), to perform the necessities of daily life. The teaching of it does not presuppose literacy in the mother tongue. It is usually paid for by the host government to help newcomers settle into their adopted country, sometimes as part of an explicit citizenship program. It is technically possible for ESL to be taught not in the host country, but in, for example, a refugee camp, as part of a pre-departure program sponsored by the government soon to receive new potential citizens. In practice, however, this is extremely rare. First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... Citizen redirects here. ...


Particularly in Canada and Australia, the term ESD (English as a second dialect) is used alongside ESL, usually in reference to programs for Canadian First Nations people or indigenous Australians, respectively.[2] It refers to the use of standard English, which may need to be explicitly taught, by speakers of a creole or non-standard variety. It is often grouped with ESL as ESL/ESD. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a new language, sometimes with features that are not inherited from any apparent source, without however qualifying in any appreciable way as a mixed language. ...


Umbrella terms

All these ways of teaching English can be bundled together into an umbrella term. Unfortunately, all the English teachers in the world cannot agree on just one. The term TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is used in American English to include both TEFL and TESL. British English uses ELT (English language teaching), because TESOL has a different, more specific meaning; see above. An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ...


Which variety to teach

It is worth noting that ESL and EFL programs also differ in the variety of English which is taught; "English" is a term that can refer to various dialects, including British English, American English, and many others. Obviously, those studying English in order to fit into their new country will learn the variety spoken there. However, for those who do not intend to change countries, the question arises of which sort of English to learn. If they are going abroad for a short time to study English, they need to choose which country. For those staying at home, the choice may be made for them in that private language schools or the state school system may only offer one model. Students studying EFL in Hong Kong, for example, are more likely to learn British English, whereas students in the Philippines are more likely to learn American English. For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... This is a list of varieties of the English language. ...


For this reason, many teachers now emphasize teaching English as an international language (EIL), also known as English as a ­lingua franca (ELF). Linguists are charting the development of international English, a term with contradictory and confusing meanings, one of which refers to a decontextualised variant of the language, independent of the culture and associated references of any particular country, useful when, for example, a Saudi does business with someone from China or Albania. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ...


Systems of simplified English

For international communication several models of "simplified English" have been suggested, among them:

  • Basic English, developed by Charles Kay Ogden (and later also I. A. Richards) in the 1930s; a recent revival has been initiated by Bill Templer[3]
  • Threshold Level English, developed by van Ek and Alexander[4]
  • Globish, developed by Jean-Paul Nerrière
  • Basic Global English, developed by Joachim Grzega[5]

Furthermore, Randolph Quirk and Gabriele Stein thought about a Nuclear English, which, however, has never been fully developed[6]. Look up Appendix:Basic English word list in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Charles Kay Ogden (June 1, 1889 Fleetwood - March 21, 1957 London) was a British linguist, philosopher, and writer, now mostly remembered as the inventor and propagator of Basic English, a constructed language, his primary activity from 1925 until his death. ... Ivor Armstrong Richards (26 February 1893 in Sandbach, Cheshire – 7 September 1979 in Cambridge) was an influential English literary critic and rhetorician. ... Globish is a portmanteau neologism of the words Global and English. ... Randolph Quirk (b. ...


Difficulties for learners

Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English (a contrastive analysis approach). A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because German is closely related to English, whereas Chinese is not. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue (also called first language, normally abbreviated L1) setting out to learn any other language (called a target language, second language or L2). See also second language acquisition (SLA) for mixed evidence from linguistic research. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A contrastive analysis describes the structural differences and similarities of two or more languages. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... Translation is an activity comprising the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language—the source text—and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language—the target text, also called the translation. ... Second language acquisition is the process by which people learn languages in addition to their native language(s). ...


Language learners often produce errors of syntax and pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false friends. This is known as L1 transfer or "language interference". However, these transfer effects are typically stronger for beginners' language production, and SLA research has highlighted many errors which cannot be attributed to the L1, as they are attested in learners of many language backgrounds (for example, failure to apply 3rd person present singular -s to verbs, as in 'he make'). For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up False friend in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Language transfer (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, cross-linguistic interference or interference) is the effect of a speaker or writers first language (L1) on the production or perception of his or her second language (L2). ... Second language acquisition is the process by which people learn languages in addition to their native language(s). ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ...


While English is no more complex than other languages, it has several features which may create difficulties for learners. Conversely, because such a large number of people are studying it, products have been developed to help them do so, such as the monolingual learner's dictionary, which is written with a restricted defining vocabulary. Monolingual learners dictionaries are written for learners of a foreign language. ... A defining vocabulary is a published, stable, and culturally accepted core glossary specifically used by dictionary publishers to standardize their use of simple words to explain complex words, and culture-specific idioms or metaphors. ...


Pronunciation

  • Consonant phonemes
English does not have more individual consonant sounds than most languages. However, the interdentals, /θ/ and /ð/ (the sounds written with th), which are common in English (thin, thing, etc.; and the, this, that, etc.) are relatively rare in other languages, even others in the Germanic family (e.g., English thousand = German tausend), and these sounds are missing even in some English dialects. Some learners substitute a [t] or [d] sound, while others shift to [s] or [z], [f] or [v] and even [ts] or [dz]).
Speakers of Japanese, Korean and Chinese varieties have difficulty distinguishing [r] and [l]. The distinction between [b] and [v] can cause difficulty for native speakers of Spanish, Japanese and Korean.
  • Vowel phonemes
The precise number of distinct vowel sounds depends on the variety of English: for example, Received Pronunciation has twelve monophthongs (single or "pure" vowels), eight diphthongs (double vowels) and two triphthongs (triple vowels); whereas General American has thirteen monophthongs and three diphthongs. Many learners, such as speakers of Spanish, Japanese or Arabic, have fewer vowels, or only pure ones, in their mother tongue and so may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing these distinctions.
  • Syllable structure
In its syllable structure, English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and four after it (e.g., straw, desks, glimpsed). The syllable structure causes problems for speakers of many other languages. Japanese, for example, broadly alternates consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan often try to force vowels in between the consonants (e.g., desks /desks/ becomes "desukusu" or milk shake /mɪlk ʃeɪk/ becomes "mirukushēku").
Learners from languages where all words end in vowels sometimes tend to make all English words end in vowels, thus make /meɪk/ can come out as [meɪkə]. The learner's task is further complicated by the fact that native speakers may drop consonants in the more complex blends (e.g., [mʌns] instead of [mʌnθs] for months).
  • Unstressed vowels - Native English speakers frequently replace almost any vowel in an unstressed syllable with an unstressed vowel, often schwa. For example, from has a distinctly pronounced short 'o' sound when it is stressed (e.g., Where are you from?), but when it is unstressed, the short 'o' reduces to a schwa (e.g., I'm from London.). In some cases, unstressed vowels may disappear altogether, in words such as chocolate (which has four syllables in Spanish, but only two as pronounced by Americans: "choc-lit".)
Stress in English more strongly determines vowel quality than it does in most other world languages (although there are notable exceptions such as Russian). For example, in some varieties the syllables an, en, in, on and un are pronounced as homophones, that is, exactly alike. Native speakers can usually distinguish an able, enable, and unable because of their position in a sentence, but this is more difficult for inexperienced English speakers. Moreover, learners tend to overpronounce these unstressed vowels, giving their speech an unnatural rhythm.
  • Stress timing - English tends to be a stress-timed language - this means that stressed syllables are roughly equidistant in time, no matter how many syllables come in between. Although some other languages, e.g., German and Russian, are also stress-timed, most of the world's other major languages are syllable-timed, with each syllable coming at an equal time after the previous one. Learners from these languages often have a staccato rhythm when speaking English that is disconcerting to a native speaker.
"Stress for emphasis" - students' own languages may not use stress for emphasis as English does.
"Stress for contrast" - stressing the right word or expression. This may not come easily to some nationalities.
"Emphatic apologies" - the normally unstressed auxiliary is stressed (I really am very sorry)
In English there are quite a number of words - about fifty - that have two different pronunciations, depending on whether they are stressed. They are "grammatical words": pronouns, prepositions, auxiliary verbs and conjunctions. Most students tend to overuse the strong form, which is pronounced with the written vowel.
  • Connected speech
Phonological processes such as assimilation, elision and epenthesis together with indistinct word boundaries can confuse learners when listening to natural spoken English, as well as making their speech sound too formal if they do not use them. For example, in RP eight beetles and three ants /eɪt biːtəlz ənd θriː ænts/ becomes [eɪtbiːtl̩znθɹiːjæns].
See also: Accent reduction

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In phonetics, a triphthong (Greek τρίφθογγος, triphthongos, literally with three sounds, or with three tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another that passes over a third one. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... This article is about the term in linguistics. ... In linguistics, the timing in a language comprises the rhythmic qualities of speech, in particular how syllables are distributed across time. ... In every language, speech emission is based on a sequence of elementary sound units; some of them play a specific part: through their isochronic recurrence, they produce the rhythm of the sentences. ... In musical notation, the Italian word staccato (literally detached, plural staccatos or staccati) indicates that notes are sounded in a detached and distinctly separate manner, with silence making up the latter part of the time allocated to each note. ... Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ... In music, see elision (music). ... In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (, from Greek epi on + en in + thesis putting) is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Accent reduction, also known as accent modification, is a systematic approach to reducing or eliminating a foreign accent. ...

Grammar

  • Tenses - English has a relatively large number of tenses with some quite subtle differences, such as the difference between the simple past "I ate" and the present perfect "I have eaten." Progressive and perfect progressive forms add complexity. (See English verbs.)
  • Functions of auxiliaries - Learners of English tend to find it difficult to manipulate the various ways in which English uses the first auxiliary verb of a tense. These include negation (eg He hasn't been drinking.), inversion with the subject to form a question (eg Has he been drinking?), short answers (eg Yes, he has.) and tag questions (has he?). A further complication is that the dummy auxiliary verb do /does /did is added to fulfil these functions in the simple present and simple past, but not for the verb to be.
  • Modal verbs - English also has a significant number of modal auxiliary verbs which each have a number of uses. For example, the opposite of "You must be here at 8" (obligation) is usually "You don't have to be here at 8" (lack of obligation, choice), while "must" in "You must not drink the water" (prohibition) has a different meaning from "must" in "You must not be a native speaker" (deduction). This complexity takes considerable work for most learners to master.
  • Idiomatic usage - English is reputed to have a relatively high degree of idiomatic usage. For example, the use of different main verb forms in such apparently parallel constructions as "try to learn", "help learn", and "avoid learning" pose difficulty for learners. Another example is the idiomatic distinction between "make" and "do": "make a mistake", not "do a mistake"; and "do a favour", not "make a favour".
  • Articles - English has an appreciable number of articles , including the definite article the and the indefinite article a, an. At times English nouns can or indeed must be used without an article; this is called the zero article. Some of the differences between definite, indefinite and zero article are fairly easy to learn, but others are not, particularly since a learner's native language may lack articles or use them in different ways than English does. Although the information conveyed by articles is rarely essential for communication, English uses them frequently (several times in the average sentence), so that they require some effort from the learner.

Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... Verbs in the English language are a lexically and morphologically distinct part of speech which describes an action, an event, or a state. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... Tag questions (or: question tags) are a grammatical structure in which a declarative statement or an imperative is turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment (the tag). // Forms and uses In most languages, tag questions are more common in colloquial spoken than in formal written usage. ... The English modal auxiliary verbs are will and would shall and should may and might can and could must ought to Modal auxiliary verbs help other verbs express a meaning or an idea but have no meaning by themselves. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... For the pop music band, see The The. ... Look up a in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A zero article is an unpronounced article present in some languages. ...

Vocabulary

  • Phrasal verbs - Phrasal verbs in English can cause difficulties for many learners because they have several meanings and different syntactic patterns. There are also a number of phrasal verb differences between American and British English.
  • Word derivation - Word derivation in English requires a lot of rote learning. For example, an adjective can be negated by using the prefix un- (e.g. unable), in- (e.g. inappropriate), dis- (e.g. dishonest), or a- (e.g. amoral), or through the use of one of a myriad of related but rarer prefixes, all modified versions of the first four.
  • Size of lexicon - The history of English has resulted in a very large vocabulary, essentially one stream from Old English and one from the Norman infusion of Latin-derived terms. (Schmitt & Marsden claim that English has one of the largest vocabularies of any known language.) This inevitably requires more work for a learner to master the language.

In the English language, a phrasal verb is a verb combined with a preposition, an adverb, or an adverbial particle, all three of which are uninflected. ... In linguistics, derivation is the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. ... It has been suggested that Rote memory be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Norman conquests in red. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...

Differences between spoken and written English

As with most languages, written language tends to use a more formal register than spoken language. The acquisition of literacy takes significant effort in English. In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ...

  • Spelling - Because of the many changes in pronunciation which have occurred since a written standard developed, and the retention of many historical idiosyncrasies in spelling, English spelling is difficult even for native speakers to master. This difficulty is shown in such activities as spelling bees that generally require the memorization of words. English speakers may also rely on computer tools such as spell checkers more than speakers of other languages, as the users of the utility may have forgotten, or never learned, the correct spelling of a word. The generalizations that exist are quite complex and there are many exceptions leading to a considerable amount of rote learning. The spelling system causes problems in both directions - a learner may know a word by sound but not be able to write it correctly (or indeed find it in a dictionary), or they may see a word written but not know how to pronounce it or mislearn the pronunciation.

Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ... For other uses, see Spelling bee (disambiguation). ... In computing terms, a spelling checker (also spell checker) is a software program designed to verify the spelling of words in a file, helping a user ensure his/her spelling is correct. ... It has been suggested that Rote memory be merged into this article or section. ...

Varieties of English

  • There are thriving communities of English native speakers in countries all over the world, and this historical diaspora has led to some noticeable differences in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar in different countries, as well as those variations which exist between different regions, and across the social strata, within the same country. Even within the British Isles, there are significant regional language differences, differences of (i) pronunciation/accent, (ii) vocabulary, and even (iii) grammar/dialect, when the local dialect differs from that of another region or from the grammar of 'received English'.
  • The world holds over 7000 languages, and most exist within only a small geographic area; even most of the top 100 are limited to a small number of countries or even a single state. Some of the more well-known languages are to some degree managed by a specific organisation that determines the most prestigious form of the language, e.g. French language and the Academie de la langue française or Spanish language and the Real Academia Española. Since many students of English study it to enable them to communicate internationally, the lack of a uniform international standard for the language poses some barriers to meeting that goal; see international English.
  • Teaching English therefore involves not only helping the student to use the form of English most suitable for his purposes, but also exposure to other forms of English (e.g. regional forms/ cultural styles) so that the student will be able to discern 'meaning' even when the words/grammar/pronunciation may be quite different to the form of English with which he has become more familiar.

Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The Académie française (French Academy) is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. ...

Exams for learners

See a list of exams by clicking on the category "English language" at the bottom of the article, and then on "English language tests"


Learners of English are often keen to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally[7]:

  • Cambridge ESOL General English exams, a suite of five including First Certificate in English (FCE), Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) and Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE)
  • IELTS (International English Language Testing System), accepted by most tertiary academic institutions in the UK, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and by many in the USA.
  • Trinity College London ESOL offers several sets of exams: Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE), a suite of twelve exams. Integrated Skills in English (ISE), a suite of five exams. ESOL Skills for Life and ESOL for Work.
  • City and Guilds International ESOL and International Spoken ESOL on demand examinations available at six levels: Preliminary, Access, Achiever, Communicator, Expert and Mastery
  • London Tests of English from Pearson Language Assessments, a series of six exams each mapped to a level from the CEFR
  • TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language), an Educational Testing Service product, developed and used primarily for academic institutions in the USA, and now widely accepted in tertiary institutions in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, the UK, and Ireland. The current test is Internet based, and is known as the TOEFL iBT. Used as a proxy for English for Academic Purposes.
  • TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication), an Educational Testing Service product for Business English
  • TSE - Test of Spoken English
  • TWE - Test of Written English

Many countries also have their own exams. ESOL learners in England, Wales and Northern Ireland usually take the national Skills for Life qualifications, which are offered by several exam boards. EFL learners in China may take the College English Test. ESOL logo The University of Cambridge ESOL examinations are examinations in English language ability for non-native speakers of English. ... The First Certificate in English (FCE) is one of the exams available in the University of Cambridge ESOL examination. ... The Certificate in Advanced English or CAE is the advanced general English exam provided by the University of Cambridge. ... The Certificate of Proficiency in English or CPE (as it is usually referred to) is the most advanced general English exam provided by the University of Cambridge. ... International English Language Testing System (IELTS, pronounced ) is a test of English language proficiency. ... Trinity College London ESOL is an international examinations board delivering assessments in English language learning and teaching and offering English language exams since 1957. ... The London Tests of English are international English language exams for speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL). ... Pearson Language Assessments is part of the Pearson group, one of the largest education and media companies in the world. ... The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, or CEFR, is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe. ... The Test Of English as a Foreign Language (or TOEFL, pronounced toe-full, or sometimes just toffle) evaluates the potential success of an individual to use and understand Standard American English at a college level. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... TOEIC diploma Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) measures the ability of non-native English-speaking people to use English in everyday work activities. ... Business English is English especially related to international trade. ... The Test of Spoken English (TSE) is an oral test sometimes taken by non-native English speakers. ... An examination board is an organization that sets examinations and is responsible for marking them and distributing results. ... College English Test or better known as CET, is a national English level test in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Common European Framework

Between 1998 and 2000, the Council of Europe's language policy division developed its Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The aim of this framework was to have a common system for foreign language testing and certification, to cover all European languages and countries. Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. ... The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, or CEFR, is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages across Europe. ...


The Common European Framework (CEF) divides language learners into three levels:

  • A. Basic User
  • B. Independent User
  • C. Proficient User

Each of these levels is divided into two sections, resulting in a total of six levels for testing (A1, A2, B1, etc).


This table compares ELT exams according to the CEF levels:

CEF level ALTE level London Tests of English Trinity College London GESE Trinity College London ISE UBELT exam IELTS exam BEC & CELS exams Cambridge General English City and Guilds TOEIC* TOEFL*
C2 Level 5 Level 5 Grade 12 IV 4.0 - 5.0 7.5+ n/a CPE Mastery 910+ 276+
C1 Level 4 Level 4 Grade 10&11 ISE III 3.0 - 3.5 6.5 - 7 Higher CAE Expert 701 - 910 236 - 275
B2 Level 3 Level 3 Grade 7-9 ISE II 2.0 - 2.5 5 - 6 Vantage FCE Communicator 541 - 700 176 - 235
B1 Level 2 Level 2 Grade 5&6 ISE I 1.5 3.5 - 4.5 Preliminary PET Achiever 381 - 540 126 - 175
A2 Level 1 Level 1 Grades 3&4 ISE 0 1.0 3 n/a KET Access 246 - 380 96 - 125
A1 Breakthrough Level A1 Grade 2 n/a >1.0 1-2 n/a n/a Preliminary n/a n/a
  • The TOEIC and TOEFL exams are not part of the Common European framework, and the CEF levels can only be approximately equated to scores in these test. The origin of the scores in this table are uncertain.

The Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) is an association of language exam providers. ... The London Tests of English are international English language exams for speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL). ... Trinity College London ESOL is an international examinations board delivering assessments in English language learning and teaching and offering English language exams since 1957. ... Trinity College London ESOL is an international examinations board delivering assessments in English language learning and teaching and offering English language exams since 1957. ... International English Language Testing System (IELTS, pronounced ) is a test of English language proficiency. ... ESOL logo The University of Cambridge ESOL examinations are examinations in English language ability for non-native speakers of English. ... ESOL logo The University of Cambridge ESOL examinations are examinations in English language ability for non-native speakers of English. ... ESOL logo The University of Cambridge ESOL examinations are examinations in English language ability for non-native speakers of English. ... TOEIC diploma Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) measures the ability of non-native English-speaking people to use English in everyday work activities. ... The Test Of English as a Foreign Language (or TOEFL, pronounced toe-full, or sometimes just toffle) evaluates the potential success of an individual to use and understand Standard American English at a college level. ...

Qualifications for teachers

Non-native speakers

Many non-native speaking teachers who only work in their own country are qualified with the relevant teaching qualification of that country. In Hong Kong, it is called Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers. Those who work in private language schools and in other countries often have the same qualifications as native speakers (see below). The Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (LPAT) is an assessment examination for the language ability of Hong Kong teachers. ...


United States qualifications

Most U.S. instructors at community colleges and universities qualify by taking an MA in TESOL. This degree also qualifies them to teach in most EFL contexts as well. In some areas of the country, nearly all elementary school teachers are involved in teaching ELLs (English Language Learners, that is, children who come to school speaking a home language other than English.) The qualifications for these classroom teachers vary from state to state but always include a state-issued teaching certificate for public instruction. A community college is a type of educational institution. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


Teachers in all states require state licensing, which requires substantial practical field experiences and language pedagogy course work. The MA in TESOL includes both graduate work in English as one of the classical liberal arts (literature, linguistics, media studies) with a theoretical pedagogical component at the tertiary level. Admission to the MA in TESOL typically requires at least a bachelor's degree with a minor in English or linguistics. A degree in a foreign language can sometimes also be considered sufficient for admission. Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ...


It is important to note that the issuance of a teaching certificate or license is not automatic following completion of degree requirements. All teachers must complete a battery of exams (typically the Praxis subject and method exams or similar, state-sponsored exams) as well as supervised instruction as student teachers. Certification requirements for ESL teachers vary greatly from state to state. Out-of-state teaching certificates are recognized by other states if the two states have a reciprocity agreement. The Praxis test is a series of Teacher Certification exams that are taken before, during, and after college courses in teacher training. ...


British qualifications

Common, respected qualifications for teachers within the United Kingdom's sphere of influence include TESOL certificates and diplomas issued by University of Cambridge ESOL and Trinity College London ESOL. Language education is the teaching and learning of a language or languages, usually as foreign languages. ... Cambridge Assessment Logo The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate or UCLES Group is a department of the University of Cambridge in England. ... Trinity College London ESOL is an international examinations board delivering assessments in English language learning and teaching and offering English language exams since 1957. ...


A certificate course is usually undertaken before starting to teach. This is sufficient for most EFL jobs (see TEFL for an extended discussion of travel-teaching) and for some ESOL ones. CELTA (Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults) and CertTESOL (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) are the most widely taken and accepted qualifications for new teacher trainees. Courses are offered in the UK and in many countries around the world. It is usually taught full-time over a one-month period or part-time over a period up to a year. Asian countries now require Certificates based on Asian English Learning (Korean Ministry of Justice -March 2008) whilst China is only acepting (at government school level) certificates authorised by the International Acreditation Authority. Taiwan and Hong Kong are also implementing the certificate coures certified by the independant authority. see (TESOL Law Journal)([5]) TEFL – Teaching English as a Foreign Language – is an industry catering for students studying English in non-English speaking countries (see EFL). ... CELTA, the Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults, (pronounced selta) is a professional qualification for teaching English as a foreign language. ... The Certificate in TESOL (CertTESOL) is a professional qualification awarded in the teaching of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) by Trinity College (London). ...


Teachers with two or more years of teaching experience who want to stay in the profession and advance their career prospects (including school management and teacher training) can take a diploma course. University of Cambridge ESOL offers the DELTA (Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults) and Trinity College London ESOL offers the LTCL DipTESOL (Trinity Licentiate Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages). These diplomas are considered to be equivalent and are both accredited at level 7 of the revised National Qualifications Framework. Cambridge Assessment Logo The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate or UCLES Group is a department of the University of Cambridge in England. ... DELTA, the Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults, is a professional qualification awarded by the University of Cambridge English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), a part of Cambridge University. ... Trinity College London ESOL is an international examinations board delivering assessments in English language learning and teaching and offering English language exams since 1957. ... The Licentiate Diploma in TESOL (LTCL DipTESOL) is a professional qualification awarded in the teaching of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) by Trinity College London ESOL. It is often seen as a follow-up to the CertTESOL. The diploma is awarded upon passing a course which includes an... The National Qualifications Framework (NQF) is a credit transfer system developed for qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ...


Some teachers who stay in the profession go on to do an MA in a relevant discipline such as applied linguistics or ELT. Many UK master's degrees require considerable experience in the field before a candidate is accepted onto the course. A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate or graduate course of one to three years in duration. ...


The above qualifications are well-respected within the UK EFL sector, including private language schools and higher education language provision. However, in England and Wales, in order to meet the government's criteria for being a qualified teacher of ESOL in the Learning and Skills Sector (i.e. post-compulsory or further education), teachers need to have the Certificate in Further Education Teaching Stage 3 at level 5 (of the revised NQF) and the Certificate for ESOL Subject Specialists at level 4. Recognised qualifications which confer one or both of these include a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) in ESOL, the CELTA module 2 and City & Guilds 9488. The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Further education (often abbreviated FE) is post-secondary, post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school). ... The Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) is a one-year course in England, Wales and Northern Ireland for undergraduate degree holders that allows them to train to be a teacher. ... The City and Guilds of London Institute (City & Guilds) is a UK examining and accreditation body for vocational, managerial and engineering training, offering over 500 qualifications in 28 industry areas, spanning from entry level to the equivalent of a postgraduate degree. ...


Teachers of children within the state sector in the United Kingdom are normally expected to hold a PGCE, and may choose to specialise in ELT. State school is an expression used in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom to distinguish schools provided by the government from privately run schools. ...


Professional associations and unions

  • TESOL Inc. is Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, a professional organization based in the United States. In addition, there are many large state-wide and regional affiliates, see below.
  • IATEFL is the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language, a professional organization based in the United Kingdom.
  • Professional organisations for teachers of English exist at national levels. Many contain phrases in their title such as the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT) or the Society of Pakistan English Language Teachers (SPELT). Some of these organisations may be bigger in structure (pan-national, such as TESOL Arabia in the Gulf states), or smaller (limited to one city, state, or province, such as CATESOL in California). Some are affiliated to TESOL or IATEFL.
  • NATECLA is the National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults, which focuses on teaching ESOL in the United Kingdom.
  • National Union of General Workers is a Japanese union which includes English teachers.
  • University and College Union is a British trade union which includes lecturers of ELT.

TESOL Inc. ... IATEFL International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language IATEFL was founded in 1967 in the United Kingdom IATEFL works primarily to develop networks amongst related institutions and those who teach the English language, educate or train language teachers, administer EFL and ESL programmes, write and publish relevant... Society of Pakistan English Language Teachers (SPELT) is a professional forum for practitioners teaching English as a foreign/second language to facilitate effective communication and improve the teaching/learning standards of English in Pakistan. ... It has been suggested that Arab states of the Persian Gulf be merged into this article or section. ... CATESOL is the independent California and Nevada affiliate of the international organization Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... National Association for Teaching English and Community Languages to Adults (NATECLA) For over twenty-five years NATECLA has been the professional organisation of teachers of ESOL and Community languages to adults. ... The National Union of General Workers (NUGW) is the largest trade union for foreign workers in Japan with migrant worker organizers in its offices in Fukuoka, Osaka and Tokyo dealing mostly with English teachers working conditions in Japan. ... This article focuses on the organizations of Japans work force. ... The University and College Union (UCU) is a UK trade union formed from the 2006 merger of the Association of University Teachers (AUT) and the National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education (NATFHE). ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ...

Acronyms and abbreviations

See also: Language education for information on general language teaching acronyms and abbreviations. Language education refers to the teaching and learning of a language. ...


Types of English

The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
  • EAP - English for academic purposes
  • EFL - English as a foreign language
English for use in a non-English-speaking region, by someone whose first language is not English. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
  • ELT - English language teaching
The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
  • ESL - English as a second language
English for use in an English-speaking region, by someone whose first language is not English. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
  • ESOL - English for speakers of other languages
This term is used differently in different countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
  • ESP - English for special purposes, or English for specific purposes (e.g. technical English, scientific English, English for medical professionals, English for waiters).
  • TEFL - Teaching English as a foreign language This link is to a page about a subset of TEFL, namely travel-teaching.
More generally, see the discussion in Terminology and types.
  • TESL - Teaching English as a second language
The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
  • TESOL - Teaching English to speakers of other languages, or Teaching English as a second or other language
See the discussion in Terminology and types.
  • TYLE - Teaching Young Learners English
    • Note that YL Young Learners can mean under 18, or much younger.

Business English is English especially related to international trade. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... TEFL or Teaching English as a foreign language refers to teaching English to students for whom it is not their mother tongue. ...

Other abbreviations

  • BULATS - Business Language Testing Services, a computer-based test of business English, produced by CambridgeEsol. The test also exists for French, German, and Spanish.
  • CELTA - Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults
  • DELTA - Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults
  • IELTS - International English Language Testing System
  • LTE - London Tests of English by Pearson Language Assessments
  • NATE - National Association for the Teaching of English
  • TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language
  • TOEIC - Test of English for International Communication
  • UCLES - University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, an exam board

CELTA, the Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults, (pronounced selta) is a professional qualification for teaching English as a foreign language. ... DELTA, the Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults, is a professional qualification awarded by the University of Cambridge English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), a part of Cambridge University. ... International English Language Testing System (IELTS, pronounced ) is a test of English language proficiency. ... The London Tests of English are international English language exams for speakers of English as a foreign language (EFL). ... Pearson Language Assessments is part of the Pearson group, one of the largest education and media companies in the world. ... The Test Of English as a Foreign Language (or TOEFL, pronounced toe-full, or sometimes just toffle) evaluates the potential success of an individual to use and understand Standard American English at a college level. ... TOEIC diploma Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) measures the ability of non-native English-speaking people to use English in everyday work activities. ... Cambridge Assessment Logo The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate or UCLES Group is a department of the University of Cambridge in England. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ The Basic Skills Agency [1]
  2. ^ Saskatchewan Learning [2]
  3. ^ Cf. Ogden, Charles K. (1934), The System of Basic English, New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., and Templer, Bill (2005), “Towards a People’s English: Back to BASIC in EIL”, Humanising Language Teaching September 2005.
  4. ^ Cf. van Ek, J.A. / Alexander, L.G. (1980), Threshold Level English, Oxford: Pergamon.
  5. ^ Cf. Grzega, Joachim (2005), "Reflection on Concepts of English for Europe: British English, American English, Euro-English, Global English", Journal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 44-64, and Grzega, Joachim (2005), “Towards Global English via Basic Global English (BGE): Socioeconomic and Pedagogic Ideas for a European and Global Language (with Didactic Examples for Native Speakers of German), Journal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 65-164.
  6. ^ Cf. Quirk, Randolph (1981), “International Communication and the Concept of Nuclear English”, in: Smith, Larry E. (ed.), English for Cross-Cultural Communication, 151-165, London: Macmillan, and Stein, Gabriele (1979), “Nuclear English: Reflections on the Structure of Its Vocabulary”, Poetica (Tokyo) 10: 64-76.
  7. ^ Sources for this are found at the university websites. Given that there are thousands of tertiary institutions that accept one or more of these for entrance requirements, they simply can not be footnoted individually here

See also

Language terminology

A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ... A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ...

General language teaching and learning

Language education refers to the teaching and learning of a language. ... Second language acquisition is the process by which people learn languages in addition to their native language(s). ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

English language teaching and learning

TEFL or Teaching English as a foreign language refers to teaching English to students for whom it is not their mother tongue. ... Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes, and pronunciation rules from their mother tongue into their English speech. ...

Contemporary English

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This is one of a series of articles about the differences between American English and British English, which, for the purposes of these articles, are defined as follows: American English (AmE) is the form of English used in the United States. ... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and the movement towards an international standard for the language. ...

Other

External links

Note. Please see Wikipedia:External links for guidelines regarding appropriate external links.

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