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Encyclopedia > English Restoration
King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration.
King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration.

The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration, was an episode in the history of Britain beginning in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War. The term Restoration may apply both to the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, and to the period immediately following the accession of Charles II. in art, returning something to a better state, see art conservation and restoration In criminal justice, restoration is another term for restorative justice. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (752x1159, 66 KB) Beschreibung Description: Charles II. of England Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (752x1159, 66 KB) Beschreibung Description: Charles II. of England Source: http://www. ... The monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom. ... The list of monarchs of Scotland concerns the Kingdom of Scotland. ... The designation King of Ireland (Irish: ) and Queen (regnant) of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

End of the Protectorate

The Protectorate, which had preceded the Restoration and followed the Commonwealth, might have continued if Oliver Cromwell's son Richard, who was made Lord Protector on his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies. Richard Cromwell's main weakness was that he did not have the confidence of the army. After seven months the army removed him and on 6 May 1659 it reinstalled the Rump Parliament. Charles Fleetwood was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State, and one of the seven commissioners for the army. On 9 June 1659 he was nominated lord-general (commander-in-chief) of the army. However, his power was undermined in parliament, which chose to disregard the army's authority in a similar fashion to the pre-Civil War parliament. The Commons on 12 October 1659, cashiered General John Lambert and other officers, and installed Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the speaker. The next day Lambert ordered that the doors of the House be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a "Committee of Safety" was appointed, of which Fleetwood and Lambert were members. Lambert was appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general. Lambert was now sent, by the Committee of Safety, with a large force to meet George Monck, who was in command of the English forces in Scotland, and either negotiate with him or force him to come to terms. Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... Charles Fleetwood (died 4 October 1692), English Parliamentary soldier and politician, third son of Sir Miles Fleetwood of Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, and of Anne, daughter of Nicholas Luke of Woodend, Bedfordshire, was admitted into Grays Inn on 30 November 1638. ... The Committee of Safety, established by the Parliamentarians in July 1642, was the first of a number of successive committees set up to oversee the English Civil War against King Charles. ... The English Council of State was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I. It was abolished on 25 April 1660 by the Convention Parliament just before the Restoration Charless execution on 30 January was delayed for several hours so... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ... John Lambert (1619 - 1684) served as an English Parliamentary general in the English Civil War. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ...


It was into this atmosphere that Monck, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland. Lambert's army began to desert him, and he returned to London almost alone. Monck marched to London unopposed. The Presbyterian members, excluded in Pride's Purge of 1648, were recalled and on 24 December the army restored the Long Parliament. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to appear before parliament to answer for his conduct. Lambert was sent to the Tower of London on 3 March 1660, from which he escaped a month later. Lambert tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill. But he was recaptured by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby, a regicide who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody on Drake's Island in 1684. This article is about the country. ... Prides Purge was the occasion when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not supporters of Oliver Cromwell. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... The Good Old Cause was the name given by the soldiers of the New Model Army for the reasons they fought for Parliament against King Charles I and the Royalists during the English Civil War and the support they gave to the republic, particularly the English Commonwealth, of the Interregnum... Colonel Sir Richard Ingoldsby (1617–1685) was an officer in the New Model Army and a Regicide who as a Commisoner (Judge) at the trial of King Charles I signed his death warrant. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... Drakes Island as seen from Plymouth Hoe. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ...


Restoration of Charles II

 On April 4, 1660, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda, which made known the conditions of his acceptance of the crown of England. Monck organised the Convention Parliament, which met for the first time on April 25. On May 8 it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I in January 1649.[1] Charles returned from exile, leaving The Hague on May 23 and landing at Dover on May 25.[2] He entered London on May 29, his birthday. To celebrate "his Majesty's Return to his Parliament" May 29 was made a public holiday, popularly known as Oak Apple Day.[3] He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661.[2] 

The Cavalier Parliament convened for the first time on May 8, 1661, and it would endure for over 17 years until its dissolution on January 24, 1679. Like its predecessor, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and is also known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King. is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Breda in the Netherlands, where King Charles II of England resided during his exile, has given its name to his Declaration of Breda (1660). ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oak Apple Day is celebrated in the United Kingdom on 29th May. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Cavalier Parliament of Britain lasted from May 8, 1661 until January 24, 1679. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... Prince Rupert of the Rhine Cavaliers was the name used by Parliamentarians for the Royalist supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). ...


Regicides and RebelFailed to parse (PNG conversion failed; check for correct installation of latex, dvips, gs, and convert): s

The Indemnity and Oblivion Act, which became law on 29 August 1660, pardoned all past treason against the crown, but specifically excluded those involved in the trial and execution of Charles I. Thirty-one of the fifty-nine Commissioners who had signed the death warrant were living. In the ensuing trials twelve of those found guilty were hanged, drawn and quartered, the full penalty for treason. The leading prosecutor at the trial of King Charles I, John Cooke, wad in a similar manner. The bodies of the regicides Cromwell, Bradshaw and Ireton, which had been buried in Westminster Abbey, were exhumed and hanged. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act passage through the Convention Parliament was secured by Lord Clarendon, the first minister of King Charles II and it became law on 29 August 1660 during the first year of the English Restoration. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Regicides of Charles I are considered to be the 59 Commissioners (Judges) who formed the tribunal that tried King Charles I of England and signed his death warrant, along with other officials who participated in his trial or execution, and Hugh Peters an influential republican preacher. ... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... John Cooke(1608 –1660) was the Solicitor General and the leading prosecutor at the trial of Charles I. After the Restoration of Charles II as a regicide he was exempted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act which indemnified most opponents of the Monarchy for crimes they might of committed during... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... John Bradshaw (1602-October 31, 1659) was one of the judges to preside over the trial and subsequent death sentence of Charles I of England. ... Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), was an English general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


On October 14, 1660 Major-General Thomas Harrison, a leader of the Fifth Monarchists, was the first person found guilty of the regicide of Charles I as the seventeenth of fifty-nine commissioners (Judges) to sign the death warrant in 1649. He was the first regicide to be hanged, drawn and quartered because he was considered by the new government to still represent a real threat to the re-established order. This threat was realised when on January 6, 1661, 50 Fifth Monarchists, headed by a wine-cooper named Thomas Venner, made an effort to attain possession of London in the name of "King Jesus." Most of the fifty were either killed or taken prisoner, and on January 19 and 21, Venner and ten others were hanged, drawn and quartered for high treason. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Thomas Harrison (1606–October 13, 1660) was a Puritan soldier and later a leader of the Fifth Monarchists. ... The Fifth Monarchy Men were a radical Puritan politico-religious party active from 1649 to 1661 (the Interregnum) during Oliver Cromwells government. ... Regicides of Charles I are considered to be the 59 Commissioners (Judges) who formed the tribunal that tried King Charles I of England and signed his death warrant, along with other officials who participated in his trial or execution, and Hugh Peters an influential republican preacher. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Venner (died 19 January 1661) was a cooper who became the last leader of the Fifth Monarchy Men, who tried unsuccessfully to overthrow Oliver Cromwell in 1657, and subsequently led a coup in London against the newly-restored government of Charles II. This event, known as Venners Rising... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


Restoration Britain

Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwell, Puritanism lost its momentum, and the bawdy 'Restoration comedy' became a recognizable genre. In addition, women were allowed to perform on stage for the first time. Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Refinement meets burlesque in Restoration comedy. ...


The republican new nobility

The Commonwealth's written constitutions gave to the Lord Protector the King's power to grant titles of honour. Cromwell created over thirty new knights. These were all declared invalid upon the Restoration of Charles II. Many were regranted by the restored King, but being non-hereditary, these titles have long since become extinct. The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ...


Of the twelve Cromwellian baronetcies, Charles II regranted half of them. Only two now continue: Sir George Howland Francis Beaumont, 12th baronet, and Sir Richard Thomas Williams-Bulkeley, 14th baronet, are the direct successors of Sir Thomas Beaumont and Sir Griffith Williams. For the brush-footed butterfly species, see Euthalia nais. ...


Edmund Dunch was created Baron Burnell of East Wittenham in April 1658, but it was not regranted. The male line failed in 1719 with the death of his grandson, also Edmund Dunch, so no one can lay claim to the title. Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... Edmund Dunch (or Dunche) (14 December 1657 Westminster - 31 May 1719 Little Wittenham) was Master of the Royal Household to Queen Anne and a British member of parliament. ...


The one hereditary viscountcy Cromwell created (making Charles Howard Viscount Howard of Morpeth and Baron Gilsland) continues to this day. In April 1661 Howard was created Earl of Carlisle, Viscount Howard of Morpeth, and Baron Dacre of Gillesland. The present Earl is a direct descendant of this Cromwellian creation and Restoration recreation. A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ... The title of Earl of Carlisle has been created several times in the Peerage of England. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ House of Commons Journal Volume 8, 8 May 1660
  2. ^ a b Pepys Diary 23 April 1661.
  3. ^ House of Commons Journal Volume 8, 30 May 1660

See also

Refinement meets burlesque in Restoration comedy. ... Charles II of England Restoration literature is the English literature written during the historical period commonly referred to as the English Restoration (1660 to 1689), which corresponds to the last years of the direct Stuart reign in England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... This naval battle was one of the sets for Elkanah Settles Empress of Morocco (1673) at the theatre in Dorset Garden. ... Belton House, an example of Carolean architecture. ... Restoration is a 1995 film which tells the story of a doctor on the staff of King Charles II of England, who is ordered to marry the Kings mistress, but finds himself falling in love with her. ... Rose Tremain is an author and academic. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ...

External links

  • http://www.debretts.co.uk/royal_connections/sovereigns_england_17_century.html
  • Review of 'Revolution and Counter-Revolution in England, Ireland and Scotland 1658-60', by Brian Manning
  • Chapter V. The Stewart Restoration By Sir Charles Harding Firth

  Results from FactBites:
 
English Restoration Period & Carolean Furniture (513 words)
Restoration period, or Charles II furniture (Carolean), brought the English furniture tradition back into line with European design movements and reestablished the connection between furniture and architecture in an emphatic, often extreme manner, after the years of Puritan austerity in the 1600's and represents the beginning of the English baroque furniture tradition.
The restoration of the monarchy was generally welcomed by lords of the manor and ordinary peasants alike weary of conflict and the years afterwards of Puritan discipline.
While oak was still used in English country furniture making, especially in oak chairs of the time, the restoration period saw walnut wood usurping the place of oak in the towns particularly in the case of very fine, decorative cabinetry and veneered furniture.
English Restoration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1147 words)
The English Restoration or simply Restoration was an episode in the history of England beginning in 1660 when the English monarchy was restored under King Charles II after the English Civil War.
The Protectorate, which had preceded the Restoration and followed the Commonwealth, might have continued a little longer if Oliver Cromwell's son, Richard Cromwell, who was made Lord Protector on his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies.
Restoration of Charles II On April 4, 1660 in the Declaration of Breda Charles II made known the conditions of his acceptance of the crown of England.
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