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Encyclopedia > English Civil War
History of England
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Prehistoric Britain (before AD 43)
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The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The English Civil War was fought between the Royalists (Cavaliers) and Parliamentarians (Roundheads) between 1642 and 1651. ... England is the largest and most populous of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Prehistoric Britain was a period in the human occupation of Great Britain that extended throughout prehistory, ending with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... Events Aulus Plautius, with 4 legions, landed on Britain. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Events Aulus Plautius, with 4 legions, landed on Britain. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... The History of Anglo-Saxon England covers the history of early medieval England from the end of Roman Britain and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... The Anglo-Normans were the descendents of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... Image File history File links Blason_duche_fr_Normandie. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... The House of Plantagenet (IPA: ), also called the House of Anjou, or Angevin dynasty was originally a noble family from France, which ruled the County of Anjou. ... Image File history File links England_COA.svg‎ Source own work created in Inkscape, based on Image:EnglishcoatofarmsGFDL.png Date 2006-11-21 Author MesserWoland Permission Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... Image File history File links Lancashire_rose. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ... Image File history File links Yorkshire_rose. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh Twdwr) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England from 1485 until 1603. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tudor_Rose. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... Image File history File links UK_Arms_1837. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... °°°°°°°°°°°→→→→→→→→→→→→§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§ Prince Rupert, an archetypical cavalier For other uses, see Cavalier (disambiguation). ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... Combatants English Parlimentry forces loyal to Oliver Cromwell English and Scottish Royalists loyal to King Charles II Strength 31,000 less than 16,000 Casualties 200 3,000 killed, more than 10,000 prisoners The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England and was the... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ...


The Civil War led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II, and the replacement of the English monarchy with first the Commonwealth of England (1649–1653) and then with a Protectorate (1653–1659), under the personal rule of Oliver Cromwell. The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England came to an end, and the victors consolidated the already-established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established a precedent that British monarchs could not govern without the consent of Parliament, although this concept became firmly established only with the Glorious Revolution later in the century. Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland by Anglican landowners, Church of Ireland clergy, and professionals during the 17th, 18th, and 19th century. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William...

Contents

The First English Civil War (1642–1646) was the first of three wars, known as the English Civil War (or Wars). The English Civil War refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652, and includes the Second... Combatants Royalist Forces Parliamentary Forces: Commanders King Charles I Duke of Hamilton Earl of Norwich Baron Capel Oliver Cromwell Thomas Fairfax Thomas Horton The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of... The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the third of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652 and include the First English Civil War...

Terminology

The term English Civil War appears most commonly in the singular form, despite the fact that historians frequently divide the conflict into two or three separate wars. Although the term describes events as impinging on England, from the outset the conflicts involved wars with and civil wars within both Scotland and Ireland; see Wars of the Three Kingdoms for an overview. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ...


Unlike other civil wars in England, which focused on who ruled, this war also concerned itself with the manner of governing the British Isles. Historians sometimes refer to the English Civil War as the English Revolution and works such as the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica call it the Great Rebellion. Marxist historians such as Christopher Hill (1912–2003) have long favoured the term "English Revolution". Several military conflicts are considered English civil wars: The Anarchy (1135–1154). ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... John Edward Christopher Hill (February 6, 1912 - February 23, 2003) was an English Marxist historian and the author of many history textbooks. ...


Background

The King's aspirations

Charles I, painted by Anthony van Dyck.
Charles I, painted by Anthony van Dyck.

War broke out less than forty years after the death of the popular Elizabeth I in 1603. At the accession of Charles I in 1625, England and Scotland had both experienced relative peace, both internally and in their relations with each other, for as long as anyone could remember. Charles hoped to unite the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland into a new single kingdom, fulfilling the dream of his father, James I of England (James VI of Scotland). Many English Parliamentarians had suspicions regarding such a move, because they feared that setting up a new kingdom might destroy the old English traditions which had bound the English monarchy. As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown (James had described kings as "little Gods on Earth", chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the "Divine Right of Kings"), the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ...


Although pious and with little personal ambition, Charles expected outright loyalty in return for "just rule". He considered any questioning of his orders as, at best, insulting. This trait, and a series of events, each seemingly minor on their own, led to a serious break between Charles and his English Parliament, and eventually to war. A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House...


Parliament in the English constitutional framework

Before the fighting, the Parliament of England did not have a large permanent role in the English system of government, instead functioning as a temporary advisory committee — summoned by the monarch whenever the Crown required additional tax revenue, and subject to dissolution by the monarch at any time. Because responsibility for collecting taxes lay in the hands of the gentry, the English kings needed the help of that stratum of society in order to ensure the smooth collection of that revenue. If the gentry refused to collect the King's taxes, the Crown would lack any practical means with which to compel them. Parliaments allowed representatives of the gentry to meet, confer and send policy-proposals to the monarch in the form of Bills. These representatives did not, however, have any means of forcing their will upon the king — except by withholding the financial means required to execute his plans. The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... -1... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Parliamentary concerns and the Petition of Right

Henrietta Maria, painted by Peter Lely, 1660.
Henrietta Maria, painted by Peter Lely, 1660.

One of the first events to cause concern about Charles I came with his marriage to a French Roman Catholic princess, Henrietta-Marie de Bourbon. The marriage occurred in 1625, right after Charles came to the throne. Charles' marriage raised the possibility that his children, including the heir to the throne, could grow up as Catholics, a frightening prospect to Protestant England. Download high resolution version (1576x2125, 311 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1576x2125, 311 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 - 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert...


Charles also wanted to take part in the conflicts underway in Europe, then immersed in the Thirty Years' War (1618 - 1648). As ever, foreign wars required heavy expenditure, and the Crown could raise the necessary taxes only with Parliamentary consent (as described above). Charles experienced even more financial difficulty when his first Parliament refused to follow the tradition of giving him the right to collect customs duties for his entire reign, deciding instead to grant it for only a year at a time. Combatants Sweden (from 1630)  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (1625-1629) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Denmark-Norway (1643-1645) Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of...


Charles, meanwhile, pressed ahead with his European wars, deciding to send an expeditionary force to relieve the French Huguenots whom Royal French forces held besieged in La Rochelle. The royal favourite, George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham, secured the command of the English force. Unfortunately for Charles and Buckingham, the relief expedition proved a fiasco (1627), and Parliament, already hostile to Buckingham for his monopoly on royal patronage, opened impeachment proceedings against him. Charles responded by dissolving Parliament. This move, while saving Buckingham, reinforced the impression that Charles wanted to avoid Parliamentary scrutiny of his ministers. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... La Rochelle is a city and commune of western France, and a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean (population 78,000 in 2004). ... The Duke of Buckingham by Rubens George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (IPA pronunciation: ) was one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history. ... ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...


Having dissolved Parliament, and unable to raise money without it, the king assembled a new one in 1628. (The elected members included Oliver Cromwell.) The new Parliament drew up the Petition of Right, and Charles accepted it as a concession in order to get his subsidy. Amongst other things the Petition referred to Magna Carta. For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... In English law, a petition of right was a remedy available to subjects to recover property from the Crown. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ...


The Personal Rule and the rebellion in Scotland

Part of a series on
History of Christianity
in the British Isles
Early

Joseph of Arimathea
Legend of Christ in Britain
Christianity in Roman Britain
This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... For other uses, see Glastonbury (disambiguation). ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ...

Post-Roman

Celtic Christianity
Anglo-Saxon Christianity
Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx (the inhabitants of the British... The history of Christianity in England from the Roman departure to the Norman Conquest is often told as one of conflict between the Celtic Christianity spread by the Irish mission, and Roman Catholic Christianity brought across by Augustine of Canterbury. ...

Medieval

England · Wales
Scotland · Ireland
The crozier of Saint Finan, an early medieval staff-head used by Gaelic clergymen. ...

Reformation

Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Dissolution of the Monasteries
Scottish Reformation
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... John Knox regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation The Scottish Reformation was Scotlands formal break with the papacy in 1560, and the events surrounding this. ...

Post-Reformation

17th century
English Civil War
18th century · 19th century
Catholic Emancipation
1900-present
Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ...

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Charles I avoided calling a Parliament for the next decade. Depending upon their political affiliation, people referred to this time either as the "Eleven Years' Tyranny" or as "Charles's Personal Rule".


During this period, Charles's lack of finances largely determined his policies. Unable to raise revenue through Parliament – due to his reluctance to convene it - he resorted to other means of financing his affairs. Thus failure to observe often long-outdated conventions became in some cases a finable offence (for example, a failure to attend and to receive knighthood at Charles' coronation), with the fines being paid to the crown. Charles also tried to raise revenue in the form of Ship Money. Exploiting a naval war-scare in 1635, he demanded that the inland counties of England pay a tax to support the Royal Navy. This policy relied on an established law, but it was a law which the authorities had ignored for centuries, and so was regarded by many as yet another extra-Parliamentary (and therefore illegal) tax. A number of prominent men refused to pay Ship Money on these grounds. Reprisals against men such as William Prynne and John Hampden (fined after losing their case 7 to 5 for refusing to pay ship money and for making a stand against the legality of the tax) aroused widespread indignation. A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... Ship money was a tax, the levy of which by Charles I of England without the consent of Parliament was one of the causes of the English Civil War. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... William Prynne (1600 - October 24, 1669) was a Puritan opponent of the church policy of Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud. ... John Hampden John Hampden as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book John Hampden (circa 1595—1643) was an English politician, the eldest son of William Hampden, of Hampden House, Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, a descendant of a very ancient family of that county, said to have been established...


During the "Personal Rule", Charles aroused most antagonism through his religious measures: he believed in a sacramental version of the Church of England, called High Anglicanism, with a theology based upon Arminianism, a belief-system shared by his main political advisor, Archbishop William Laud. Charles appointed Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633 and started a series of reforms in the Church to make it more ceremonial, starting with the replacement of the wooden communion tables with stone altars. Puritans accused Laud of trying to reintroduce Catholicism, and when they complained, Laud had them arrested. In 1637 John Bastwick, Henry Burton and William Prynne had their ears cut off for writing pamphlets attacking Laud's views — a rare penalty for gentlemen to suffer, and one that aroused anger. Moreover, the church authorities revived the statutes passed in the time of Elizabeth I concerning church attendance and fined Puritans around the country for failure to attend Anglican services. The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ... Archbishop William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of King Charles I of England, whom he encouraged to believe in divine right. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      As a... John Bastwick was born in Essex in 1593. ... For other uses, see Gentleman (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


The end of Charles's independent governance came when he attempted to apply the same religious policies in Scotland. The Church of Scotland, although reluctantly Episcopal in structure, had long enjoyed its own independent traditions. Charles, however, wanted one uniform church throughout Britain and introduced a new, High Anglican, version of the English Book of Common Prayer into Scotland in the summer of 1637. This met with a violent reaction. A riot broke out in Edinburgh, allegedly started in a church by one Jenny Geddes; and in February 1638 the Scots formulated their objections to royal policy in the National Covenant. This document took the form of a "loyal protest", rejecting all innovations not first been tested by free parliaments and General Assemblies of the church. The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Riot against use of prescribed prayer book The legendary Jenny Geddes famously threw her stool at the head of the minister in St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, beginning a riot which led to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms that included the English Civil War. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ...


Before long, Charles had to withdraw his Prayer Book and summon a General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which met in Glasgow in November, 1638. The Assembly, affected by the radical mood of the times, not only rejected the Prayer Book, but went on to take the even more drastic step of declaring the office of bishop as unlawful. Charles demanded the acts of the Assembly be withdrawn; the Scots refused to comply, and both sides began to raise armies. For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


Charles accompanied his forces to the border in the spring of 1639 to end the rebellion, known as the Bishops War. But after an inconclusive campaign he decided to accept the Scottish offer of a truce; the Pacification of Berwick. The truce proved temporary, and a second war followed in the summer of 1640. This time a Scots army defeated Charles's forces in the north and went on to capture Newcastle. Charles eventually had to agree not only not to interfere with religion in Scotland, but to pay the Scottish war-expenses as well. The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... Pacification of Berwick this was a prime part of the civil war ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ...


Recall of Parliament

Charles needed to suppress the rebellion in his northern realm. He had insufficient funds, however, and had perforce to seek money from a newly-elected Parliament in 1640. The majority faction in the new Parliament, led by John Pym, took this appeal for money as an opportunity to discuss grievances against the Crown, and opposed the idea of an English invasion of Scotland. Charles took exception to this lèse-majesté (offence against the ruler) and dissolved Parliament after only a few weeks; hence the name "the Short Parliament". The Short Parliament (April 13-May 5, 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks. ... John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ... Lese majesty, leze majesty, or lèse majesté (from the Latin Laesa maiestatis, injury to the Majesty) is the crime of violating majesty, an offense against the dignity of a reigning sovereign or against a state. ... The Short Parliament (April 13-May 5, 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks. ...


Without Parliament's support, Charles attacked Scotland again, breaking the truce at Berwick, and suffered a comprehensive defeat. The Scots then seized the opportunity and invaded England, occupying Northumberland and Durham. Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... Durham (IPA: locally, in RP) is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham in North East England. ...


Meanwhile, another of Charles' chief advisers, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Viscount Wentworth, had risen to the rôle of Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1632 and brought in much-needed revenue for Charles by persuading the Irish Catholic gentry to pay new taxes in return for promised religious concessions. In 1639 Charles recalled him to England, and in 1640 made him Earl of Strafford, attempting to have him work his magic again in Scotland. This time he proved less successful, and the English forces fled the field in their second encounter with the Scots in 1640. Almost the entirety of Northern England was occupied, and Charles was forced to pay £850 per day to keep the Scots from advancing. If he did not, they would "take" the money by pillaging and burning the cities and towns of Northern England. Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford in an Armour, 1639, by Sir Anthony van Dyck. ...


All this put Charles in a desperate financial position. As King of Scotland, he had to find money to pay the Scottish army in England; as King of England, to find money to pay and equip an English army to defend England. His means of raising revenue without Parliament fell critically short of achieving this. Against this backdrop, and according to advice from the Magnum Concilium (the House of Lords, but without the Commons, so not a Parliament), Charles finally bowed to pressure and summoned a Parliament in November 1640. The Magnum Concilium, or Great Council, was established in the reign of Henry III. It a was meeting held at certain times of the year where church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss affairs of the country with the king and was held when King Charles 1 was... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


The Long Parliament

Main article: Long Parliament

The new Parliament proved even more hostile to Charles than its predecessor. It immediately began to discuss grievances against Charles and his Government, and with Pym and Hampden (of Ship Money fame) in the lead, took the opportunity presented by the King's troubles to force various reforming measures upon him. The legislators passed a law which stated that a new Parliament should convene at least once every three years — without the King's summons, if necessary. Other laws passed by the Parliament made it illegal for the king to impose taxes without Parliamentary consent, and later, gave Parliament control over the king's ministers. Finally, the Parliament passed a law forbidding the King to dissolve it without its consent, even if the three years were up. Ever since, this Parliament has been known as the "Long Parliament". However, Parliament did attempt to avert conflict by requiring all adults to sign The Protestation. The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... The Protestation was an attempt to avert the English Civil War. ...


In early 1641 Parliament had Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, arrested and sent to the Tower of London on a charge of treason. John Pym claimed that Wentworth's statements of readiness to campaign against "the kingdom" aimed in fact at England itself. Unable to prove the case in court, the House of Commons, led by Pym and Henry Vane, resorted to a Bill of Attainder. Unlike a guilty finding in a court case, attainder did not require a legal burden of proof, but it did require the king's approval. Charles, still incensed over the Commons' handling of Buckingham, refused. Wentworth himself, hoping to head off the war he saw looming, wrote to the king and asked him to reconsider. Wentworth's execution took place in May, 1641.[1] Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford in an Armour, 1639, by Sir Anthony van Dyck. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of attainder) is an act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime, and punishing them, without benefit of a trial. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


Instead of saving the country from war, Wentworth's sacrifice in fact doomed it to one. Within months, the Irish Catholics, fearing a resurgence of Protestant power, struck first, and all Ireland soon descended into chaos. Rumours circulated that the King supported the Irish, and Puritan members of the Commons soon started murmuring that this exemplified the fate that Charles had in store for all of them. The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ...


In early January 1642, accompanied by 400 soldiers, Charles attempted to arrest five members of the House of Commons on a charge of treason. This attempt failed. When the troops marched into Parliament, Charles inquired of William Lenthall, the Speaker, as to the whereabouts of the five. Lenthall replied "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House [of Commons] is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here." In other words, the Speaker proclaimed himself a servant of Parliament, rather than of the King. William Lenthall (1591 – September 3, 1662), was an English politician of the Civil War period, Speaker of the House of Commons. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ...


Local grievances

In the summer of 1642 these national troubles helped to polarize opinion, ending indecision about which side to support or what action to take. Opposition to Charles also arose owing to many local grievances. For example, the imposition of drainage-schemes in The Fens negatively affected the livelihood of thousands of people after the King awarded a number of drainage-contracts. Many regarded the King as worse than insensitive, and this played a role in bringing a large part of eastern England into Parliament’s camp. This sentiment brought with it people such as the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell, each a notable wartime adversary of the King. Conversely, one of the leading drainage contractors, the Earl of Lindsey, was to die fighting for the King at the Battle of Edgehill. The Fens may also refer to the Back Bay Fens, a park in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester KG (1602 – May 5, 1671), eldest son of the first earl by his first wife, Catherine Spencer, granddaughter of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe, was born in 1602, and was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. ... Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey (17 December 1583 – Edge Hill 24 October 1642) // Early life Queen Elizabeth I was his godmother, and to her two favourite Earls, whose Christian name he bore, where his godfathers. ... The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. ...


The First English Civil War

Maps of territory held by Royalists (red) and Parliamentarians (green), 1642 — 1645
Maps of territory held by Royalists (red) and Parliamentarians (green), 1642 — 1645

In early January 1642, a few days after his failure to capture five members of the House of Commons, fearing for his own personal safety and for that of his family and retinue, Charles left the London area. Further negotiations by frequent correspondence between the King and the Long Parliament through to early summer proved fruitless. As the summer progressed, cities and towns declared their sympathies for one faction or the other: for example, the garrison of Portsmouth under the command of Sir George Goring declared for the King, but when Charles tried to acquire arms for his cause from Kingston upon Hull, the depository for the weapons used in the previous Scottish campaigns, Sir John Hotham, the military governor appointed by Parliament in January, initially refused to let Charles enter Hull, and when Charles returned with more men, drove them off. Charles issued a warrant for Hotham to be arrested as a traitor but was powerless to enforce it. Throughout the summer months, tensions rose and there was brawling in a number of places, with the first death of the conflict taking place in Manchester.[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x627, 158 KB) Summary Image made by me, based on [1] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: English Civil War ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x627, 158 KB) Summary Image made by me, based on [1] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: English Civil War ... The First English Civil War (1642–1646) was the first of three wars, known as the English Civil War (or Wars). The English Civil War refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652, and includes the Second... George Goring, Lord Goring (14 July 1608 - 1657) was an English Royalist soldier. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Sir John Hotham (d. ... The Siege of Hull in 1642 was the first major action of the English Civil War. ...


At the outset of the conflict, much of the country remained neutral, though the Royal Navy and most English cities favoured Parliament, while the King found considerable support in rural communities. Historians estimate that between them, both sides had only about 15,000 men[citation needed]. However, the war quickly spread and eventually involved every level of society, throughout the British Isles. Many areas attempted to remain neutral, some formed bands of Clubmen to protect their localities against the worst excesses of the armies of both sides, but most found it impossible to withstand both the King and Parliament. On one side, the King and his supporters thought that they fought for traditional government in Church and state. On the other, most supporters of the Parliamentary cause initially took up arms to defend what they thought of as the traditional balance of government in Church and state, which the bad advice the King had received from his advisers had undermined before and during the "Eleven Years' Tyranny". The views of the Members of Parliament ranged from unquestioning support of the King — at one point during the First Civil War, more members of the Commons and Lords gathered in the King's Oxford Parliament than at Westminster — through to radicals, who wanted major reforms in favour of religious independence and the redistribution of power at the national level. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Clubmen were bands of vigilantes during the English Civil War (1642–1651) who tried to protect their localities against the worst excesses of armies of both sides. ... The Oxford Parliament assembled for the first time 22 January 1644 and adjourned for the last time on 10 March 1645 King Charles I was advised by Edward Hyde and others not to dissolve the Long Parliament as this would violate the statute of 1641 which says that Parliament cannot... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Non conformism is the term of KKK ...


After the debacle at Hull, Charles moved on to Nottingham, where on 22 August 1642, he raised the royal standard. When he raised his standard, Charles had with him about 2,000 cavalry and a small number of Yorkshire infantry-men, and using the archaic system of a Commission of Array, Charles' supporters started to build a larger army around the standard. Charles moved in a south-westerly direction, first to Stafford, and then on to Shrewsbury, because the support for his cause seemed particularly strong in the Severn valley area and in North Wales.[3] While passing through Wellington, in what became known as the "Wellington Declaration", he declared that he would uphold the "Protestant religion, the laws of England, and the liberty of Parliament". For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... For other monarch’s standards, see Royal Standard (disambiguation). ... A commission given by royalty to officers or gentry in a given territory to muster and array the inhabitants, or see them in a condition for war. ... , Stafford is the county town of Staffordshire in England. ... For other places with the same name, see Shrewsbury (disambiguation). ... “Severn” redirects here. ... Approximate extent of North Wales North Wales (known in some archaic texts as Northgalis) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales, bordered to the south by Mid Wales. ... Wellington is a suburb of the new town of Telford in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... The Wellington Declaration (otherwise known as the Declaration of Wellington) was a manifesto by King Charles I near the start of the English Civil War In September 1642, before the first major pitched battle of Civil War, King Charles I raised his standard in the market square of Wellington, at...


The Parliamentarians who opposed the King, had not remained passive during this pre-war period. As in the case of Kingston upon Hull they had taken measures to secure strategic towns and cities, by appointing men sympathetic to their cause, and on 9 June they had voted to raise an army of 10,000 volunteers, appointing Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex commander three days later. He received orders "to rescue His Majesty's person, and the persons of the Prince [of Wales] and the Duke of York out of the hands of those desperate persons who were about them". The Lords Lieutenant, whom Parliament appointed, used the Militia Ordinance to order the militia to join Essex's army.[4] June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, (January 11 1591 – 14 September 1646), was the son and heir of the unfortunate Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and succeeded to his fathers title in 1604, three years after the previous earl had been executed for treason. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... James II (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[1] became King of England, King of Scots,[2] and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685. ... Flag of a Lord-Lieutenant The title Lord-Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom. ... The Militia Ordinance was a piece of legislation passed by the Long Parliament of England in March 1642, which was a major step towards the civil war between the King and Parliament of England. ...


Two weeks after the King had raised his standard at Nottingham, Essex led his army north towards Northampton, picking up support along the way (including a detachment of Cambridgeshire cavalry raised and commanded by Oliver Cromwell). By the middle of September Essex's forces had grown to 21,000 infantry and 4200 cavalry and dragoons. On 14 September he moved his army to Coventry and then to the north of the Cotswolds, a strategy which placed his army between the Royalists and London. With the size of both armies now in the tens of thousands, and only Worcestershire between them, it was inevitable that cavalry reconnaissance units would sooner or later meet. This happened in the first major skirmish of the Civil War, when a cavalry troop of about 1,000 Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert, a German nephew of the King and one of the outstanding cavalry commanders of the war, defeated a Parliamentary cavalry detachment under the command of Colonel John Brown in the Battle of Powick Bridge, at a bridge across the River Teme close to Worcester.[5] Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... The Cotswolds is the name given to a range of hills in central England, sometimes called the Heart of England, a hilly area reaching over 300 m or 1000 feet. ... for the city in British Columbia, see Prince Rupert, British Columbia Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619-1682), soldier and inventor, was a younger son of Frederick V, Elector Palatine and Elizabeth Stuart, and the nephew of King Charles I of England. ... The Battle of Powick Bridge, fought on 23 September 1642, was the first major cavalry engagement of the English Civil War and it was a decisive victory for the Royalists who overthrew of the Parliamentary cavalry. ... The River Teme rises in mid-Wales south of Newtown, Powys and flows through Ludlow in Shropshire, then between Tenbury Wells, Worcestershire and Burford, Shropshire on its way to join the River Severn south of Worcester. ... This article is about the city of Worcester in England. ...

Rupert withdrew to Shrewsbury, where, a council-of-war discussed two courses of action: whether to advance towards Essex's new position near Worcester, or to march along the now opened road towards London. The Council decided to take the London route, but not to avoid a battle, for the Royalist generals wanted to fight Essex before he grew too strong, and the temper of both sides made it impossible to postpone the decision. In the Earl of Clarendon's words: "it was considered more counsellable to march towards London, it being morally sure that Essex would put himself in their way". Accordingly, the army left Shrewsbury on 12 October, gaining two days' start on the enemy, and moved south-east. This had the desired effect, as it forced Essex to move to intercept them.[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x998, 760 KB) Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619-1682), Bohemian soldier and inventor. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x998, 760 KB) Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619-1682), Bohemian soldier and inventor. ... For other uses, see Prince Rupert (disambiguation). ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609–9 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first pitched battle of the war, fought at Edgehill on 23 October 1642, proved inconclusive, and both the Royalists and Parliamentarians claimed it as a victory. The second field action of the war, the stand-off at Turnham Green, saw Charles forced to withdraw to Oxford. This city would serve as his base for the remainder of the war. A pitched battle is a battle where both sides choose to fight at a chosen location and time and where either side has the option to disengage either before the battle starts, or shortly after the first armed exchanges. ... The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...


In 1643 the Royalist forces won at Adwalton Moor, and gained control of most of Yorkshire. In the Midlands, a Parliamentary force under Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet besieged and captured the cathedral city of Lichfield, after the death of the original commander, Lord Brooke. This group subsequently joined forces with Sir John Brereton to fight the inconclusive Battle of Hopton Heath (19 March 1643), where the Royalist commander, the Earl of Northampton, was killed. Subsequent battles in the west of England at Lansdowne and at Roundway Down also went to the Royalists. Prince Rupert could then take Bristol. In the same year, Oliver Cromwell formed his troop of "Ironsides", a disciplined unit that demonstrated his military leadership-ability. With their assistance, he won a victory at the Battle of Gainsborough in July. The Battle of Adwalton Moor was a battle in the English Civil War on 30 June 1643. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet (22 June 1593 – 26 October 1671) was a Parliamentarian politician and military figure in the English Civil War. ... Not to be confused with Litchfield. ... The Battle of Hopton Heath, in Staffordshire, was a battle of the First English Civil War, fought on Sunday 19 March 1643 between Parliamentarian forces led by Sir John Gell and Sir William Brereton and a Royalist force under Spencer Compton, 2nd Earl of Northampton. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... The title of Marquess of Northampton was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1812 for the Earl of Northampton. ... The English Civil War battle of Lansdowne (or Lansdown) was fought on July 5, 1643, near Bath. ... English Civil War battle fought near Devizes, on 13th July, 1643 Following the Battle of Lansdowne on 5th July, 1643, the same two armies faced each again at Rounday Down. ... This article is about the English city. ... Ironside was the name given to a trooper in the cavalry formed by English political leader Oliver Cromwell in the 17th century. ... The Battle of Gainsborough was a battle in the English Civil War. ...


In general, the early part of the war went well for the Royalists. The turning-point came in the late summer and early autumn of 1643, when the Earl of Essex's army forced the king to raise the siege of Gloucester and then brushed the Royalist army aside at the First Battle of Newbury (20 September 1643), in order to return triumphantly to London. Other Parliamentarian forces won the Battle of Winceby, giving them control of Lincoln. Political manoeuvering to gain an advantage in numbers led Charles to negotiate a ceasefire in Ireland, freeing up English troops to fight on the Royalist side in England, while Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for aid and assistance. Combatants Royalists Parliamentarians Commanders Charles I, Prince Rupert Colonel Edward Massey Strength about 35,000 1,500 regular troops unknown local militia Casualties exact number unknown, believed to be several thousand 50 The Siege of Gloucester took place took place between the 3rd of August and 5th of September, between... The two Battles of Newbury took place near Newbury, Berkshire during the English Civil War in 1643 and 1644. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... The Battle of Winceby took place in 1643 during the English Civil War near the village of Winceby, Lincolnshire about 6 km east of Horncastle Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell, leading the Parlimentary Forces, defeated the Royalists led by Sir John Henderson. ... Lincoln (pronounced Lin-kun) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England, a bridging point over the River Witham that flows to Boston. ...


With the help of the Scots, Parliament won at Marston Moor (2 July 1644), gaining York and the north of England. Cromwell's conduct in this battle proved decisive, and demonstrated his potential as both a political and an important military leader. The defeat at the Battle of Lostwithiel in Cornwall, however, marked a serious reverse for Parliament in the south-west of England. Subsequent fighting around Newbury (27 October 1644), though tactically indecisive, strategically gave another check to Parliament. Combatants Scottish Covenanters, Parliamentarians Royalists Commanders Earl of Leven, Earl of Manchester, Lord Fairfax Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Marquess of Newcastle Strength 7,000 horse, 500+ dragoons, 14,000 foot, 30 - 40 guns 6,000 horse, 11,000 foot, 14 guns Casualties 300 killed 4,000 killed, 1,500... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... 1. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Combatants Parliamentarians Royalists Commanders Earl of Essex Sir William Waller Earl of Manchester King Charles I Prince Maurice Strength 7,000 horse 12,000 foot 3,500 horse 5,000 foot Casualties unknown unknown The Second Battle of Newbury was a battle of the English Civil War fought on October... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ...

In 1645 Parliament reaffirmed its determination to fight the war to a finish. It passed the Self-denying Ordinance, by which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands, and re-organized its main forces into the New Model Army ("Army"), under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax, with Cromwell as his second-in-command and Lieutenant-General of Horse. In two decisive engagements — the Battles of Naseby on 14 June and of Langport on 10 July — the Parliamentarians effectively destroyed Charles' armies. Image File history File links Oliver_CromwellUT.jpg‎ From the English Wikipedia History 23:00, 29 July 2004 Raul654 (51708 bytes) (Reverted to earlier revision) 06:56, 26 April 2003 . ... Image File history File links Oliver_CromwellUT.jpg‎ From the English Wikipedia History 23:00, 29 July 2004 Raul654 (51708 bytes) (Reverted to earlier revision) 06:56, 26 April 2003 . ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... The first Self-denying Ordinance was a bill moved on 9 December 1644 to deprive members of Parliament from holding command in the army or the navy of the Parliamentary forces during the English Civil War. ... For the band, see New Model Army (band). ... Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Baron Fairfax of Cameron (January 17, 1612 - November 12, 1671), parliamentary general and commander-in-chief during the English Civil War, the eldest son of Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Baron Fairfax of Cameron, was born at Denton, near Otley, Yorkshire. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Combatants Parliamentarians Royalists Commanders Sir Thomas Fairfax Oliver Cromwell King Charles I Prince Rupert of the Rhine Strength 6,000 horse 7,000 foot 4,100 horse 3,300 foot Casualties 150 total casualties[1] approximately 1,000 killed, 5,000 captured[1] The Battle of Naseby was the key... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Langport was a Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War, which destroyed the last Royalist field army, and ultimately gave Parliament control of the West of England, which had hitherto been a major source of manpower, raw materials and imports for the Royalists. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the remains of his English realm Charles attempted to recover a stable base of support by consolidating the Midlands. He began to form an axis between Oxford and Newark on Trent in Nottinghamshire. Those towns had become fortresses and showed more reliable loyalty to him than to others. He took Leicester, which lies between them, but found his resources exhausted. Having little opportunity to replenish them, in May 1646 he sought shelter with a Scottish army at Southwell in Nottinghamshire. This marked the end of the First English Civil War. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Newark-on-Trent the Market Place Newark (also Newark-on-Trent) is a market town in Nottinghamshire (in 1216 it was in Lincolnshire) in the East Midlands area of England, located on the River Trent, the River Devon also runs through the town. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ... Vicars Court and the Residence Southwell is a small town in Nottinghamshire, England. ...


The Second English Civil War

"And when did you last see your father?" by William Frederick Yeames.
"And when did you last see your father?" by William Frederick Yeames.

Charles I took advantage of the deflection of attention away from himself to negotiate a new agreement with the Scots, again promising church reform, on 28 December 1647. Although Charles himself remained a prisoner, this agreement led inexorably to the Second Civil War. Combatants Royalist Forces Parliamentary Forces: Commanders King Charles I Duke of Hamilton Earl of Norwich Baron Capel Oliver Cromwell Thomas Fairfax Thomas Horton The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Frederick Yeames (1835-1918) was an British painter best known for his oil-on-canvas painting, And When Did You Last See Your Father?, which depicts the son of a Royalist being questioned by Parliamentarians during the English Civil War. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


A series of Royalist uprisings throughout England and a Scottish invasion occurred in the summer of 1648. Forces loyal to Parliament[7] put down most of the uprisings in England after little more than skirmishes, but uprisings (in Kent, Essex and Cumberland), the rebellion in Wales and the Scottish invasion involved the fighting of pitched battles and prolonged sieges.


In the spring of 1648 unpaid Parliamentarian troops in Wales changed sides. Colonel Thomas Horton defeated the Royalist rebels at the Battle of St. Fagans (8 May) and the rebel leaders surrendered to Cromwell on 11 July after the protracted two-month siege of Pembroke. Sir Thomas Fairfax defeated a Royalist uprising in Kent at the Battle of Maidstone on 24 June. Fairfax, after his success at Maidstone and the pacification of Kent, turned northward to reduce Essex, where, under their ardent, experienced and popular leader Sir Charles Lucas, the Royalists had taken up arms in great numbers. Fairfax soon drove the enemy into Colchester, but his first attack on the town met with a repulse and he had to settle down to a long siege. This article is about the country. ... Thomas Horton was born in 1603 in Gumley, Leicestershire, England to William and Isabell Horton and died October, 1649 in Ireland . ... The battle of St. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Seige of Pembroke took place in 1648 during the Second English Civil War. ... ... The Battle of Maidstone was a battle in the Second English Civil War (1648). ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Maidstone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... Sir Charles Lucas (1613-1648) was an English soldier, a Royalist commander in the English Civil War. ... For other places with the same name, see Colchester (disambiguation). ... The siege of Colchester occurred in the summer on 1648 when the English Civil War reignited in several areas of Britain. ...


In the North of England, Major-General John Lambert fought a very successful campaign against a number of Royalist uprisings — the largest that of Sir Marmaduke Langdale in Cumberland. Thanks to Lambert's successes, the Scottish commander, the Duke of Hamilton, had perforce to take the western route through Carlisle in his pro-Royalist Scottish invasion of England. The Parliamentarians under Cromwell engaged the Scots at the Battle of Preston (17 August19 August). The battle took place largely at Walton-le-Dale near Preston in Lancashire, and resulted in a victory by the troops of Cromwell over the Royalists and Scots commanded by Hamilton. This Parliamentarian victory marked the end of the Second English Civil War. John Lambert (1619 - 1684) served as an English Parliamentary general in the English Civil War. ... Marmaduke Langdale (1598 - 1661) was married to Ann Howard, a granddaughter of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton (June 19, 1606 - March 9, 1649), Scottish nobleman, son of James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton, and of the Lady Anne Cunningham, daughter of the earl of Glencairn, was born on 19 June 1606. ... For other uses, see Carlisle (disambiguation). ... See Battle of Preston (1715) for the battle of the Jacobite Rising. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Walton-Le-Dale is a primarily residential suburb of the city of Preston, Lancashire, England. ... This article is about Preston, Lancashire. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...


Nearly all the Royalists who had fought in the First Civil War had given their parole not to bear arms against the Parliament, and many honourable Royalists, like Lord Astley, refused to break their word by taking any part in the second war. So the victors in the Second Civil War showed little mercy to those who had brought war into the land again. On the evening of the surrender of Colchester, Parliamentarians had Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle shot. Parliamentary authorities sentenced the leaders of the Welsh rebels, Major-General Rowland Laugharne, Colonel John Poyer and Colonel Rice Powel to death, but executed Poyer alone (25 April 1649), having selected him by lot. Of five prominent Royalist peers who had fallen into the hands of Parliament, three, the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Holland, and Lord Capel, one of the Colchester prisoners and a man of high character, were beheaded at Westminster on 9 March. Jacob Astley, 1st Baron Astley of Reading (1579–1652), was a royalist commander in the English Civil War. ... Sir George Lisle (c. ... Major General Rowland Laugharne (born c1607 died 1675 in London) was a soldier in the English Civil War. ... John Poyer (died April 25, 1649) was a soldier in the Parliamentary army during the English Civil War. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland was baptized on August 19, 1590 and he was probably born earlier in the same year. ... Arthur Capel, 1st Baron Capel (c. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Trial of Charles I for treason

The betrayal by Charles caused Parliament to debate whether to return the King to power at all. Those who still supported Charles' place on the throne tried once more to negotiate with him.


Furious that Parliament continued to countenance Charles as a ruler, the Army marched on Parliament and conducted "Pride's Purge" (named after the commanding officer of the operation, Thomas Pride) in December 1648. Troops arrested 45 Members of Parliament (MPs) and kept 146 out of the chamber. They allowed only 75 Members in, and then only at the Army's bidding. This Rump Parliament received orders to set up a high court of justice in order to try Charles I for treason in the name of the people of England. Prides Purge was the occasion when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not supporters of Oliver Cromwell. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross see Thomas Pride (VC). ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ...


At the end of the trial the 59 Commissioners (judges) found Charles I guilty of high treason, as a "tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy".[8][9] His beheading took place on a scaffold in front of the Banqueting House of the Palace of Whitehall on 30 January 1649. (After the Restoration in 1660, Charles II executed the surviving regicides not living in exile or sentenced them to life imprisonment.) Regicides of Charles I are considered to be the 59 Commissioners (Judges) who formed the tribunal that tried King Charles I of England and signed his death warrant, along with other officials who participated in his trial or execution, and Hugh Peters an influential republican preacher. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Banqueting House, Whitehall, London The Banqueting House at Whitehall is a famous London building, formerly part of the Palace of Whitehall, designed by architect Inigo Jones in 1619, and completed in 1622, with assistance from John Webb. ... The Palace of Whitehall by Hendrick Danckerts. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ...


The Third English Civil War

The Third English Civil War (1649–1651) was the third of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1652 and include the First English Civil War...

Ireland

See also: Cromwellian conquest of Ireland

Ireland had known continuous war since the rebellion of 1641, with most of the island controlled by the Irish Confederates. Increasingly threatened by the armies of the English Parliament after Charles I's arrest in 1648, the Confederates signed a treaty of alliance with the English Royalists. The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde attempted to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649). As the former Member of Parliament Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Oliver Cromwell could land at Dublin on 15 August 1649 with an army to quell the Royalist alliance in Ireland. Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ... Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met. ... James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (October 19, 1610 – July 21, 1688), was an Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... The battle of Rathmines was fought in around the modern Dublin suburb of Rathmines in August 1649, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Robert Blake, General at Sea, 1599–1657 by Henry Perronet Briggs, painted 1829. ... Market Street in Kinsale, one of the towns oldest thoroughfares Kinsale (Cionn tSáile in Irish) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ...


Cromwell's suppression of the Royalists in Ireland during 1649 still has a strong resonance for many Irish people. After the siege of Drogheda, the massacre of nearly 3,500 people — comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests — became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. However, the massacre has significance mainly as a symbol of the Irish perception of Cromwellian cruelty, as far more people died in the subsequent guerrilla and scorched-earth fighting in the country than at infamous massacres such as Drogheda and Wexford. The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland ground on for another four years until 1653, when the last Irish Confederate and Royalist troops surrendered. Historians have estimated[citation needed] that up to 30% of Ireland's population either died or had gone into exile by the end of the wars. The victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land in the wake of the conquest and distributed it to the Parliament's creditors, to the Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English people who had settled there before the war. Drogheda, a town in eastern Ireland, was besieged twice in the 1640s, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... This article is about the Irish town. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met. ...


Scotland

See also: Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms#Montrose's defeat and death and Scotland in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms#Third Civil War

The execution of Charles I altered the dynamics of the the Civil War in Scotland, which had raged between Royalists and Covenanters since 1644. By 1649, the struggle had left the Royalists there in disarray and their erstwhile leader, the Marquess of Montrose, had gone into exile. At first, Charles II encouraged Montrose to raise a Highland army to fight on the Royalist side. However, when the Scottish Covenanters (who did not agree with the execution of Charles I and who feared for the future of Presbyterianism and Scottish independence under the new Commonwealth) offered him the crown of Scotland, Charles abandoned Montrose to his enemies. However, Montrose, who had raised a mercenary force in Norway, had already landed and could not abandon the fight. He did not succeed in raising many Highland clans and the Covenanters defeated his army at the Battle of Carbisdale in Ross-shire on 27 April 1650. The victors captured Montrose shortly afterwards and took him to Edinburgh. On 20 May the Scottish Parliament sentenced him to death and had him hanged the next day. Combatants Scottish Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops Scottish Covenanters Commanders James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll and David Leslie Strength Fluctuating, 2000-4000 troops at any one time over 30,000 troops, but many based in England and Ireland Casualties Total of 28... Combatants Scottish Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops Scottish Covenanters Commanders James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll and David Leslie Strength Fluctuating, 2000-4000 troops at any one time over 30,000 troops, but many based in England and Ireland Casualties Total of 28... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Combatants Scottish Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops Scottish Covenanters Commanders James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll and David Leslie Strength Fluctuating, 2000-4000 troops at any one time over 30,000 troops, but many based in England and Ireland Casualties Total of 28... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose (1612 - 21 May 1650), was a Scottish nobleman and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a large number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... 26th April 1650 Whilst in Denmark, July 1649, Marquis of Montrose wrote an appeal in the Kings name to the people of Scotland calling on all those loyal to the Crown to rise up against those who had sold their sovereign into death. The effect of this appeal was... Ross-shire (Siorrachd Rois in Gaelic), or simply Ross, is a traditional county of Scotland bordering on Sutherland, Cromartyshire (of which it contains many enclaves), Inverness-shire and on an exclave of Nairnshire. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Cromwell at Dunbar", Andrew Carrick Gow.
"Cromwell at Dunbar", Andrew Carrick Gow.

Charles II landed in Scotland at Garmouth in Morayshire on 23 June 1650 and signed the 1638 National Covenant and the 1643 Solemn League and Covenant immediately after coming ashore. With his original Scottish Royalist followers and his new Covenanter allies, King Charles II became the greatest threat facing the new English republic. In response to the threat, Cromwell left some of his lieutenants in Ireland to continue the suppression of the Irish Royalists and returned to England. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Garmouth is a fictional town in the book and the BBC television serial, The Machine Gunners by Robert Westall. ... Morayshire or Elginshire (Siorrachd Mhoireibh in Gaelic) is one of the traditional counties of Scotland, bordering Nairnshire to the west, Inverness-shire to the south, and Banffshire to the east. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians. ...


He arrived in Scotland on 22 July 1650 and proceeded to lay siege to Edinburgh. By the end of August disease and a shortage of supplies had reduced his army, and he had to order a retreat towards his base at Dunbar. A Scottish army, assembled under the command of David Leslie, tried to block the retreat, but Cromwell defeated them at the Battle of Dunbar on September 3. Cromwell's army then took Edinburgh, and by the end of the year his army had occupied much of southern Scotland. is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about Dunbar in Scotland. ... David Leslie, Lord Newark (c. ... Cromwell at Dunbar, Andrew Carrick Gow The Battle of Dunbar (3 September 1650) was a battle of the Third English Civil War. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In July 1651, Cromwell's forces crossed the Firth of Forth into Fife and defeated the Scots at the Battle of Inverkeithing (20 July 1651). The New Model Army advanced towards Perth, which allowed Charles, at the head of the Scottish army, to move south into England. Cromwell followed Charles into England, leaving George Monck to finish the campaign in Scotland. Monck took Stirling on 14 August and Dundee on 1 September. The next year, 1652, saw the mopping up of the remnants of Royalist resistance, and under the terms of the "Tender of Union", the Scots received 30 seats in a united Parliament in London, with General Monck appointed as the military governor of Scotland. The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... This article is about the area in Scotland. ... The Battle of Inverkeithing [1] (20 July 1651) was a battle in the Third English Civil War. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... Perth (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a royal burgh in central Scotland. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tender of Union or the Act of Union was passed by the English Rump Parliament on 2 February 1652. ...


England

Although Cromwell's New Model Army had defeated a Scottish army at Dunbar, Cromwell could not prevent Charles II from marching from Scotland deep into England at the head of another Royalist army. The Royalists marched to the west of England because English Royalist sympathies were strongest in that area, but although some English Royalists joined the army, they came in far fewer numbers than Charles and his Scottish supporters had hoped. Cromwell finally engaged the new king at Worcester on 3 September 1651, and defeated him. Charles II escaped, via safe houses and a famous oak tree, to France, ending the civil wars. Combatants English Parlimentry forces loyal to Oliver Cromwell English and Scottish Royalists loyal to King Charles II Strength 31,000 less than 16,000 Casualties 200 3,000 killed, more than 10,000 prisoners The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England and was the... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... The Escape of Charles II from England in 1651 is a key episode in his life. ... The Royal Oak is the name given to the oak tree within which King Charles II of England hid to escape the Roundheads following the Battle of Worcester in 1651. ...


Political control

During the course of the Wars the Parliamentarians established a number of successive committees to oversee the war-effort. The first of these, the Committee of Safety, set up in July 1642, comprised 15 Members of Parliament. The Committee of Safety, established by the Parliamentarians in July 1642, was the first of a number of successive committees set up to oversee the English Civil War against King Charles. ...


Following the Anglo-Scottish alliance against the Royalists, the Committee of Both Kingdoms replaced the Committee of Safety between 1644 and 1648. Parliament dissolved the Committee of Both Kingdoms when the alliance ended, but its English members continued to meet and became known as the Derby House Committee. A second Committee of Safety then replaced that committee. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... The Committee of Both Kingdoms was a committee set up during the English Civil War by the Parliamentarian faction, to oversee the conduct of the War. ...


Casualties

As usual in wars of this era, disease caused more deaths than combat. Matthew White cites a number of sources which give a range for the deaths in the British Isles (IONA) from 1641 to 1652. For England and Wales and Scotland, White uses two sources for the number of deaths resulting from the war, and these range between 100,000 and 150,000. Two sources give a range of battle-deaths, the first source gives 84,830 killed in England and Wales and another 27,895 in Scotland; another source states that a total of 50,500 died in battle. White uses more sources for the Irish conflict, where warfare continued for longer than in England and Wales. The total number of people who died because of warfare in Ireland during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms ranges from less than 300,000 up to 618,000. Only one source gives battle-losses, and these total 5,500 between 1649 and 1652.[10]


Aftermath

The wars left England, Scotland and Ireland amongst the few countries in Europe without a monarch. In the wake of victory, many of the ideals (and many of the idealists) became sidelined. The republican government of the Commonwealth of England ruled England (and later all of Scotland and Ireland) from 1649 to 1653 and from 1659 to 1660. Between the two periods, and due to in-fighting amongst various factions in Parliament, Oliver Cromwell ruled over the Protectorate as Lord Protector (effectively a military dictator) until his death in 1658. Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ...


Upon his death, Oliver Cromwell's son Richard became Lord Protector, but the Army had little confidence in him. After seven months the Army removed Richard, and in May 1659 it re-installed the Rump. However, since the Rump Parliament acted as though nothing had changed since 1653 and as if it could treat the Army as it liked, military force shortly afterwards dissolved this too. After the second dissolution of the Rump, in October 1659, the prospect of a total descent into anarchy loomed as the Army's pretence of unity finally dissolved into factions. Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ...


Into this atmosphere General George Monck, Governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland. On 4 April 1660, in the Declaration of Breda, Charles II made known the conditions of his acceptance of the Crown of England. Monck organised the Convention Parliament, which met for the first time on 25 April. On 8 May it declared that King Charles II had reigned as the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I in January 1649. Charles returned from exile on 23 May. On 29 May, the populace in London acclaimed him as king. His coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. These events became known as the English Restoration. George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Breda in the Netherlands, where King Charles II of England resided during his exile, has given its name to his Declaration of Breda (1660). ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Restoration. ...


As they resulted in the restoration of the monarchy with the consent of Parliament, the civil wars effectively set England and Scotland on course to adopt a parliamentary monarchy form of government. This system would result in the outcome that the future Kingdom of Great Britain, formed in 1707 under the Acts of Union, would avoid participation in the European republican movements that followed the Jacobin revolution in 18th century France and the later success of Napoleon. Specifically, future monarchs became wary of pushing Parliament too hard, and Parliament effectively chose the line of royal succession in 1688 with the Glorious Revolution and in the 1701 Act of Settlement. After the Restoration, Parliament's factions became political parties (later becoming the Tories and Whigs) with competing views and varying abilities to influence the decisions of their monarchs. A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794), but even at that time, the term Jacobins had been popularly applied to all promulgators of extreme revolutionary opinions: for example, Jacobin democracy is synonymous with totalitarian democracy. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British Whig party. ...


Theories relating to the English Civil War

Throughout the greater part of the 20th century, two schools of thought dominated theoretical explanations of the Civil War: the "Whigs" and the Marxists. Both of them explained the English seventeenth century in terms of long-term trends. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


Whigs explained the Civil War as the result of a centuries-long struggle between Parliament (especially the House of Commons) and the monarchy. According to this school of thought, Parliament fought to defend the traditional rights of Englishmen, while the monarchy attempted on every occasion to expand its right to dictate law arbitrarily. The most important Whig historian, S.R. Gardiner, popularized the idea of describing the civil war as a 'Puritan Revolution' which challenged the repressive nature of the Stuart church and paved the way for the religious toleration of the Restoration. Puritanism, in this view, became the natural ally of a people seeking to preserve their traditional rights against the arbitrary power of the monarchy. Samuel Rawson Gardiner (March 4, 1829 - February 24, 1902) was an English historian. ... For the Religioustolerance. ...


The Marxist school of thought, which became popular in the 1940s, interpreted the Civil War as a bourgeois revolution. In the words of Christopher Hill, "the Civil War was a class war". On the side of reaction stood the landed aristocracy and its ally, the established church. On the other side stood (again according to Hill) "the trading and industrial classes in town and countryside. . . the yeomen and progressive gentry, and. . . wider masses of the population whenever they were able by free discussion to understand what the struggle was really about". The Civil War occurred at the point in English history at which the wealthy middle classes, already a powerful force in society, liquidated the outmoded medieval system of English government. Like the Whigs, the Marxists found a place for the role of religion in their account. Puritanism as a moral system ideally suited the bourgeois class, and so the Marxists identified Puritans as inherently bourgeois. Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... John Edward Christopher Hill (February 6, 1912 - February 23, 2003) was an English Marxist historian and the author of many history textbooks. ... Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Beginning in the 1970s, a new generation of historians began mounting challenges to the Marxist and Whig theories. This began with the publication in 1973 of the anthology The Origins of the English Civil War (edited by Conrad Russell). These historians disliked the way that Marxists and Whigs explained the Civil War in terms of long-term trends in English society. The new historians called for (and began producing) studies which focussed on the minute particulars of the years immediately preceding the war, thus returning in some ways to the sort of contingency-based historiography of Clarendon's famous contemporary history of the Civil War. As a result, they have demonstrated that the pattern of allegiances in the war did not fit the theories of Whig or Marxist historians. Puritans, for example, did not necessarily ally themselves with Parliamentarians, and many of them did not identify as bourgeois; many bourgeois fought on the side of the King; many landed aristocrats supported Parliament. Lord Russell Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell, 5th Earl Russell (15 April 1937–14 October 2004) was a British historian and politician. ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609–9 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. ...


The new generation of historians (commonly called 'Revisionists') have discredited large sections of the Whig and Marxist interpretations of the war. Many of these historians (such as Jane Ohlmeyer) have discarded the title "English Civil War" and replaced it with the "Wars of the Three Kingdoms" or even the geographically arguable but politically incorrect "British Civil Wars". This forms part of a wider trend in British history towards the study of the whole of the British Isles (IONA). This trend reacts against what its proponents perceive as 'Anglocentric' history, which concentrates on England and ignores or marginalizes other parts of the British Isles. These revisionist historians argue that one cannot fully understand the English Civil War in isolation; it needs to stand as just one conflict in a series of interlocking conflicts throughout the British Isles. They see the causes of the war as a consequence arising from one king, Charles I, ruling over multiple kingdoms. For example, the wars unfolded when Charles I tried to impose an Anglican prayer book on Scotland; when the Scots resisted he declared war on them, but had to raise heavy taxes in England to pay for campaigning, which triggered the Civil War in England. This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Islands of the North Atlantic (IONA) was suggested by Sir John Biggs-Davison as a less contentious alternative to the term British Isles to refer to Britain and Ireland and the smaller associated islands. ...


Re-enactments

Two large historical societies exist, The Sealed Knot and The English Civil War Society, which regularly re-enact events and battles of the Civil War in full period costume. Arms of The Sealed Knot The Sealed Knot is a British historical association dedicated to costumed reenactment of battles and events surrounding the English Civil War. ... The English Civil War Society is the umbrella organisation for the Kings Army and the Roundhead Association. ... English Civil War reenactment refers to the modern reenactment of events during the 17th century English Civil War. ...


See also

This is a timeline of events leading up to, culminating in, and resulting from the English Civil Wars. ... The Levellers were a mid 17th century English political movement, who came to prominence during the English Civil Wars. ... The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were active from 1649 to 1661 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 1600s. ... The Religious Society of Friends, also known as Quakers, is a movement that began in England in the 17th century. ... For other meanings see Diggers (disambiguation) and Levellers (disambiguation) The Diggers were a group begun by Gerrard Winstanley in 1649 which called for a total destruction of the existing social order and replacement with a communistic and agrarian lifestyle based around the precepts of Christian Nationalism, wishing to rid England... The Ranters were a radical English sect in the time of the Commonwealth, who were regarded as heretical by the established Church of that period. ... Combatants Sweden (from 1630)  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (1625-1629) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Denmark-Norway (1643-1645) Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of...

References

  • Royal, Trevor; "Civil War: The Wars of the Three Kingdoms 1638-1660"; Pub Abacus 2006; (first published 2004); ISBN 978-0-349-11564-1

Further reading

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Jacob Abbott Charles I Chapter Downfall of Strafford and Laud
  2. ^ Trevor Royle References pp. 158-166
  3. ^ Trevor Royle References pp 170, 183
  4. ^ Trevor Royle References pp 165, 161
  5. ^ Trevor Royle References pp 171-188
  6. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  7. ^ House of Lords Journal Volume 10 19 May 1648: Letter from L. Fairfax, about the Disposal of the Forces, to suppress the Insurrections in Suffolk, Lancashire, and S. Wales; and for Belvoir Castle to be secured and the House of Lords Journal Volume 10 19 May 1648: Disposition of the Remainder of the Forces in England and Wales not mentioned in the Fairfax letter
  8. ^ Sean Kelsey, Sean. "The Trial of Charles I" English Historical Review 2003, Volume 118, Number 477 Pp. 583-616
  9. ^ Michael Kirby. The trial of King Charles I – defining moment for our constitutional liberties speech to the Anglo-Australasian Lawyers' association, on January 22, 1999.
  10. ^ Matthew White Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th century: British Isles, 1641-52

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War Times (801 words)
The only way to end the civil war in Iraq is for the different groups of Iraqis to negotiate a solution.
Furthermore, extremist groups who actually do want civil war have very little support among the Iraqi people and are only tolerated because they are attacking occupation forces.
The US military’s main goal is destroying the mostly Sunni resistance, not preventing a civil war.
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