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Encyclopedia > English government
Kingdom of England
Flag of England Coat of Arms of the House of Stuart
(National Flag) (Royal Arms of England)
Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit
(French: God and my right)
1
Location of England
Capital London
Head of State King of England
Parliament Parliament of England
This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of England (927-1707). For the main article about the modern country, see England.

The Kingdom of England was a state located in western Europe, in the southern part of the island of Great Britain. The capital of the Kingdom was Winchester, in Hampshire, until the Norman Conquest of 1066. William I of England (10661087) selected London as his capital. London served as the capital of the Kingdom until its end in 1707 (see Acts of Union 1707) and continues to remain the de facto capital of England. The city has also served as the capital of both the Kingdom of Great Britain (17071801) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (18011922). Today it remains the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the "United Kingdom"). Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... The Flag of England The Flag of England is the cross of Saint George. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom The Royal Arms of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II are her arms of dominion in right of the United Kingdom. ... Here is a list of state mottos for countries and their subdivisions around the world. ... Dieu et mon droit (French for God and my [birth] right) has generally been used as the motto of the British monarch since it was adopted by Henry V (1413-22). ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The Parliament of England can trace its roots back to the early medieval period. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close Arms of Winchester City Council Winchester is a city in southern England, and the administrative capital of the county of Hampshire, with a population of around 35,000. ... Hampshire (abbr. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ... William I ( 1028 – 9 September 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087, and as Guillaume II was Duke of Normandy from 1035 to 1087. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Act of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital London Head of State King of Great Britain Head of Government Prime Minister Parliament House of Commons, House of Lords This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1800). ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Act of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


The present monarch of the United Kingdom, Queen Elizabeth II, is the modern successor to the Kings and Queens of England. The title of Queen (and King) of England has however been out of use since 1707 and is incorrect when it applies to her in popular use. Elizabeth can trace her descent to the Kings of Wessex from the 1st millennium. Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor), born 21 April 1926, is the Queen regnant of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and... (1st millennium BC – 1st millennium – 2nd millennium – other millennia) // Events If we had to caracterize the 1st millenium AD, it may be called The era of division. ...


History

Main article: History of England

The Kingdom of England has no specific founding date. The Kingdom can trace its origins to the Heptarchy, the rule of what would later become England by seven minor Kingdoms: East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Mercia, Northumbria, Sussex, and Wessex. England is the largest and most populous of the four main divisions of the United Kingdom. ... A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... The Kingdom of the East Seaxe (one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy) was founded around AD500, occupying territory to the north and east of London. ... The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England, one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. ... Mercia, sometimes spelled Mierce, was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy, in what is now England, in the region of the Midlands, with its heart in the valley of the River Trent and its tributary streams. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of an Anglian kingdom which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the much smaller earldom which succeeded the kingdom. ... The Kingdom of Sussex, (Suth Seaxe, i. ... Wessex was one of the seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (the Heptarchy) that preceded the kingdom of England. ...


The Kings of Wessex became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 8th century, a process that would continue during the 9th century. Alfred the Great (reigned 871899) was the first King of Wessex to style himself "King of England". His son Edward the Elder (reigned 899924) exceeded the military achievements of his father by establishing his rule over the Danelaw. The death of his sister Ethelfleda in 918, resulted in him usurping the rule of Mercia from his niece Aelfwynn in 919. In 927 the last kingdom of early mediaeval England, Northumbria, fell to the King of Wessex Athelstan, a son of Edward the Elder. Athelstan was the first to reign over a united England. He was not the first de jure King of England, but certainly the first de facto one. This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 924. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. ... Statue of Alfred the Great at Winchester Alfred (849? – 26 October 899) or Ælfred was king of the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex from 871 to 899. ... Events Nine battles are fought between the Danes and Wessex. ... Events Edward the Elder becomes King of England. ... Edward the Elder or Eadweard I (c. ... Events Edward the Elder becomes King of England. ... Events King Athelstan of England succeeds to the throne. ... The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu) was an area of England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... Ethelfleda (alternative spelling Aethelfled, Æthelfleda or Æthelflæd) (872/879?-918) was the eldest daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex and his wife Ealhswith. ... Events Taebong has been overthrown and Goryeo established in Korean peninsula. ... Aelfwynn was the only daughter of Earl Aethelred of Mercia and his wife and successor Ethelfleda. ... Events King Edward I of England conquers Bedford. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... Athelstan or Æþelstan (c. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary De jure (in Classical Latin de iure) is an expression that means based on law, as contrasted with de facto, which means in fact. The terms de jure and de facto are used like in principle and in practice when one... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


England has remained in political unity ever since. However the Kingdom was subject to invasions by the Vikings of Denmark during the late 10th century. In response Ethelred II of England ordered the slaughter of all Danish people present in England during 1002. This only managed to attract the attention and hostility of Sweyn I of Denmark and Norway. Sweyn staged four full scale invasions of England for the remainder of his life. Sweyn was proclaimed King of England in opposition to Ethelred II in 1013. He died on February 2, 1014. His son Canute the Great continued the war. Ethelred II died on April 23, 1016. His son Edmund II of England was soon defeated by Canute. Canute agreed to co-rule with Edmund II but then later died on November 30 1016, leaving England united under Danish rule. Danish rule continued until the death of Harthacanute on June 8, 1042. He was a son of Canute and Emma of Normandy, widow of Ethelred II. Harthacanute had no heirs of his own and was succeeded by his half-brother Edward the Confessor. The Kingdom of England was independent again. The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Ethelred II or Æþelræd Unræd (c. ... This article is about Danes as an ethnic group. ... Events November 13 - English king Ethelred gives order to kill all Danes in England, leading to the St. ... Svend I Forkbeard (Svend Otto Haraldsen; Danish: Svend Tveskæg, originally Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg, Norwegian: Svein Tjugeskjegg) (c. ... Events Danish invasion of England under king Sweyn I. King Ethelred flees to Normandy, and Sweyn becomes king of England. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... Events George Tsul, ruler of Khazaria, is captured by a combined Byzantine- Rus force, which effectively ends Khazarias existence. ... Edmund II or Eadmund II (c. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining, as the final day of November. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Emma (c. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... Edward the Confessor or Edward III (c. ...

Harold II was the last Anglo-Saxon King of England.
Harold II was the last Anglo-Saxon King of England.

Peace only lasted until the death of childless Edward on January 4/January 5, 1066 . His brother-in-law was crowned Harold II of England. His cousin William the Bastard , Duke of Normandy immediately claimed the throne for himself. William launched an invasion of England and landed in Sussex on September 28, 1066. Harold II and his army were in York following their victory in the Battle of Stamford Bridge (September 25, 1066). They had to march across England to reach their new opponents. The armies of Harold II and William finally faced each other in the Battle of Hastings (October 14, 1066). Harold fell and William remained the victor. William was then able to conquer England with little further opposition. He was not however planning to absorb the Kingdom to the Duchy of Normandy. As a Duke, William still owed allegiance to Philip I of France. The independent Kingdom of England would allow him to rule without interference. He was crowned King of England on December 25, 1066. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Name Harold Godwinson Lived c. ... The foremost of the kings of Anglo-Saxon England was Ælle of Sussex in 477, who was much later followed by Alfred the Great (who took the place of Ethelred) in 871. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned King of England the day after Edward the Confessor dies. ... Name Harold Godwinson Lived c. ... William I ( 1028 – 9 September 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087, and as Guillaume II was Duke of Normandy from 1035 to 1087. ... The Duke of Normandy is a title held (or claimed) by various Norman, English, French and British rulers from the 10th century. ... Sussex is a traditional county in south-eastern England, corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (272nd in leap years). ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England is generally considered to mark the end of the Viking era. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman conquest of England in 1066. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ...


The Kingdom of England and the Duchy of Normandy would remain in personal union until 1204. King John of England, a fourth-generation descendant of William I, lost the continental area of the Duchy to Philip II of France during that year. The remnants of the Duchy remained in the rule of John and his descendants. They are known as the Channel Islands. // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... John (December 24, c. ... Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. ...


John still held both the titles and land of the Duke of Aquitaine. His grandson Edward I of England defeated Llywelyn the Last and effectively conquered Wales in 1282. He created the title Prince of Wales for his eldest son Edward II in 1301. The persons who held the title of Duke of Aquitaine (French: Duc dAquitaine}, which became part of France in 1449 but was an independent duchy before that date, with the years they held it, were: See also: Dukes of Aquitaine family tree External Links Columbia Encyclopedias Entry for... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Gruffudd (c. ... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² Ethnicity: 97. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... The Badge of the Prince of Wales is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Edward II, (April 25, 1284 – September 21, 1327), of Caernarvon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi, emperor of Japan Emperor Go-Nijō ascends to the throne of Japan Dante was sent into Exile in Florence. ...


Edward II was father to Edward III of England, whose claim to the throne of France resulted in the Hundred Years' War (13371453). The end of the war found England defeated and retaining only a single city of France: Calais. Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English kings of medieval times. ... The English claims to the French throne have a long and rather complex history between the 1340s and the 1800s. ... A map of Europe in the 1430s, at the height of the Hundred Years War The Hundred Years War is the name modern historians have given to what was actually a series of related conflicts, fought over a 116-year period, between the Kingdom of England and France; beginning in... Events March 17 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke Beginning of the Hundred Years War between France and England Bisham Priory founded Births Louis II, Duke of Bourbon (died 1410) Jean Froissart, historian and courtier from Hainaut. ... Events May 29 - Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire). ... The Burghers of Calais, by Rodin, with Calais Hotel de Ville behind Location within France Calais is a city in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


The Kingdom had little time to recover before entering the Wars of the Roses (14551487). The "Wars" was actually a civil war over possession of the throne between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. They were actually descendants of Edward III and closely related. The end of the wars found the throne held by a female line descendant of the House of Lancaster married to the eldest daughter of the House of York. Henry VII of England and his Queen consort Elizabeth of York were the founders of the Tudor dynasty which ruled the Kingdom from 1485 to 1603. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1487) is the name generally given to the intermittent civil war fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. ... // Events February 9 - Wars of the Roses: Richard, Duke of York dismissed as Protector February 23 - Johannes Gutenberg prints the first Bible on a printing press May 22 - Wars of the Roses: First Battle of St Albans - Richard, Duke of York and his ally, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick defeat... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ... The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... The House of York was a dynasty of English kings. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder of the Tudor dynasty. ... King George V of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Mary A queen consort is the wife and consort of a reigning king. ... Elizabeth of York (February 11, 1466–February 11, 1503) was the Queen Consort of King Henry VII of England, who she married in 1486, and the mother of King Henry VIII. She was born at Westminster, the eldest child of King Edward IV and his own Queen Consort Elizabeth Woodville... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh: Tudur) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England from 1485 until 1603. ... // Events August 5-7 - First outbreak of sweating sickness in England begins August 22 - Battle of Bosworth Field is fought between the armies of King Richard III of England and rival claimant to the throne of England Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April...

Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707, a 1925 painting by Walter Thomas Monnington depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Enlarge
Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707, a 1925 painting by Walter Thomas Monnington depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Meanwhile, Wales retained the distinct legal and administrative system that had been established by Edward I in the late 13th century. The second Tudor monarch, Henry VIII of England, merged Wales into England under what later became known as the Acts of Union of 1536 and 1543. Wales ceased to be a personal fiefdom of the king of England but was annexed to England and was representated in the English Parliament. Image File history File links UK House of Commons image of the The Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 by Walter Thomas Monnington, completed in 1925. ... Image File history File links UK House of Commons image of the The Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 by Walter Thomas Monnington, completed in 1925. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital London Head of State King of Great Britain Head of Government Prime Minister Parliament House of Commons, House of Lords This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1800). ... Edward I; illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Acts of Union 1536–1543 were a series of parliamentary measures by which Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England and Wales. ... Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service—usually fealty, military service, or security. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House...


During the reign of Mary I of England, eldest daughter of Henry VIII, Calais was captured by Francis, Duke of Guise on January 7, 1558. The House of Tudor ended with the death of its last monarch, Elizabeth I of England, on March 24, 1603. Her heir was James VI of Scotland who ascended the throne of England as James I. The two British Kingdoms remained independent states under a personal union until 1707. Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de jure) or 19 July 1553 (de facto) until her death. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Francis, 2nd Duke of Guise (February 17, 1519 - February 24, 1563) was a French soldier and politician. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... A personal union is a political union of two or more entities that, internationally, are considered separate states, but through established law, share the same head of state —hence also whatever political actions are vested in the head of state, but none (or at least extremely few) others. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Act of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


In 1707, the Act of Union merged both Kingdoms and created the Kingdom of Great Britain (17071801). Queen Anne was the last Queen of England, and the first monarch of the new kingdom. Both the English and Scottish Parliaments were merged into the Parliament of Great Britain located in Westminster, London. At this point, England ceased to exist as a separate political entity and has since had no national government. Legally, however, the jurisdiction continued to operate as England and Wales (just as Scotland continued to have its own laws and law courts) and this continued also after the Act of Union of 1800 which created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Act of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right)1 Capital London Head of State King of Great Britain Head of Government Prime Minister Parliament House of Commons, House of Lords This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1800). ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Act of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Anne ( 6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 ) became Queen of England, Queen of Scotland and Queen of Ireland on 8 March 1702. ... An aerial view of Parliament of India at New Delhi. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Westminster is the area located immediately to the west of the ancient City of London, in the centre of the wider conurbation of London. ... London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Timeline of Scottish history Caledonia List of not fully sovereign nations Subdivisions of Scotland National parks (Scotland) Traditional music of Scotland Flower of Scotland Wars of Scottish Independence National Trust for Scotland Historic houses in Scotland Castles in Scotland Museums in Scotland Abbeys and priories in Scotland Gardens in Scotland... The 1800 Act of Union merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ...


Commonwealth and Protectorate

Coat of Arms of the Commonwealth
Coat of Arms of the Commonwealth

England was a monarchy for the entirety of its political existence since its creation about 927 up to the Acts of Union, except for the eleven years of English Interregnum (1649 to 1660) that followed the English Civil War. Image File history File links Summary Coat of Arms of the Lord Protector File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Summary Coat of Arms of the Lord Protector File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... The English Interregnum was the period of republican rule after the English Civil War between the regicide of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ...


The rule of executed King Charles I of England was replaced by that of a republic known as Commonwealth of England (16491653). The most prominent general of the republic, Oliver Cromwell, managed to extend its rule to Ireland and Scotland. Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his execution. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ... Royal motto: PAX, QUÆRITUR, BELLO (English: Peace is obtained by war)1 Capital London Head of State none Parliament Rump Parliament The Commonwealth was the republican government which ruled first England and then the whole of Britain, Ireland, the colonies and other Crown possessions during the periods from 1649... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... Map of Scotland The Scottish Civil War The Scottish Civil War of 1644-47 was part of wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the Bishops Wars, the English Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. ...


The victorious general eventually turned against the republic, and established a new form of government known as The Protectorate, with himself as Lord Protector until his death on September 3, 1659. He was succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell. However, anarchy eventually developed, as Richard proved unable to maintain his rule. He resigned his title and retired into obscurity. The Commonwealth was re-established but proved unstable. The exiled claimant Charles II of England was recalled to the throne in 1660 in the English Restoration. The Protectorate in English history refers specifically to the English government of 1653 to 1659 under the direct control of Oliver Cromwell, who assumed the title of Lord Protector of the newly declared Commonwealth of England (later the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland) after the English Civil War. ... The Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland was the title of the head of state during part of the Commonwealth period. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... Richard Cromwell (October 4, 1626- July 12, 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and was Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from September 3, 1658 until May 25, 1659. ... Anarchy can refer to several different things: The word anarchy, referring to an absence of government. ... Charles II (29 May 1630–6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (retrospectively de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ... The English Restoration or simply Restoration was an episode in the history of Great Britain beginning in 1660 when the monarchy was restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War. ...


See also

Preceded by:
The Heptarchy
c. 500 – c. 927
Kingdom of England
c. 9271707
Succeeded by:
Kingdom of Great Britain
17071801

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