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Encyclopedia > English Settlement

The term Glorious Revolution refers to the generally popular overthrow of James II of England in 1688. The event is sometimes referred to as the "Bloodless Revolution", but this name is not strictly accurate; some modern historians prefer the more neutral "Revolution of 1688". James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...

Contents

History

During his three-year reign, King James II fell victim to the political battle in the British Isles between Catholicism and Protestantism, between the divine right of the Crown and the political rights of Parliament. James's greatest political problem was his Catholicism which left him alienated from both parties in Parliament. Any attempts at reform by James were thus viewed with great suspicion. James also pursued a number of untenable policies, such as a desire for a standing army and a pursuit of religious toleration. British Isles is also an old name for the Great Britain, Great Britain Ireland The Isle of Man The Isle of Wight The Northern Isles, including Orkney, Shetland and Fair Isle The Hebrides, including the Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides and Small Isles Rockall The islands of the lower Firth of... Catholic (literally meaning: according to (kata-) the whole (holos) or more generally universal) is a religious term with a number of meanings: It can refer to the members, beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article is about the doctrine; The Divine Right of Kings is also the title of a short poem by Edgar Allan Poe. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ...


While his brother and predecessor, Charles II, had done the same, he had not been an overt Catholic like James. Matters came to a head in 1688 when James fathered a son. Until then, the throne would have passed to his Protestant daughter, Mary. The prospect of a Catholic dynasty in Britain was now likely. Some leaders of the hitherto loyal Tory Party united with members of the opposition Whigs and set out to solve the crisis. Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) who is more commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ... Mary II Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) was Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689 until her death, and Queen of Scotland from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... This article is about the British Whig party. ...


A conspiracy (see the Immortal Seven) was launched to depose James and replace him with his daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange — both Protestants. William was stadtholder of the Netherlands, then in the early stages of a war with the French: the War of the Grand Alliance. Jumping at the chance to add England to his alliance, William and Mary landed at Brixham, Devon on November 5, 1688 with a large Dutch army. James' nerve broke, his army under the future Duke of Marlborough deserted, and he fled to Kent where he was captured. The memory of the execution of Charles I still being strong, he was then allowed to leave for France. The Immortal Seven were seven notable English citizens who issued the Invitation to William, a document asking William of Orange to depose James II in favour of Williams wife Mary, culminating in the Glorious Revolution. ... William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11 April... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning representative, a literal translation of the French lieutenant or the Latin locum tenans) was the person who ruled an area in the name of the land owner, in the Netherlands (which includes present-day Belgium) from the 15th to the 18th century. ... The War of the Grand Alliance (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the English Succession, and the Nine Years War) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between France and the League of Augsburg (which, by 1689... Brixham is a small town in the county of Devon in the southwest of England. ... Devon is a county in South West England, bordering on Cornwall to the west, Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in his Garter robes John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (May 26, 1650 – June 16, 1722), in full The Most Noble Captain-General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Marlborough, Baron Churchill of Sandridge, Lord Churchill of Eyemouth, KG, PC (in addition... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ...


In 1689, the Convention Parliament convened and declared that James' flight amounted to abdication. William and Mary were offered the throne as joint rulers, an arrangement which they accepted. On February 13 1689 Mary II and William III jointly acceeded to the throne of England. Although their succession to the English throne was relatively peaceful an uprising occurred in support of James in Scotland, the first Jacobite rebellion, and in Ireland where James used local Catholic feeling to try to regain the throne in 16891690. It can thus be seen as much more of a coup d'état than an authentic revolution. England stayed calm throughout, the uprising in the Scottish Highlands was quelled despite the Jacobite victory at the Battle of Killiecrankie, and James was expelled from Ireland following the Battle of the Boyne. Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time for which it is held. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Scottish Highlands are considered to be the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... Battle of Killiecrankie Conflict Jacobite Rising Date July 27, 1689 Place Killiecrankie Scotland Result Royalist Victory The Battle of Killiecrankie was fought between Highland clans supporting James II and English troops (though mostly lowland Scots) supporting William of Orange on July 27, 1689 during the Glorious Revolution. ... For the context of the dispute see Jacobitism. ...


Legacy

The Revolution of 1688 was one of the most important events in the long evolution of powers possessed by Parliament and by the Crown in England. With the passage of the Bill of Rights it stamped out any final possibility of a Catholic monarchy, and ended moves towards monarchical absolutism in the British Isles by circumscribing the monarch's powers. Since 1689, England, and later the United Kingdom, has been governed under a system of constitutional monarchy, which has been uninterrupted. The Bill of Rights 1689 is an English Act of Parliament with the long title An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown and known colloquially in the UK as the Bill of Rights. ... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ...


The success of the revolution came three years after the failure of the Monmouth Rebellion to overthrow the king. The Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow the King of England, James II, who became king when his elder brother, Charles II, died on 6 February 1685. ...


References

  • Jones, J. R. (1972). The Revolution of 1688 in England. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Prall, Stuart (1972). The Bloodless Revolution. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company

External links

  • BBC History: Charles II (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/charles_ii_king.shtml)

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