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Encyclopedia > English Elm
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English Elm
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Ulmaceae
Genus: Ulmus
Species: U. minor
Ulmus minor var. vulgaris
Richens

English Elm Ulmus minor var. vulgaris (syn. U. procera) is found across most of southern England, Spain, and central Italy. DNA analysis has now identified the tree with the Atinian elm once widely used for training vines in Italy. Its introduction to Spain is recorded by the Roman agronomist Columella in his treatise De Re Rustica, written circa AD 50. Although there are no records of its introduction to England, it is now widely assumed that it too was imported by the Romans, a hypothesis supported by the discovery of pollen in an excavated vineyard. Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Classes Magnoliopsida- Dicots Liliopsida- Monocots The flowering plants (also called angiosperms) are a major group of land plants. ... Young castor oil plant showing its prominent two embryonic leaves (cotyledons), that differ from the adult leaves Dicotyledons or dicots is a name for a group of flowering plants whose seed typically contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Genera Celtis - Hackberries Planera - Water-elm Ulmus - Elms Zelkova - Zelkovas Ulmaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes elms, hackberries and zelkovas. ... Species See text. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001... Lucius Iunius Moderatus Columella was a Roman author of the first century AD. He was born in 4 AD in Gades in Hispania Baetica. ...


The English Elm was once one of the largest and fastest-growing deciduous trees in Europe, often exceeding 40m in height, with a trunk up to 2m in diameter. The largest specimen ever recorded in England, at Forthampton Court, near Tewkesbury, was 46m tall. The leaves are dark green, almost orbicular, <10cm long, with an oblique base and toothed edges. Wind-pollinated, the small, reddish-purple flowers are without petals, and appear in early spring before the leaves appear. Asexual, it never produces fertile seed, and propagation is entirely by root suckers. Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Location within the British Isles Tewkesbury War Memorial Tewkesbury is a historic town in Gloucestershire, England. ... In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... Clivia miniata bears bright orange flowers. ... For the petals of chakras, see Petal (chakra). ... Spring is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ...


Only two mature specimens still survive in England: the 'Preston Twins' at Preston Park in the centre of Brighton, protected by the city council's rigorous elm sanitization policy. Owing to its genetic homogeneity, English Elm has proven particularly susceptible to Dutch elm disease, but immature trees remain a common feature in hedgerows courtesy of the ability to sucker from roots. After about 20 years, these too become infected by the fungus and killed back to ground level. English Elm was the first elm to be genetically engineered to resist disease, in experiments at Abertay University, Dundee [1]. Brighton on the southern Sussex coast is one of the largest and most famous seaside resorts in England. ... Dutch elm disease is a fungal disease of elm trees, originally native to Asia. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... The University of Abertay Dundee is a university in Dundee, Scotland. ... The Royal Burgh of Dundee (Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh) is Scotlands fourth largest city, population 154,674 (2001), and one of Scotlands 32 council areas. ...


Some of the most significant remaining stands line the streets of Melbourne, Australia, where they are protected by geography and quarantine from this disease [2]. Several fine specimens also survive in New York, notably the Hangman's Elm in Washington Square Gardens. Melbourne is the state capital and largest city in the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of approximately 3. ... Quarantine, a medical term (from Italian: quaranta giorni, forty days) is the act of keeping people or animals separated for a period of time before, for instance, allowing them to enter another country. ... A disease is an abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ...


The English Elm was valued for many purposes, notably as water pipes from hollowed trunks, owing to its resistance to rot in saturated conditions. However, it is chiefly remembered for its aesthetic contribution to the English countryside, where it sometimes occurred in densities of over 1000 per square kilometre. "Its true value as a landscape tree may be best estimated by looking down from an eminence in almost any part of the valley of the Thames, or of the Severn below Worcester, during the latter half of November, when the bright golden colour of the lines of elms in the hedgerows is one of the most striking scenes that England can produce" [Elwes & Henry, 1913].


References

  • Bean, W. J. (1981). Trees and shrubs hardy in Great Britain. Murray, London.
  • Cogulludo-Agustin, M. A., Agundez, D. & Gil, L. (2000). Identification of native and hybrid elms in Spain using isozyme gene markers. Heredity, August 2000, vol. 85. Nature Publishing Group, London.
  • Elwes, H. J. & Henry, A. (1913). The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland. Vol. VII. pp 1848-1929. Private publication, Edinburgh. [3]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Elm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2448 words)
Elms are deciduous trees of the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
There are between 20 to 45 species of elm; the ambiguity in the number is a result of difficult species delimitations in elms, owing to the ease of hybridization between them and the development of local seed-sterile vegetatively-propagated microspecies in some areas, mainly in the field elm group.
Elm wood is valued for its interlocking grain, and consequent resistance to splitting, with significant uses in chair seats and coffins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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