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Encyclopedia > English English

English English is a term that has been applied to the English language as spoken in England. In English-speaking countries outside the United Kingdom, the term "British English" is more frequently used for this variety of English; however, Peter Trudgill in Language in the British Isles introduced the term English English (EngEng), and this term is now generally recognised in academic writing in competition with Anglo-English and English in England. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... British English (BrE, en-GB) is a broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere. ... Professor Peter Trudgill (pronounced [ˈtɹʌd. ...


In this usage the term British English has a wider meaning, and is usually (but not always) reserved to describe the features common to English English, Welsh English, Hiberno-English, and Scottish English. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English (p. 45), the phrase British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word British, and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity". Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refer to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ...


The different accents and dialects that exist in Britain are a source of interest for many. Joseph Wright compiled the English Dialect Dictionary, which is now extremely valuable. The 2006 BBC Voices survey, the more comprehensive Survey of English Dialects and the existence of societies that seek to maintain regional dialects all study the diversity within the nation. Dialect research papers are often sold for hundreds of pounds. It is not uncommon for people to be very proud of their local accent or dialect. Joseph Wright FBA (1855-1930) rose from humble origins to become Professor of Comparative Philology at Oxford University. ... English Dialect Dictionary (EDD) is a dictionary of English language dialects, compiled by Joseph Wright. ... The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken between 1950 and 1961 under the direction of Professor Harold Orton of the English department of the University of Leeds. ...

Contents

General features

The British Isles are one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the English-speaking world. Significant changes in dialect (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary) may occur within one region. The four major divisions are normally classified as Southern English dialects, Midlands English dialects, Northern English dialects and Scottish English, and the closely related dialects of Scots and Ulster Scots (varieties of Scots spoken in Ulster). There is also Hiberno-English (English as spoken in Ireland) and the form of English used in Wales. The various English dialects differ in the words they have borrowed from other languages. The Scottish and Northern dialects include many words originally borrowed from Old Norse; the Scottish dialects include words borrowed from Scots and Scottish Gaelic. Hiberno-English includes words derived from Irish. The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), is a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For the surname, see Grammer. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... The Southern English dialects are those dialects of English English spoken in southern England. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scotch-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Lowland Scots) spoken in parts of the province of Ulster, which spans the six counties of Northern Ireland and three of the Republic of Ireland. ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the sub-division of the United Kingdom. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


An important feature of English regional accents is the bundle of isoglosses — geographically running roughly from mid-Shropshire to south of Birmingham and then to The Wash — separating Northern and Southern accents. This reflects the historical Danelaw division, which split England into Viking-controlled and Saxon-controlled areas. Isoglosses on the Faroe Islands An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ... Shropshire (alternatively Salop or abbreviated Shrops) is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... Birmingham (pron. ... The Wash, as seen looking west from Heacham, Norfolk The Wash is also the name of a 2001 film. ... Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-born warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ...


Accents throughout Britain are influenced by the phoneme inventory of regional dialects, and native English speakers can often tell quite precisely where a person comes from, frequently down to a few miles. Historically, such differences could be a major impediment to understanding between people from different areas. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...


However, modern communications and mass media have reduced these differences significantly. In addition, speakers may modify their pronunciation and vocabulary towards Standard English, especially in public circumstances. In consequence, the accent best known to many people outside the United Kingdom as English English, is that of Received Pronunciation (RP). There are several cases where a large city has a very different accent from a surrounding rural area [e.g. Bristol and Avon, Hull and the East Riding]. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Until recently, RP English was widely believed to be more educated than other accents and was referred to as the King's (or Queen's) English, or even "BBC English" (due to the fact that in the early years of broadcasting it was very rare to hear any other dialects on the BBC). However, for several decades, regional accents have been more widely accepted and are frequently heard. Thus the relatively recent spread of Estuary English is influencing accents throughout the south east. This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... Estuary English is a name given to the form of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the river Thames and its estuary. ...


British Isles varieties of English, including English English, are discussed in Wells (1982). Some of the features of English English are that:

  • Northern versions of the dialect often lack the foot-strut split, so that there is no distinction between /ʊ/ and /ʌ/, making put and putt homophones as [pʊt].
  • In the Southern variety, words like bath, cast, dance, fast, after, castle, grass etc. are pronounced with the long vowel found in calm (that is, [ɑː] or a similar vowel) while in the Midlands and Northern varieties they're pronounced with the same vowel as trap or cat, usually [a], as they are in Scottish English. For more details see Trap-bath split. There are some areas of the West Country that would use the Southern variety for some words and the Northern variety for other words.
  • Many varieties undergo h-dropping, making harm and arm homophones. This is a feature of working-class accents across most of England, but was traditionally stigmatised (a fact the comedy musical My Fair Lady was quick to exploit) but less so now. See Trask (1999), pp104-106. The accents of Northumberland, Tyneside and parts of Norfolk are an exception to this rule. In the past, working-class people were often unsure where an h ought to be pronounced, and, when attempting to speak "properly, would often preface any word that began with a vowel with an h [e.g. henormous instead of enormous, hicicles instead of icicles]; this was referred to as the "hypercorrect h" in the Survey of English Dialects, and is also referenced in literature [e.g. the policeman in Danny the Champion of the World ].
  • A glottal stop for the letter t is now common amongst younger speakers across of the country. It was originally confined to some areas of the south-east and East Anglia, but has now spread across the country. Many in the older generation consider this to be "annoying".
  • The distinction between [w] and [ʍ] in wine and whine is lost in most varieties.
  • Most varieties have the horse-hoarse merger. However some northern accents retain the distinction, pronouncing pairs of words like for/four, horse/hoarse and morning/mourning differently. (Wells 1982, section 4.4)
  • The consonant clusters [sj], [zj], and [lj] in suit, Zeus, and lute are preserved by some.
  • Many Southern varieties have the bad-lad split, so that bad /bæːd/ and lad /læd/ don't rhyme.
  • In most of the eastern half of England, plurals and past participle endings which are pronounced /ɪz/ and /ɪd/ (with the vowel of kit) in RP may be pronounced with a schwa, /ə/. This can be found as far north as Wakefield and as far south as Essex. This is unusual in being an east-west division in pronunciation when English dialects tend to divide along north-south lines.
  • Generally speaking, the only vowel which is pronounced the same in every regional accent in England is the short "e" as in keg or deck.[citation needed]
  • Across of England, segments of old forms of the language can still be heard. For example, the use of come as a past participle rather than came, the use of a clitic to have rather than to have got, use of thou and/or ye for you.

English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and non-rhotic, depending on when the phoneme (the letter r) is pronounced. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... It has been suggested that Regional differences and dialects in Indian English be merged into this article or section. ... Malaysian English (MyE) or formally known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE) is a form of English used and can be considered spoken in Malaysia and can be considered the de facto lingua franca in Malaysia (although the national language is Malay). ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... South African English is a dialect of English spoken in South Africa and in neighbouring countries with a large number of Anglo-Africans living in them, such as Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Corby is an industrial town and a local government district located 13km north of Kettering in Northamptonshire, England. ... The West Country is an informal term for the area of south-western England roughly corresponding to the modern South West England government region. ... Lancashire is a county in North West England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... The East Riding of Yorkshire is a local government district with unitary authority status, and a ceremonial county of England. ... // Foot-goose merger The foot-goose merger is a phonemic merger of the vowels and found in distinct dialects of English. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... // Trap-bath split The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English (including Received Pronunciation), in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened... // H-cluster reductions The h-cluster reductions are various consonant clusters beginning with /h/ that have in the occurred in the history of English that have lost the /h/ in certain dialects. ... My Fair Lady is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... Tyneside is a conurbation in northern England, covering part of the area of Tyne and Wear. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken between 1950 and 1961 under the direction of Professor Harold Orton of the English department of the University of Leeds. ... Danny, Champion of the World cover by Quentin Blake // Danny, the Champion of the World For the 1989 film, see Danny, the champion of the world (movie) Danny, the Champion of the World is a book for children by British author Roald Dahl about a boy called Danny Smith. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... // H-cluster reductions The h-cluster reductions are various consonant clusters beginning with /h/ that have in the occurred in the history of English that have lost the /h/ in certain dialects. ... The English language has undergone a number of phonological changes before the historic phoneme . ... // H-cluster reductions The h-cluster reductions are various consonant reductions that have occurred in the history of English involving consonant clusters beginning with /h/ that have lost the /h/ in certain dialects. ... // Trap-bath split The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English (including Received Pronunciation), in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened... Wakefield The Town Hall, Wood St. ... Essex is a county in the East of England. ...

Change over time

The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken in the 1950s and 1960s to preserve a record of the traditional spectrum of rural dialects that merged into each other. The traditional picture was that there would be a few changes in lexicon and pronunciation ever couple of miles, but that there would be no sharp borders between completely different ways of speaking. Within a county, the accents of the different towns and villages would drift gradually so that residents of bordering areas sounded more similar to those in neighbouring counties. The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken between 1950 and 1961 under the direction of Professor Harold Orton of the English department of the University of Leeds. ...


Due to greater social mobility and the teaching of Standard English in secondary schools, this model is no longer very accurate. There are now certain English counties within which there is little change in accent/dialect, and people are more likely to categorise their accent by a region or county than by their town or village. As agriculture became less prominent, many rural dialects were made redundant. Some urban dialects have also declined; for example, traditional Bradford dialect is now quite rare in the city, and call centres have seen Bradford as a useful location due to the lack of dialect in potential employees.[1]


However, a factor that has worked in the opposite direction is how concentrations of migration may cause a certain town or area of a town to have a completely unique accent. The two most famous examples are Liverpool and Corby. Liverpool's dialect is influenced heavily by Irish and Welsh, and it sounds completely different from surrounding areas of Lancashire. Corby's dialect is influenced heavily by Scottish, and it sounds completely different from the rest of Northamptonshire. The Voices 2006 survey found that the various ethnic minorities that have settled in certain parts of Britain are developing their own specific dialects. For example, many residents of East London, even if they are not of Bangladeshi origin, may have a Bangladeshi influence on their accent. This has led to a situation where urban dialects may now be just as easily identifiable as rural dialects. In the traditional view, urban entities were usually seen as merely watered-down versions of the surrounding rural area. Historically, rural areas had much more stable demographics than urban areas, but there is now only a small difference. Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. ... Corby is an industrial town and a local government district located 13km north of Kettering in Northamptonshire, England. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ...


Southern England

In general, Southern English accents are distinguished from Northern English accents primarily by not using the short a in words such as "bath". In the south-east, the broad A dominates (that is, words like "cast" and "bath" are pronounced /kɑːst/, /bɑːθ/ rather than /kæst/, /bæθ/. In the south-west, the sound is similar to that of Wales, and may be represented as /a:/. Accents originally from the upper-class speech of the LondonOxfordCambridge triangle are particularly notable as the basis for Received Pronunciation, The Southern English dialects are those dialects of English English spoken in southern England. ... The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English, in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged... This article is about the sub-division of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Southern English accents have three main historical influences:

  • The London accent, in particular, Cockney. [However, London has continuously absorbed migrants throughout its history, and its accent has always been prone to change quickly]
  • Received Pronunciation ('R.P.').
  • Southern rural accents, of which the West Country, Kent and East Anglian accents are examples.

Relatively recently, the first two have increasingly influenced southern accents outside London via social class mobility and the expansion of London. From some time during the 19th century, middle and upper-middle classes began to adopt affectations, including the RP accent, associated with the upper class. In the late 20th and 21st century other social changes, such as middle-class RP-speakers forming an increasing component of rural communities, have accentuated the spread of RP. The south-east coast accents traditionally have several features in common with the West country; for example, rhoticity and the a: sound in words such as bath, cast, etc. However, the younger generation in the area is more likely to be non-rhotic and use the London/East Anglian A: sound in bath. St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney refers to working-class inhabitants of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The West Country dialects and West Country accents are generic terms applied to any of several English dialects and accents used by much of the indigenous population of the southwestern part of England, the area popularly known as the West Country. ... coat of Arms of Kent For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The 21st century is the present century of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the Second World War, about one million Londoners were relocated to new and expanded towns throughout the south east, bringing with them their distinctive London accent (and possibly sowing the seed of Estuary English). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A New town or planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan. ... Estuary English is a name given to the form of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the river Thames and its estuary. ...


South-West of England

The Cornish language was once used in the county of Cornwall. Although this is no longer in common use, Cornwall and the West Country have varied and complicated dialects. Surveys such as the Survey of English Dialects and Voices 2006 found that these dialects were as far away from Standard English as was anything from the far North. See West Country dialects for more details. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cornwall (pronounced ; Cornish: ) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken between 1950 and 1961 under the direction of Professor Harold Orton of the English department of the University of Leeds. ... The West Country dialects and West Country accents are generic terms applied to any of several English dialects and accents used by much of the indigenous population of the southwestern part of England, the area popularly known as the West Country. ...


East Anglia

Norfolk

The Norfolk dialect is spoken in the traditional county of Norfolk and areas of north Suffolk. Famous speakers include Lord Nelson and Keith Skipper. The group FOND (Friends Of the Norfolk Dialect) where formed to record the county's dialect and to provide advice for TV companies using the dialect in productions. The Norfolk dialect, also known as Broad Norfolk, is a dialect that was once spoken by those living in the county of Norfolk in England. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... Keith Skipper is a journalist who writes for the Eastern Daily Press. ...


Midlands

  • As in the North, Midlands accents generally do not use a broad A, so that cast is pronounced [kast] rather than the [kɑːst] pronunciation of most southern accents. The northern limit of the [ɑː] in many words crosses England from mid-Shropshire to The Wash, passing just south of Birmingham.
  • Midlands speech also generally uses the northern short U, so putt is pronounced the same as put. The southern limit of this pronunciation also crosses from mid-Shropshire to the Wash, but dipping further south to the northern part of Oxfordshire.[citation needed]
  • The West Midlands accent is often described as having a pronounced nasal quality, the East Midlands accent much less so.
  • Old and cold may be pronounced as "owd" and "cowd" (rhyming with "loud" in the West Midlands and "ode" in the East Midlands), and in the northern Midlands home can become "wom".
  • Whether Derbyshire should be classed as the West or East Midlands in terms of dialect is debatable. Stanley Ellis, a dialect expert, said in 1985 that it was more like the West Midlands, but it is often grouped with the East and is part of the E.U. region "East Midlands".[citation needed]
  • Cheshire, although part of the North-West region, is usually grouped the Midlands for the purpose of accent and dialect.

The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English, in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged... Shropshire (alternatively Salop or abbreviated Shrops) is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... The Wash, as seen looking west from Heacham, Norfolk The Wash is also the name of a 2001 film. ... Birmingham (pron. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Traditionally, East Midlands English was spoken in those parts of Mercia lying East of Watling Street (the A5 London - Shrewsbury Road). ... The Cheshire Plain - photo taken adjacent to Beeston Castle The Cheshire Plain - photo taken towards Merseyside The Cheshire Plain panorama - photo taken from Mid-Cheshire Ridge Cattle farming in the county Black-and-white timbered buildings on Nantwich High Street Cheshire (or, archaically, the County of Chester)[1] is a...

West Midlands

  • Dialect verbs are used, for example am for are, ay for is not (related to ain't), bay for are not, bin for am or, emphatically, for are. Hence the following joke dialogue about bay windows: "What sort of windas am them?" "They'm bay windas." "Well if they bay windas wot bin them?". There is also humour to be derived from the shop-owner's sign of Mr. "E. A. Wright" (that is, "He ay [isn't] right," a phrase implying someone is saft [soft] in the jed [head]). Saft also may mean silly as in, "Stop bein' so saft".
  • The Birmingham and Coventry accents are quite distinct, even though the cities are not very far apart.
  • The g sound may be emphatically pronounced where it occurs in the combination ng, in words such as ringing and fang.
  • Around Stoke-on-Trent, the short i can sound rather like a short e, so milk and biscuit become something like "melk" and "bess-kit". Strong accents can even render the latter as "bess-keet".

Birmingham (pron. ... Brummie (sometimes Brummy) is a colloquial term for the inhabitants, accent and dialect of Birmingham, England, as well as being a general adjective used to denote a connection with the city, locally called Brum. ... The Black Country is an area of conurbation to the north and west of Birmingham in the English West Midlands, around the South Staffordshire coal field. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... Shropshire (alternatively Salop or abbreviated Shrops) is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and the non-rhotic, depending on when the phoneme (the letter r, equivalent to Greek rho) is pronounced. ...

East Midlands

  • East Midlands accents are generally non-rhotic.
  • Yod-dropping, as in East Anglia, can be found in some areas, for example new as /nuː/, sounding like "noo".
  • The u vowel of words like strut is often [ʊ], with no distinction between putt and put. In Lincolnshire, such sounds are even shorter than in the North.
  • In Northamptonshire, crossed by the North-South isogloss, residents of the north of the county have an accent similar to that of Leicestershire and those in the south an accent similar to rural Oxfordshire.
  • The town of Corby in Northamptonshire has an accent with some originally Scottish features, apparently due to immigration of Scottish steelworkers. [1]
  • In Leicester, words with short vowels such as up and last have a northern pronunciation, whereas words with vowels such as down and road sound rather more like a south-eastern accent. The vowel sound at the end of words like border (and the name of the city) is also a distinctive feature. [2]
  • In Nottinghamshire north of the Trent, ee found in short words is pronounced as two syllables, for example feet being ['fijəʔ], sounding like "fee-yut" (and also in this case ending with a glottal stop).[citation needed]
  • Lincolnshire also has a marked north-south split in terms of accent. The north shares many features with Yorkshire, such as the open a sound in "car" and "park" or the replacement of take and make with tek and mek. The accent in Hull is a descendent of North Lincolnshire dialect. The south of Lincolnshire is close to Standard English, although it still has a short Northern a in words such as bath.
  • Mixing of the words was and were when the other is used in Standard English.

Traditionally, East Midlands English was spoken in those parts of Mercia lying East of Watling Street (the A5 London - Shrewsbury Road). ... English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and non-rhotic, depending on when the phoneme (the letter r) is pronounced. ... // H-cluster reductions The h-cluster reductions are various consonant reductions that have occurred in the history of English involving consonant clusters beginning with /h/ that have lost the /h/ in certain dialects. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... Isoglosses on the Faroe Islands An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ... Leicestershire ( IPA: (RP), IPA: (locally)), abbreviation Leics. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Corby is an industrial town and a local government district located 13km north of Kettering in Northamptonshire, England. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... For other uses see Trent River. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. ...

South-East Midlands

Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire and south Northamptonshire form the basis for Received Pronunciation. Unlike the rest of the Midlands, they use a long A: in words such as bath, demand, etc. To many Britons, it is hard to distinguish them from the rest of the South-East, but there are some key differences: Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... Huntingdonshire (abbreviated Hunts) is a part of England around Huntingdon, which is currently administered as a local government district of Cambridgeshire. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

  • The word room is pronounced with a long oo, as it is in the rest of the North and the Midlands. Not as "rumm", as is said in the South-East.
  • The u sound in cup, putt, luck, etc. is shorter than in the South, although not as short as in the North.
  • Words that end in th are said with a final v rather than a final f.
  • A final y on a word is said as ee. Not as ay, which is common in the South-East.
  • Glottal stops for a t are much less common, although do feature when surrounded by other consonants [e.g. bluntness, nightwatchman].

Northern England

General features

There are several accent features which are common to most of the accents of northern England (Wells 1982, section 4.4).

  • The "short a" vowel of cat, trap is normally pronounced [a] rather than the [æ] found in traditional Received Pronunciation and in many forms of American English.
  • The accents of Northern England generally do not use a broad A, so cast is pronounced [kast] rather than the [kɑːst] pronunciation of most southern accents. However, the words "father" and "rather" are increasingly being pronounced with a broad A by the younger generation.
  • Northern English tends not to have /ʌ/ (strut, but, etc.) as a separate vowel. Most words that have this vowel in RP are pronounced with /ʊ/ in Northern accents, so that put and putt are homophonous as /pʊt/. But some words with /ʊ/ in RP can have /uː/ in Northern accents, so that a pair like luck and look may be distinguished as /lʊk/ and /luːk/.
  • The Received Pronunciation phonemes /eɪ/ (as in face) and /əʊ/ (as in goat) are often pronounced as monophthongs (such as [eː] and [oː]), although the quality of these vowels varies considerably across the region.
  • In many areas, the letter y on the end of words as in happy or city is pronounced [ɪ], like the i in bit, and not [i].
  • The "present historical" is often used. Instead of saying "I said to him", many Northerners would say, "I says to him". Instead of saying, "I went up there", they would say, "I goes up there."
  • People from the North are generally more likely to use old-fashioned phrases, and less likely to use American phrases.

For more localised features, see the following sections. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English, in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Liverpool (Scouse)

Main article: Scouse

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

Yorkshire

See Yorkshire dialect and accent. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Middlesbrough area

The accents for Middlesbrough and the surrounding towns are sometimes grouped with Yorkshire and sometimes grouped with the North-East of England, for they share characteristics with both. As this urban area grew in the early 20th century, there are fewer dialect words that date back to older forms of English; Teesside speak is the sort of modern dialect that Peter Trudgill identified in his "The Dialects of England". There is a Lower Tees Dialect group. The Yorkshire Dialect Society does not concern itself with the area; Middlesbrough speach has a similar relation to Yorkshire speach that Liverpool has to Lancashire.


Some examples of traits that are shared with [most parts of] Yorkshire include:

  • H-dropping.
  • An /a:/ sound in words such as start, car, park, etc.
  • Non-rhotic.

Examples of traits shared with the North-East include:

The vowel in "goat" is a /o:/ sound, as is found in both Durham and rural North Yorkshire. Definite Article Reduction (DAR) is the term used in recent linguistic work to refer to the use of vowel-less forms of the definite article in northern dialects of England. ...


Words such as nurse, first, worse, etc. have an /E:/ sound, which is not common in this part of England. It is, however, common in Liverpool, Birkenhead and Hull. The link between these areas is that they all absorbed large numbers of Irish immigrants, who had a siginificant influence on the language.


Lancashire

Lancashire Dialect and Accent Lancashire Dialect and Accent refers to the vernacular speech in the historic county of Lancashire excluding that of Liverpool. ...


Cumbria

See Cumbrian dialect. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


North-East England eg. Newcastle and Sunderland

  • The Newcastle Upon Tyne/Tyneside dialect is known as Geordie whereas the dialect of neighbouring Sunderland/Wearside is Mackem. The two are broadly similar but do have slight differences in word usage and pronunciation. For example, with words ending -re/-er, such as culture and father, the end syllable is pronounced by Geordies as a short 'a', such as in 'fat' and 'back' therefore producing "cultcha" and "fatha" respectively. Natives of Sunderland (Mackems) pronounce the syllable much more closely to the standard English. Similarly, in Geordie "make" is pronounced in line with standard English e.g. to rhyme with take. However, a Mackem would pronounce "make" to rhyme with "mack" or "tack". For other differences see the respective articles. For an explanation of the traditional dialects of the mining areas of County Durham and Northumberland see Pitmatic.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is about the city of Sunderland in England. ... A Mackem is person from Sunderland. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Pitmatic (originally pitmatical) is a dialect of English used in the counties of Northumberland and Durham. ...

Examples of accents used by public figures

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Stephen Merchant (born 24 November 1974 in Bristol, England, United Kingdom) is an English Emmy, British Comedy Award, and three-time BAFTA-winning writer, director, and comedic actor. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... Clive Owen (born October 3, 1964) is a Golden Globe and BAFTA winning critically acclaimed English actor, now a regular performer in Hollywood and independent American films. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Sin City (film) Sin City is a gritty 2005 neo-noir anthology film based on the graphic novel series of the same name, directed by Frank Miller, Robert Rodriguez, and Special Guest Director Quentin Tarantino. ... King Arthur is a film first released in the United States on June 28, 2004, dubbed as The Untold True Story That Inspired The Legend by Touchstone Pictures. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... 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Port Sunlight Port Sunlight is a village on the Wirral (in the North West of England). ... Salford is a city in Greater Manchester in the north-west of England. ... Christopher Eccleston (born 16 February 1964) is an English stage, television and film actor, best known as the ninth incarnation of the Doctor in Doctor Who and for other television roles, as well as for his roles in several high-profile low-budget films. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... The Potteries or Stoke is a well-recognised name for the area in Staffordshire, England which includes the city of Stoke-on-Trent and its surrounding towns of Newcastle-under-Lyme and Kidsgrove. ... Robbie Williams (born Robert Peter Williams on February 13, 1974) is a Grammy Award-nominated and fifteen time BRIT Award-winning English singer/songwriter. ... Anthea Turner (born May 25, 1960 in Stoke-on-Trent[1]) is an English television personality. ... Jonathan Wilkes (born August 1, 1978 in Baddeley Green, Stoke-on-Trent) is an English television presenter, actor and musician. ... The Wearmouth Bridge Sunderland (pronounced: , or ) is a city in North East England which was formerly a county borough, and is now part of the City of Sunderland in Tyne and Wear. ... A Mackem is person from Sunderland. ... The Futureheads are a four-pice English indie rock band from Sunderland. ... Tyneside is a conurbation in northern England, covering part of the area of Tyne and Wear. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alan Milburn (born 27 January 1958, Tow Law, County Durham) is a British politician. ... Nicholas Hugh Nick Brown (born 13 June 1950, Rockford, Kent) is a British Labour Party politician and Member of Parliament for Newcastle upon Tyne East and Wallsend. ... 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The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ... Phil Drabble OBE (born May 13, 1914) was a countryman, author and television presenter. ... One Man and his Dog was a television programme in the United Kingdom. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... Kasabian are an English rock band from Leicestershire, formed by Tom Meighan (vocals), Sergio Pizzorno (guitar and vocals), Chris Edwards (bass) and Chris Karloff (guitar and keyboards). ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Channel 3 (UK) be merged into this article or section. ... The Yorkshire Dales (also known as the Dales) is the name given to an upland area, mostly in Yorkshire, in Northern England. ... 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Radio and TV featuring regional English accents

Misrepresentations can also appear in the media. The soap "Emmerdale" is set in Yorkshire, yet some of the actors have Lancashire accents. "Coronation Street" is set in Lancashire, yet some of the actors speak with Yorkshire accents. It's fair to say both programmes have actors from either side of the Pennines. As most Britons cannot tell the difference between an accent from Lancashire and one from the West Riding of Yorkshire, media set in these areas tend to continuously use the same actors, such as Pete Postlethwaite, Bernard Wrigley and Michelle Holmes. Emmerdale (known as Emmerdale Farm until November 1989) is an award winning and critically acclaimed British television soap opera, set in the fictional village of the same name (known as Beckindale until 1994) in West Yorkshire, England. ... Coronation Street is an award winning British soap opera. ... Peter William Postlethwaite OBE (born February 7, 1945)[1] is an English actor. ... Bernard Wrigley is a singer, actor and comedian from Bolton, England. ... Michelle Holmes (born Corinne Michelle Cunliffe, 1 January 1967 in Rochdale, Lancashire) is an English actress who has appeared in several television serials. ...


"The Archers" has had characters with a variety of different West Country accents (see Mummerset). Also, CBBC show Byker Grove is set in Byker, Newcastle whereas the actors in recent series often have Sunderland accents. This entry is about the radio series; for other meanings, see The Archers (disambiguation). ... Mummerset is an invented English language dialect used by actors that mimics the stereotypical speech of rural Southern England, while not being specific to one area. ... CBBC - short for Childrens BBC - is the brand-name for the BBCs childrens television programmes aimed at children aged between 6 and 12 years old. ... Byker Grove was a British childrens television series shown originally on BBC One and now on the CBBC Channel, and was created by Adele Rose. ... Byker is an inner city electoral ward in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in Tyne and Wear, England. ...


The shows of Ian La Frenais and Dick Clement have often included a variety of regional accents, the most notable being Auf Wiedersehen Pet about working class men in Germany. Other programmes by them include Porridge featuring London and Cumberland accents, and The Likely Lads, featuring north east England. Ian La Frenais, born 7 January 1937 in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England, is, in partnership with Dick Clement, one of the most influential television writers in Britain. ... Dick Clement (born September 5, 1937) is an English writer. ... Auf Wiedersehen, Pet is a popular British comedy-drama series created by Franc Roddam and mostly written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais, who had also written The Likely Lads, What Ever Happened to the Likely Lads? and Porridge. ... Porridge is a British BBC television sitcom (1974–1977), written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais and starring Ronnie Barker. ... The Likely Lads was a hit British sitcom created and written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais. ...


The programmes of Carla Lane such as The Liver Birds and Bread also feature Scouse accents. CARLA LANE. Born in Liverpool, Merseyside, England. ... The Liver Birds, co-written by Carla Lane and Myra Taylor, was the distaff answer to the popular Geordie series, The Likely Lads. ... Bread was a British sitcom, written by Carla Lane and made by the BBC from 1 May 1986 to 3 November 1991. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


The film Brassed Off is known for being a terribly inaccurate representation of accents in the Barnsley area of Yorkshire. Brassed Off (1996) is a British film written and directed by Mark Herman. ...


In the 2005 version of the science fiction programme Doctor Who, various Londoners wonder that if the Doctor (played by Christopher Eccleston) is an alien, why does he sound as if he comes from the North? (Eccleston used his own Salford accent in the role; the usual response is "Lots of planets have a North!") Other accents in the same series include Cockney (used by actress Billie Piper) and Estuary (preferred by Eccleston's successor, David Tennant). 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Doctor Who is a long-running award-winning British science fiction television programme (and a 1996 television film) produced by the BBC. The series shows the adventures of a mysterious time-traveller known as the Doctor, who explores time and space in his TARDIS (Time And Relative Dimension(s) In... Christopher Eccleston (born 16 February 1964) is an English stage, television and film actor, best known as the ninth incarnation of the Doctor in Doctor Who and for other television roles, as well as for his roles in several high-profile low-budget films. ... Salford is a city in Greater Manchester in the north-west of England. ... Billie Paul Piper (born Lianne Piper[1] on 22 September 1982) is an English actress. ... David Rob Tennant is the stage name of David John McDonald (born 18 April 1971), a Scottish actor from Bathgate in West Lothian, best known as the tenth actor to portray the Doctor in the television series Doctor Who. ...


Channel 4's reality programme "Rock School" was set in Suffolk in its 2nd series, providing lots of examples of the Suffolk dialect. Rock School (also known as Gene Simmons Rock School) is a British reality TV series starring Gene Simmons (from the band KISS), in which he has a short time to turn a class of school children into a fully fledged rock band, at the end of which they must perform...


The television character, Stewie Griffin, from the popular animated TV series "Family Guy" is well known for his English accent in the US, despite not sounding authentic to most English people. His voice actor Seth MacFarlane, also creator of the TV series, is American. Dick van Dyke had similar success with his Cockney accent in the Disney film "Mary Poppins". This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Family Guy is an Emmy award winning American animated television series about a nuclear family in the fictional town of Quahog (IPA or ), Rhode Island. ... Seth Woodbury MacFarlane (born October 26, 1973) is a two-time Emmy-winning American animator, screenwriter, producer, director, and voice actor. ... Richard Wayne Van Dyke (born December 13, 1925) is an Emmy-Award winning American actor of film, stage, and screen, comedian and dancer. ... Mary Poppins is a series of childrens books written by P. L. Travers and originally illustrated by Mary Shepard. ...


See also

This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Estuary English is a name given to the form of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the river Thames and its estuary. ... The United Kingdom does not have a constitutionally defined official language. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ... Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish (see below) refer to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken between 1950 and 1961 under the direction of Professor Harold Orton of the English department of the University of Leeds. ...

References

  1. ^ http://archive.cravenherald.co.uk/2004/4/5/101548.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/bradford/voices2005/pete_1.shtml http://www.tapnet.co.uk/mahonyreport.pdf page 8 for the call centres point
  • Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62181-X.
  • McArthur, Tom (2002). Oxford Guide to World English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866248-3 hardback, ISBN 0-19-860771-7 paperback.
  • Trask, Larry (1999). Language: The Basics, 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-20089-X.
  • Trudgill, Peter (1984). Language in the British Isles. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28409-0.
  • Wells, J. C. (1982). Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28540-2.

External links


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